Hale County, Texas
Hale County is a county located in the U. S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 census, its population was 36,273; the county seat is Plainview. The county was created in 1876 and organized in 1888, it is named for Lt. John C. Hale, a hero of the Battle of San Jacinto, it is home of the noted former Hale County Judge, Judge Bill Hollars a.k.a. "Hang'Em High" Hollars. Hale County comprises TX Micropolitan Statistical Area. 7000 b.c. Paleo-Indians first county inhabitants. Native American inhabitants include the Comanche. 1876 The Texas legislature forms Hale County from Bexar County. 1881 Brothers T. W. and T. N. Morrison, W. D. Johnson, establish the cattle Cross L Ranch and the XIT. 1883 New York Methodist minister Horatio Graves becomes the first white permanent settler in the county. 1886 The city of Plainview has its beginnings when sheep rancher Zachery Taylor Maxwell moves his family and 2,000 sheep from Floyd County to the site of two hackberry groves on the old military trail established by Col. Ranald S. Mackenzie.
The city’s name comes from the area’s vista. 1888 The county is organized. Plainview is the county seat. 1900 The county has 259 farms and ranches, with a population of 1,680. 1906 The Santa Fe Railway comes to Plainview. 1906 Wayland Baptist College is founded in Plainview. 1909 Businessman Levi Schick opens the Schick Opera House in Plainview. 1911 The county's first motor-driven irrigation well is drilled. 1912 The Texas Land and Development Company is organized in Plainview. The purpose is to entice settlers by dividing a large tract of land into individual farms, preparing each farm for occupancy. 1944 Plainview Site is discovered. In addition to bone and man-made artifacts, archeologists find the remains of 100 extinct bison about twice the size of modern size. 1946 Oil is discovered in the Anton-Irish field of Hale counties. 1969 Country artist Jimmy Dean, brother Don Dean, cousin-in-law Troy Pritchard found the Jimmy Dean Sausage Company and open the Jimmy Dean Meat Company in Plainview. 1986 Hale County is one of 62 counties in Texas still barring the sale of alcohol.
According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,005 square miles, of which 1,005 square miles is land and 0.1 square miles is water. Interstate 27/U. S. Highway 87 Interstate 27 Business U. S. Highway 70 State Highway 194 Swisher County Floyd County Lubbock County Lamb County Castro County Hockley County Crosby County As of the census of 2000, there were 36,602 people, 11,975 households, 9,136 families residing in the county; the population density was 36 people per square mile. There were 13,526 housing units at an average density of 14 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 66.77% White, 5.79% Black or African American, 0.92% Native American, 0.30% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 23.76% from other races, 2.42% from two or more races. 47.90% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 11,975 households out of which 40.40% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 60.30% were married couples living together, 11.60% had a female householder with no husband present, 23.70% were non-families.
21.00% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.70% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.86 and the average family size was 3.32. In the county, the population was spread out with 30.20% under the age of 18, 11.40% from 18 to 24, 27.20% from 25 to 44, 18.30% from 45 to 64, 12.90% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 31 years. For every 100 females there were 102.40 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 101.30 males. The median income for a household in the county was $31,280, the median income for a family was $35,250. Males had a median income of $26,007 versus $20,057 for females; the per capita income for the county was $13,655. About 14.30% of families and 18.00% of the population were below the poverty line, including 23.30% of those under age 18 and 14.80% of those age 65 or over. Abernathy Hale Center Petersburg Plainview Edmonson Seth Ward Cotton Center Hale City Dry counties National Register of Historic Places listings in Hale County, Texas Recorded Texas Historic Landmarks in Hale County Hale County government's website Hale County from the Handbook of Texas Online Hale County Profile from the Texas Association of Counties
Lamb County, Texas
Lamb County is a county located in the U. S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 census, its population was 13,977, its county seat is Littlefield. The county was created in 1876, but not organized until 1908, it is named for George A. Lamb. Lamb County was the home of the Texas House Speaker Bill W. Clayton, who served from 1975 until 1983, it is the birthplace of country music singer Waylon Jennings. Lamb County was formed in 1876 from portions of Bexar County, it was named after a soldier in the Battle of San Jacinto. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,018 square miles, of which 1,016 square miles are land and 1.5 square miles are water. Castro County Hale County Hockley County Bailey County Parmer County Lubbock County Cochran County As of the census of 2000, 14,709 people, 5,360 households, 3,991 families resided in the county; the population density was 14 people per square mile. The 6,294 housing units averaged 6 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 76.1% White, 4.3% Black or African American, 0.7% Native American, 0.1% Asian, less than 0.05% Pacific Islander, 16.9% from other races, 1.9% from two or more races.
