Louangphabang, or Luang Phabang transliterated into Western languages from the pre-1975 Lao spelling ຫຼວງພຣະບາງ as Luang Prabang meaning "Royal Buddha Image", is a city in north central Laos, consisting of 58 adjacent villages, of which 33 comprise the UNESCO Town Of Luang Prabang World Heritage Site. It was listed in 1995 for unique and "remarkably" well preserved architectural and cultural heritage, a blend of the rural and urban developments over several centuries, including the French colonial influences during the 19th and 20th centuries; the centre of the city consists of four main roads and is located on a peninsula at the confluence of the Nam Khan and Mekong River. Luang Prabang is well known for its numerous Buddhist monasteries; every morning, hundreds of monks from the various monasteries walk through the streets collecting alms. One of the city's major landmarks is Mount Phou Si; the city was the capital of a kingdom of the same name. It had been known by the ancient name of Xieng Thong.
It was the royal capital and seat of government of the Kingdom of Laos, until the Pathet Lao takeover in 1975. The city is part of Luang Prabang District of Luang Prabang Province and is the capital and administrative centre of the province, it lies 300 km north of the capital Vientiane. The population of the city as a whole is 56,000 inhabitants with the UNESCO protected site being inhabited by around 24,000. Muang Sua was the old name of Luang Prabang following its conquest in 698 CE by a Tai prince, Khun Lo. Khun Lo had been awarded the town by his father, Khun Borom, associated with the Lao legend of the creation of the world, which the Lao share with the Shan and other peoples of the region. Khun Lo established a dynasty whose fifteen rulers reigned over an independent Muang Sua for nearly a century. In the second half of the 8th century, Nan-chao intervened in the affairs of the principalities of the middle Mekong Valley, resulting in the occupation of Muang Sua in 709. Nan-chao princes or administrators replaced the aristocracy of Tai overlords.
Dates of the occupation are not known, but it ended well before the northward expansion of the Khmer empire under Indravarman I and extended as far as the territories of Sipsong Panna on the upper Mekong. In the meantime, the Khmers founded an outpost at Xay Fong near Vientiane, Champa expanded again in southern Laos, maintaining its presence on the banks of the Mekong until 1070. Chanthaphanit, the local ruler of Xay Fong, moved north to Muang Sua and was accepted peacefully as ruler after the departure of the Nan-chao administrators. Chanthaphanit and his son had long reigns, during which the town became known by the Tai name Xieng Dong Xieng Thong; the dynasty became involved in the squabbles of a number of principalities. Khun Chuang, a warlike ruler who may have been a Kammu tribesman, extended his territory as a result of the warring of these principalities and ruled from 1128 to 1170. Khun Chuang, a single family ruled over a far-flung territory and reinstituted the Siamese administrative system of the 7th century.
At some point, Theravada Buddhism was subsumed by Mahayana Buddhism. Xieng Dong Xieng Thong experienced a brief period of Khmer suzerainty under Jayavarman VII from 1185 to 1191. By 1180 the Sipsong Panna had regained their independence from the Khmers, in 1238 an internal uprising in the Khmer outpost of Sukhothai expelled the Khmer overlords. Xieng Dong Xieng Thong in 1353 became the capital of the Lan Xang kingdom. In 1359 the Khmer king from Angkor gave the Phra Bang to his son-in-law, the first Lang Xang monarch Fa Ngum; the capital name was changed to Luangphabang, named after the Buddha image. The capital was moved in 1560 by King Setthathirath I to Vientiane. In 1707, Lan Xang fell apart because of a dynastic struggle and Luang Prabang became the capital of the independent Kingdom of Luang Phrabang; when France annexed Laos, the French recognised Luang Prabang as the royal residence of Laos. The ruler of Luang Prabang became synonymous with the figurehead of Laos; when Laos achieved independence, the king of Luang Prabang, Sisavang Vong, became the head of state of the Kingdom of Laos.
The town was the scene of many events during and in the aftermath of World War II and it was occupied by several foreign countries during the war. The Vichy French controlled the city but lost it to Thai forces following the Franco-Thai War of 1940–1941. On 9 March 1945, a nationalist group declared Laos once more independent, with Luang Prabang as its capital but on 7 April 1945 two battalions of Japanese troops occupied the city; the Japanese attempted to force Sisavang Vong to declare Laotian independence but on 8 April he instead declared an end to Laos' status as a French protectorate. The King secretly sent Prince Kindavong to represent Laos to the Allied forces and Sisavang Vatthana as representative to the Japanese. Following Japan's surrender to the Allies, Free French forces were sent to reoccupy Laos and entered Luang Prabang on 25 August, at which time the King assured the French that Laos remained a French colonial pro
The Lockheed P-3 Orion maritime surveillance aircraft underwent a number of variants and specific unique design elements. The following is an extensive catalogue of each variant and/or design stage of the aircraft. For a broader article on the history of the P-3, see Lockheed P-3 Orion. P-3A: The original production version. P-3A: Four P-3A aircraft were reequipped with AN/APG-66 radars for use by U. S. Customs and Border Protection's Office of Marine. EP-3A: Seven modified for electronic reconnaissance testing. NP-3A: Three modified for the U. S. Naval Research Laboratory. RP-3A: Two modified for scientific uses for the former Oceanographic Development Squadron EIGHT at NAS Patuxent River. TP-3A: 12 modified for training duties in Fleet Replacement Squadrons with all ASW gear removed. UP-3A: 38 reconfigured as utility transports with all the ASW gear removed. VP-3A: Three WP-3A and two P-3A aircraft converted into VIP/staff transports. WP-3A: Four converted for weather reconnaissance. P-3B: Second main production version/series T56-A14 engines in lieu of T56-A10W engines on P-3A.