About 43.5% of the population was Hispanic or Latino of any race. Of the 5,360 households, 35.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 59.5% were married couples living together, 10.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 25.5% were not families. About 23.7% of all households were made up of individuals, 12.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.69 and the average family size was 3.19. In the county, the population was distributed as 29.6% under the age of 18, 8.1% from 18 to 24, 24.2% from 25 to 44, 20.8% from 45 to 64, 17.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 94.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 89.9 males. The median income for a household in the county was $36,898, for a family was $31,833. Males had a median income of $36,434 versus $30,342 for females; the per capita income for the county was $30,169. About 18.0% of families and 10.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 27.3% of those under age 18 and 15.3% of those age 65 or over.
U. S. Highway 70 U. S. Highway 84 U. S. Highway 385 Littlefield Municipal Airport is located in Lamb County, 3 nautical miles west of the central business district of Littlefield, Texas. Amherst Earth Littlefield Olton Sudan Springlake Spade Fieldton Recorded Texas Historic Landmarks in Lamb County Dry counties Plant X Llano Estacado West Texas Lamb County from the Handbook of Texas Online Lamb County at Curlie Lamb County Profile from the Texas Association of Counties
Garza County, Texas
Garza County is a county located in the U. S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 census, its population was 6,461, its county seat is Post. The county was created in 1876 and organized in 1907. Garza is named for a pioneer Bexar County family, it is located southeast of Lubbock. A leading civic figure in Garza County was until his death in 2011 Giles McCrary, a rancher, oil developer and art collector. McCrary's OS Ranch Museum is a popular attraction in the county seat of Post, which has made an extended effort to attract tourism. Republican Drew Springer, Jr. a businessman from Muenster in Cooke County, has since January 2013 represented Garza County in the Texas House of Representatives. 2000 b.c. – Indigenous peoples of the Americas are the first inhabitants. Inhabitants were the Kiowa, Comanche. 1875 W. C. Young of Fort Worth and Illinois Irishman Ben Galbraith establish the beginnings of the Curry Comb Ranch in the northwest part of Garza County. 1876 Garza County is formed from Bexar County, named for the prominent Bexar County family of José Antonio de la Garza.
1880 County census count is 36 people. 1882 The Square and Compass Ranch is started by the McCord Cattle Company. They put up the first barbed wire fence two years later. 1884 OS Ranch is founded by Kentucky. 1900 County population is 185 persons. 1907 Post is founded as a utopian venture by, named for, cereal king Charles William Post. 1909-1913 C. W. Post builds a cotton gin, a cotton mill, attempts to improve agriculture production through rainmaking, involving the heavy use of explosives fired from kites and towers along the rim of the Caprock Escarpment. 1926 Oil is discovered in the county. 1934 Quanah and Bryan Maxey discover a sixteen-foot-long tusk of a prehistoric imperial mammoth. This tusk is located in the American Museum of Natural History, New York City, NY. 1957 A Prehistoric Indian site at Cowhead Mesa is recorded by Emmet Shedd of Post. 1960-1965 South Plains Archaeological Society excavations of Cowhead Mesa find artifacts to date inhabitation back to 2000 b.c. 1980 The most important business in the county are agribusiness and gas extraction, textile mills.
According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 896 square miles, of which 893 square miles are land and 2.8 square miles are covered by water. U. S. Highway 84 U. S. Highway 380 State Highway 207 Farm to Market Road 669 Crosby County Kent County Scurry County Borden County Lynn County Lubbock County Dickens County As of the census of 2000, 4,872 people, 1,663 households, 1,217 families resided in the county; the population density was 5 people per square mile. The 1,928 housing units averaged 2 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 56.7% White, 4.8 African American, 0.2% Native American, 0.1% Asian, 17.1 from other races, 3.00% from two or more races. Hispanics or Latinos of any race were 37.2% of the population. Of the 1,663 households, 36.00% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 58.50% were married couples living together, 11.20% had a female householder with no husband present, 26.80% were not families. About 23.80% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.00% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.65 and the average family size was 3.15. In the county, the population was distributed as 28.00% under the age of 18, 7.90% from 18 to 24, 28.60% from 25 to 44, 21.30% from 45 to 64, 14.10% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females, there were 112.30 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 111.30 males. The median income for a household in the county was $27,206, for a family was $31,173. Males had a median income of $26,604 versus $18,105 for females; the per capita income for the county was $12,704. About 17.50% of families and 22.30% of the population were below the poverty line, including 29.60% of those under age 18 and 18.60% of those age 65 or over. Post Close City Justiceburg Southland Garza County government's website Photos of the Llano Estacado Garza County from the Handbook of Texas Online Garza County Profile from the Texas Association of Counties
Texas is the second largest state in the United States by both area and population. Geographically located in the South Central region of the country, Texas shares borders with the U. S. states of Louisiana to the east, Arkansas to the northeast, Oklahoma to the north, New Mexico to the west, the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Nuevo León, Tamaulipas to the southwest, while the Gulf of Mexico is to the southeast. Houston is the most populous city in Texas and the fourth largest in the U. S. while San Antonio is the second-most populous in the state and seventh largest in the U. S. Dallas–Fort Worth and Greater Houston are the fourth and fifth largest metropolitan statistical areas in the country, respectively. Other major cities include Austin, the second-most populous state capital in the U. S. and El Paso. Texas is nicknamed "The Lone Star State" to signify its former status as an independent republic, as a reminder of the state's struggle for independence from Mexico; the "Lone Star" can be found on the Texan state seal.
The origin of Texas's name is from the word taysha. Due to its size and geologic features such as the Balcones Fault, Texas contains diverse landscapes common to both the U. S. Southern and Southwestern regions. Although Texas is popularly associated with the U. S. southwestern deserts, less than 10% of Texas's land area is desert. Most of the population centers are in areas of former prairies, grasslands and the coastline. Traveling from east to west, one can observe terrain that ranges from coastal swamps and piney woods, to rolling plains and rugged hills, the desert and mountains of the Big Bend; the term "six flags over Texas" refers to several nations. Spain was the first European country to claim the area of Texas. France held a short-lived colony. Mexico controlled the territory until 1836 when Texas won its independence, becoming an independent Republic. In 1845, Texas joined the union as the 28th state; the state's annexation set off a chain of events that led to the Mexican–American War in 1846.
A slave state before the American Civil War, Texas declared its secession from the U. S. in early 1861, joined the Confederate States of America on March 2nd of the same year. After the Civil War and the restoration of its representation in the federal government, Texas entered a long period of economic stagnation. Four major industries shaped the Texas economy prior to World War II: cattle and bison, cotton and oil. Before and after the U. S. Civil War the cattle industry, which Texas came to dominate, was a major economic driver for the state, thus creating the traditional image of the Texas cowboy. In the 19th century cotton and lumber grew to be major industries as the cattle industry became less lucrative, it was though, the discovery of major petroleum deposits that initiated an economic boom which became the driving force behind the economy for much of the 20th century. With strong investments in universities, Texas developed a diversified economy and high tech industry in the mid-20th century.
As of 2015, it is second on the list of the most Fortune 500 companies with 54. With a growing base of industry, the state leads in many industries, including agriculture, energy and electronics, biomedical sciences. Texas has led the U. S. in state export revenue since 2002, has the second-highest gross state product. If Texas were a sovereign state, it would be the 10th largest economy in the world; the name Texas, based on the Caddo word táyshaʼ "friend", was applied, in the spelling Tejas or Texas, by the Spanish to the Caddo themselves the Hasinai Confederacy, the final -s representing the Spanish plural. The Mission San Francisco de los Tejas was completed near the Hasinai village of Nabedaches in May 1690, in what is now Houston County, East Texas. During Spanish colonial rule, in the 18th century, the area was known as Nuevo Reino de Filipinas "New Kingdom of the Philippines", or as provincia de los Tejas "province of the Tejas" also provincia de Texas, "province of Texas", it was incorporated as provincia de Texas into the Mexican Empire in 1821, declared a republic in 1836.