P-3AM: Modification to P-3B model for the Brazilian Air Force. Twelve aircraft with EADS/CASA avionics, with deliveries to the Brazilian AF beginning on 3 December 2010. EP-3B: Three P-3As were obtained by the Central Intelligence Agency from the United States Navy under Project STSPIN in May 1963, as the replacement aircraft for the CIA's own covert-operations fleet of RB-69As and P2V-7Us. Converted by Aerosystems Division of LTV at Greenville, the three P-3As were known as "black" P-3A under Project Axial. Transferred from the USN to the CIA on June/July 1964, LTV Aerosystems converted the three aircraft to be both ELINT and COMINT platforms; the first arrived in Taiwan and was transferred to the Republic of China Air Force top secret "Black Bat" Squadron on 22 June 1966. Armed with four AIM-9 Sidewinder short range AAM missiles for self-defense, the three "black" P-3As flew peripheral missions along the China coast to collect SIGINT and air samples; when the project was terminated in January 1967, they were flown to NAS Alameda, for long term storage.
Two of the three aircraft were converted as the only EP-3B examples by Lockheed at Burbank in September 1967, while the third aircraft was converted by Lockheed in 1969–1970 to serve as a development aircraft for various electronic programs. The two EP-3Bs were known as "Bat Rack", owing to their short period of service with Taiwan's "Black Bat" Squadron, were issued to the USN's VQ-1 Squadron in 1969 and deployed to Da Nang Air Base, Vietnam; the two EP-3Bs were converted to EP-3E ARIES, along with ten EP-3As. The twelve EP-3Es were retired in the 1980s, when replaced by an equivalent number of EP-3E ARIES II aircraft. NP-3B: One P-3B converted into a testbed, for the U. S. Naval Research Laboratory. P-3C: Third main production version/series. T56-A14 engines; the P-3C had A-NEW ASW mission computer with a revised internal layout. Externally the P-3C featured electrically operated entry ladder. Initial production aircraft had a camera nose located on the lower part of the radome. Production aircraft had retractable an IRDS turret in lieu of the nose camera.
Beginning in the early 1980s existing camera noses were retrofitted with IRDS turrets. Early models were known as P-3C "Baseline" or Non-Update aircraft. All aircraft were retrofitted with dual LTN-72 inertial navigation systems. P-3C Update I: New and improved avionics, 31 built. P-3C Update II: With infra-red detection system, sonobuoy reference system, ability to carry the AGM-84 Harpoon anti-ship missile. P-3C Update II.5: 24 aircraft with more reliable LTN-72 inertial navigation system and enhanced communications equipment. P-3C Update III: 50 new-build aircraft incorporating systems of Update II and Update II.5 with new acoustic processor, sonobuoy receiver, plasma displays, OMEGA navigation and improved auxiliary power unit. P-3C SUDS: retrofit of selected NUD, UDI, UDII an UDIII aircraft to UDIII acoustic processor and other avionics standard. Update 4 was intended to be the common avionics suite for the P-3C aircraft and its planned replacement, the Lockheed P-7, which never made it to production.
One P-3C was converted to the UD4 interior and that aircraft was stripped and turned into a Special Mission aircraft. P-3C AIP: P-3C Update III with interior modification to add ASQ-222 mission computer, ASQ-78A/B acoustics system, APS-137 ISAR radar. P-3C CUP: P-3C with interior modification to convert UD2.5 to carry ASQ-227 mission computer and ASQ-78B acoustics suite.
"Sunburn" is a song by American rock band Fuel. It was released in 1999 as the third single from their debut studio album Sunburn, it spent 9 weeks on the Billboard Alternative Songs chart in 1999. 31. The album version of the song was featured on the Scream 3 movie soundtrack Scream 3: The Album. A live acoustic version was featured on the charitable album Live in the X Lounge. "Sunburn" was released as second track on a double A-side maxi single "Shimmer / Sunburn" in Australia on May 7, 1999. It spent 29 weeks on Australian charts, reaching No. 16 in August 1999. Sunburn – 3:59 Sunburn – 4:23 Shimmer – 3:34 Sunburn – 4:25 Shimmer – 3:20 Sunday Girl – 3:16 Walk The Sky – 3:20 Fuel Shimmer / Sunburn @Discogs.com Lyrics of this song at MetroLyrics