The Royal Spanish Academy recognizes both spellings and Texas, as Spanish-language forms of the name of the U. S. State of Texas; the English pronunciation with /ks/ is unetymological, based in the value of the letter x in historical Spanish orthography. Alternative etymologies of the name advanced in the late 19th century connected the Spanish teja "rooftile", the plural tejas being used to designate indigenous Pueblo settlements. A 1760s map by Jacques-Nicolas Bellin shows a village named Teijas on Trinity River, close to the site of modern Crockett. Texas is the second-largest U. S. state, with an area of 268,820 square miles. Though 10% larger than France and twice as large as Germany or Japan, it ranks only 27th worldwide amongst country subdivisions by size. If it were an independent country, Texas would be the 40th largest behind Zambia. Texas is in the south central part of the United States of America. Three of its borders are defined by rivers; the Rio Grande forms a natural border with the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Nuevo León, Tamaulipas to the south.
The Red River forms a natural border with Arkansas to the north. The Sabine River forms a natural border with Louisiana to the east; the Texas Panhandle has an eastern border with Oklahoma at 100° W, a northern border with Oklahoma at 36°30' N and a western
Time in the United States
Time in the United States, by law, is divided into nine standard time zones covering the states and its possessions, with most of the United States observing daylight saving time for the spring and fall months. The time zone boundaries and DST observance are regulated by the Department of Transportation. Official and precise timekeeping services are provided by two federal agencies: the National Institute of Standards and Technology; the clocks run by these services are kept synchronized with each other as well as with those of other international timekeeping organizations. It is the combination of the time zone and daylight saving rules, along with the timekeeping services, which determines the legal civil time for any U. S. location at any moment. Before the adoption of four standard time zones for the continental United States, many towns and cities set their clocks to noon when the sun passed their local meridian, pre-corrected for the equation of time on the date of observation, to form local mean solar time.
Noon occurred at different times but time differences between distant locations were noticeable prior to the 19th century because of long travel times and the lack of long-distance instant communications prior to the development of the telegraph. The use of local solar time became awkward as railways and telecommunications improved. American railroads maintained many different time zones during the late 1800s; each train station set its own clock making it difficult to coordinate train schedules and confusing passengers. Time calculation became a serious problem for people traveling by train, according to the Library of Congress; every city in the United States used a different time standard so there were more than 300 local sun times to choose from. Time zones were therefore a compromise, relaxing the complex geographic dependence while still allowing local time to be approximate with mean solar time. Railroad managers tried to address the problem by establishing 100 railroad time zones, but this was only a partial solution to the problem.
Weather service chief Cleveland Abbe had needed to introduce four standard time zones for his weather stations, an idea which he offered to the railroads. Operators of the new railroad lines needed a new time plan that would offer a uniform train schedule for departures and arrivals. Four standard time zones for the continental United States were introduced at noon on November 18, 1883, when the telegraph lines transmitted time signals to all major cities. In October 1884, the International Meridian Conference at Washington DC adopted a proposal which stated that the prime meridian for longitude and timekeeping should be one that passes through the centre of the transit instrument at the Greenwich Observatory in the United Kingdom; the conference therefore established the Greenwich Meridian as the prime meridian and Greenwich Mean Time as the world's time standard. The US time-zone system grew from this, in which all zones referred back to GMT on the prime meridian. In 1960, the International Radio Consultative Committee formalized the concept of Coordinated Universal Time, which became the new international civil time standard.
UTC is, within about 1 second, mean solar time at 0°. UTC does not observe daylight saving time. For most purposes, UTC is considered interchangeable with GMT, but GMT is no longer defined by the scientific community. UTC is one of several related successors to GMT. Standard time zones in the United States are defined at the federal level by law 15 USC §260; the federal law establishes the transition dates and times at which daylight saving time occurs, if observed. It is the authority of the Secretary of Transportation, in coordination with the states, to determine which regions will observe which of the standard time zones and if they will observe daylight saving time; as of August 9, 2007, the standard time zones are defined in terms of hourly offsets from UTC. Prior to this they were based upon the mean solar time at several meridians 15° apart west of Greenwich. Only the full-time zone names listed below are official. View the standard time zone boundaries here; the United States uses nine standard time zones.
As defined by US law they are: From east to west, the four time zones of the contiguous United States are: Eastern Time Zone, which comprises the states on the Atlantic coast and the eastern two thirds of the Ohio Valley. Central Time Zone, which comprises the Gulf Coast, Mississippi Valley, most of the Great Plains. Mountain Time Zone, which comprises the states and portions of states that include the Rocky Mountains and the western quarter of the Great Plains. Pacific Time Zone, which comprises the states on the Pacific coast, plus Nevada and the Idaho panhandle. Alaska Time Zone, which comprises most of the state of Alaska. Hawaii-Aleutian Time Zone, which includes Hawaii and most of the length of the Aleutian Islands chain. Samoa Time Zone, which comprises American Samoa. Chamorro Time Zone, which comprises Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands. Atlantic Time Zone, which comprises Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands; some United States Minor Outlying Islands are outside the time zones defined by 15 U.
S. C. § exist in waters defined by Nautical time. In practice, military crews may
Crosby County, Texas
Crosby County is a county located in the U. S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 census, its population was 6,059; the county seat is Crosbyton. The county was founded in 1876 and organized in 1886. Both the county and its seat are named for a land commissioner in Texas. Crosby County, along with Lubbock and Lynn Counties, is part of the Lubbock Metropolitan Statistical Area; the Lubbock MSA and Levelland Micropolitan Statistical Area, encompassing only Hockley County, form the larger Lubbock–Levelland Combined Statistical Area. Until the passage of a referendum to permit liquor sales, held on May 11, 2013, Crosby County had been one of 19 remaining prohibition or dry counties within Texas; that same day, voters in Denver City and Yoakum County approved separate referenda to permit liquor sales. The number of prohibition counties in Texas has hence dropped to 17. Part of the large Matador Ranch of West Texas extends into the county. Republican Drew Springer, Jr. a businessman from Muenster in Cooke County, has since January 2013 represented Crosby County in the Texas House of Representatives.
Around 11,000 BC, Paleo-Indians were the first inhabitants. Archeological artifacts indicate hunter-gatherers hunted the mammoth, saber-toothed cat, giant ground sloth. Native American inhabitants included the Comanche. In 1871, Ranald S. Mackenzie fought Quanah Parker and other Comanches at the Battle of Blanco Canyon; the campaign established the Mackenzie Trail used by the first settlers in Crosby County in the late 1870s. The Texas Legislature formed Crosby County from Young and Bexar districts in 1876. Bavarian Heinrich Schmidtt and his wife Elizabeth Boyle and their six children became the first permanent settlers in the area in 1878. Confederate veteran Paris Cox first visited the Caprock Escarpment of the Llano Estacado with a group of buffalo hunters in 1879. Estacado was named the county seat in 1886. By 1900, the beef industry was thriving. In 1908, the Bar-N-Bar Ranch began selling acreage to farmers. Crosbyton became the new county seat in 1910; some 45,400 acres in the county were planted in cotton, 15,000 apple and peach trees were growing in the county in 1920.
By 1929, farmers sold 395,000 dozen eggs that year. The first soil conservation district in the county was formed in 1941. In 1955, oil was discovered in the county. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 902 square miles, of which 900 square miles are land and 1.5 square miles are covered by water. U. S. Highway 62 U. S. Highway 82/State Highway 114 State Highway 207 Floyd County Dickens County Garza County Lubbock County Blanco Canyon White River, Silver Falls Mount Blanco Caprock Escarpment As of the census of 2000, 7,072 people, 2,512 households, 1,866 families resided in the county; the population density was eight people per square mile. The 3,202 housing units averaged four per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 63.77% White, 3.89% Black or African American, 0.54% Native American, 0.03% Asian, 0.07% Pacific Islander, 29.89% from other races, 1.81% from two or more races. About 48.93% of the population was Hispanic or Latino of any race. Of the 2,512 households, 35.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 59.0% were married couples living together, 11.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 25.7% were not families.
About 23.8% of all households were made up of individuals, 13.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.78 and the average family size was 3.30. In the county, the population was distributed as 30.7% under the age of 18, 8.5% from 18 to 24, 24.0% from 25 to 44, 21.1% from 45 to 64, 15.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females, there were 91.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 87.2 males. The median income for a household in the county was $25,769, for a family was $29,891. Males had a median income of $23,775 versus $17,229 for females; the per capita income for the county was $14,445. About 22.6% of families and 28.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 36.6% of those under age 18 and 22.7% of those age 65 or over. Crosbyton Lorenzo Ralls Cone Kalgary Canyon Valley Estacado Panhandle-Plains Historical Museum Crosby County government’s website Crosby County, Texas from the Handbook of Texas Online Crosby County Profile from the Texas Association of Counties Photos of the Llano Estacado
Confederate States of America
The Confederate States of America referred to as the Confederacy, was an unrecognized country in North America that existed from 1861 to 1865. The Confederacy was formed by seven secessionist slave-holding states—South Carolina, Florida, Georgia and Texas—in the Lower South region of the United States, whose economy was dependent upon agriculture cotton, a plantation system that relied upon the labor of African-American slaves; each state declared its secession from the United States, which became known as the Union during the ensuing civil war, following the November 1860 election of Republican candidate Abraham Lincoln to the U. S. presidency on a platform which opposed the expansion of slavery into the western territories. Before Lincoln took office in March, a new Confederate government was established in February 1861, considered illegal by the government of the United States. States volunteered militia units and the new government hastened to form its own Confederate States Army from scratch overnight.
After the American Civil War began in April, four slave states of the Upper South—Virginia, Arkansas and North Carolina—also declared their secession and joined the Confederacy. The Confederacy accepted Missouri and Kentucky as members, although neither declared secession nor were they largely controlled by Confederate forces; the government of the United States rejected the claims of secession and considered the Confederacy illegally founded. The War began with the Confederate attack upon Fort Sumter on April 12, 1861, a Union fort in the harbor of Charleston, South Carolina. No foreign government recognized the Confederacy as an independent country, although Great Britain and France granted it belligerent status, which allowed Confederate agents to contract with private concerns for arms and other supplies. In early 1865, after four years of heavy fighting which led to 620,000–850,000 military deaths, all the Confederate forces surrendered and the Confederacy vanished; the war lacked a formal end.
By 1865 Jefferson Davis, the President of the Confederate States of America for the duration of the civil war, lamented that the Confederacy had "disappeared". On February 22, 1862, the Confederate Constitution of seven state signatories – Mississippi, South Carolina, Alabama, Georgia and Texas – replaced the Provisional Constitution of February 8, 1861, with one stating in its preamble a desire for a "permanent federal government". Four additional slave-holding states – Virginia, Arkansas and North Carolina – declared their secession and joined the Confederacy following a call by U. S. President Abraham Lincoln for troops from each state to recapture Sumter and other seized federal properties in the South. Missouri and Kentucky were represented by partisan factions adopting the forms of state governments without control of substantial territory or population in either case; the antebellum state governments in both maintained their representation in the Union. Fighting for the Confederacy were two of the "Five Civilized Tribes" – the Choctaw and the Chickasaw – in Indian Territory and a new, but uncontrolled, Confederate Territory of Arizona.
Efforts by certain factions in Maryland to secede were halted by federal imposition of martial law. A Unionist government was formed in opposition to the secessionist state government in Richmond and administered the western parts of Virginia, occupied by Federal troops; the Restored Government recognized the new state of West Virginia, admitted to the Union during the war on June 20, 1863, re-located to Alexandria for the rest of the war. Confederate control over its claimed territory and population in congressional districts shrank from 73% to 34% during the course of the American Civil War due to the Union's successful overland campaigns, its control of the inland waterways into the South, its blockade of the southern coast. With the Emancipation Proclamation on January 1, 1863, the Union made abolition of slavery a war goal; as Union forces moved southward, large numbers of plantation slaves were freed. Many joined the Union lines, enrolling in service as soldiers and laborers; the most notable advance was Sherman's "March to the Sea" in late 1864.
Much of the Confederacy's infrastructure was destroyed, including telegraphs and bridges. Plantations in the path of Sherman's forces were damaged. Internal movement became difficult for Southerners, weakening the economy and limiting army mobility; these losses created an insurmountable disadvantage in men and finance. Public support for Confederate President Jefferson Davis's administration eroded over time due to repeated military reverses, economic hardships, allegations of autocratic government. After four years of campaigning, Richmond was captured by Union forces in April 1865. A few days General Robert E. Lee surrendered to Union General Ulysses S. Grant signalling the collapse of the Confederacy. President Davis was captured on May 10, 1865, jailed in preparation for a treason trial, never held; the initial Confederacy was established in the Montgomery Convention in February 1861 by seven states (South Carolina, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana