1979 Formula One season
The 1979 Formula One season was the 33rd season of FIA Formula One motor racing. The season included three non-championship Formula One races, Jody Scheckter of Scuderia Ferrari won the 1979 World Championship of F1 Drivers while Scuderia Ferrari won 1979 International Cup for F1 Constructors. Gilles Villeneuve made it a 1-2 for Ferrari in the championship, Alan Jones finished the season strongly for Williams, finishing third in the championship and with teammate Clay Regazzoni scoring Williams first ever Grand Prix win as a constructor. Scheckters title was Ferraris last drivers title for 21 years, before Michael Schumacher won five titles for the team between 2000 and 2004. The following drivers and constructors contested the 1979 World Championship of F1 Drivers, the dominant Lotus team signed Carlos Reutemann from Ferrari to replace Peterson. Ferrari took on Jody Scheckter to fill the gap, and the Wolf team hired James Hunt in his place, like in previous years, the opening race of the season was in Argentina at the Buenos Aires circuit located on the outskirts of the capital city.
Four other cars were collected and the race was red-flagged, and aside from Piquets injury, the race restarted after the mess was cleared, and this time Depailler set off into the lead with Jean-Pierre Jariers Tyrrell and Watson following him. But soon Laffite was up to second, and a few he took the lead from Depailler. The Ligiers drove away, whereas Jarier struggled and dropped down the order with engine troubles, Laffite went on and won comfortably, but teammate Depailler suffered a misfire and dropped to fourth, leaving Reutemann second and Watson third. The drivers stayed in South America for the round which was held in Brazil, returning to the 5-mile Interlagos circuit in São Paulo. The Ligiers were in top form again, Laffite taking pole comfortably with Depailler alongside, Andretti however soon retired with a misfire, and so Reutemann was back in third. There was a break between the Brazilian and South African GPs. Jabouille led at the start with Villeneuve and Scheckter following, when the race restarted, most drivers were on wets, but Scheckter and a few others opted for slicks.
Villeneuve led at the restart and built up a gap, but the track dried and it was Villeneuve who won the race with Scheckter close behind, and Jarier taking the final spot on the podium. Five weeks after the South African race, the field went to the United States to compete at the gruelling Long Beach street circuit near Los Angeles, qualifying saw Villeneuve taking his first career pole position with Reutemann alongside him on the front row ahead of Scheckter. Before the race started, Reutemann suffered a failure and had to start from the pits. After a string of failed attempts to start the race due to different reasons, the race started with Villeneuve leading Depailler and Scheckter. As Villeneuve set about building a gap and Depailler battled for second, towards the end, Jarier began to drop back rapidly with a vibration, so Depailler finally got third but not for long as Alan Joness Williams was past him
The Ferrari F300 was a Formula One car designed by Rory Byrne for Scuderia Ferrari Marlboro to use in the 1998 season. It was powered by a 3.0 V10 engine and designed around a track as mandated by the FIA in a series of regulation changes for that season. The Ferrari F300 was a competitive and reliable car, however it was aerodynamically inferior to the McLaren MP4/13. Despite this, Michael Schumacher battled his way to place in the world championship behind Mika Häkkinen. Ferrari finished as runners-up in the Constructors Championship, the car was an excellent base for the dominance which Ferrari would achieve in the following seasons. Having stalled the car on the grid in the finale at Suzuka definitely made sure the title was lost, even a podium would have been in vain as Häkkinen won that race. Häkkinen finished with 100 points compared with 86 for Schumacher, eddie Irvine finished fourth in the championship, being the second-placed finisher in both 1-2s Ferrari scored in France and Italy.
Schumacher won six races but Irvine once again did not record a single win, fourth was his highest championship finish to that date though and he collected many podium finishes over the course of the campaign. As with all Formula 1 cars, the F300 was heavily and consistently revised during the 1998 season, at the Argentine Grand Prix, a wider front tyre from Goodyear was introduced which significantly improved the handling of the car. X-wings were introduced at the San Marino Grand Prix, but were banned due to safety reasons. A longer wheelbase version of the car was introduced for the German and Belgian Grands Prix, AUTOCOURSE 1998-99, Alan, Hazleton Publishing Ltd
National Socialism, more commonly known as Nazism, is the ideology and practice associated with the 20th-century German Nazi Party and Nazi Germany, as well as other far-right groups. Nazism subscribed to theories of racial hierarchy and Social Darwinism, identifying Germans as part of what Nazis regarded as an Aryan or Nordic master race and it aimed to overcome social divisions and create a homogeneous society, unified on the basis of racial purity. The term National Socialism arose out of attempts to create a nationalist redefinition of socialism, the Nazi Partys precursor, the Pan-German nationalist and anti-Semitic German Workers Party, was founded on 5 January 1919. By the early 1920s, Adolf Hitler assumed control of the organisation, following the Holocaust and German defeat in World War II, only a few fringe racist groups, usually referred to as neo-Nazis, still describe themselves as following National Socialism. The full name of Adolf Hitlers party was Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei, the shorthand Nazi was formed from the first two syllables of the German pronunciation of the word national.
The term was in use before the rise of the NSDAP as a colloquial and derogatory word for a peasant, characterizing an awkward. It derived from Ignaz, being a version of Ignatius, a common name in Bavaria. Opponents seized on this and shortened the first word of the name, Nationalsozialistische. The NSDAP briefly adopted the Nazi designation, attempting to reappropriate the term, the use of Nazi Germany, Nazi regime, and so on was popularised by German exiles abroad. From them, the spread into other languages and was eventually brought back to Germany after World War II. In English, Nazism is a name for the ideology the party advocated. The majority of scholars identify Nazism in practice as a form of far-right politics, far-right themes in Nazism include the argument that superior people have a right to dominate over other people and purge society of supposed inferior elements. Adolf Hitler and other proponents officially portrayed Nazism as being neither left- nor right-wing, but the politicians of the Right deserve exactly the same reproach.
It was through their miserable cowardice that those ruffians of Jews who came into power in 1918 were able to rob the nation of its arms, a major inspiration for the Nazis were the far-right nationalist Freikorps, paramilitary organisations that engaged in political violence after World War I. The Nazis stated the alliance was purely tactical and there remained substantial differences with the DNVP, the Nazis described the DNVP as a bourgeois party and called themselves an anti-bourgeois party. After the elections in 1932, the alliance broke after the DNVP lost many of its seats in the Reichstag, the Nazis denounced them as an insignificant heap of reactionaries. The DNVP responded by denouncing the Nazis for their socialism, their violence. Kaiser Wilhelm II, who was pressured to abdicate the throne and flee into exile amidst an attempted communist revolution in Germany, there were factions in the Nazi Party, both conservative and radical
Civic Choice is a centrist and liberal political party in Italy founded by Mario Monti. The party was formed in the run-up of the 2013 general election to support the outgoing Prime Minister Monti and continue his political agenda. In the election SC was part of a centrist coalition named With Monti for Italy, along with Union of the Centre of Pier Ferdinando Casini and Future, in April 2013 SC became part of the grand coalition government led by Enrico Letta of the Democratic Party. In February 2014 after Lettas resignation, Civic Choice supported the cabinet of Matteo Renzi, in order to compete in the upcoming general election, on 4 January 2013 technocratic Prime Minister Mario Monti launched SC as an electoral list of the civil society to implement his agenda. It was announced that SC would be part of the With Monti for Italy coalition, alongside the Union of the Centre and Future and Freedom. Other minor groups and individuals, notably including Linda Lanzillotta, Alberto Bombassei, Luigi Marino, Mario Sechi, Ilaria Capua, Valentina Vezzali, in the 2013 general election SC obtained 8. 3% of the vote,37 deputies and 15 senators.
After the election, SC deputies and senators formed joint groups named Civic Choice, including UdC and FLI MPs, in both houses of Parliament. The rest of the leadership was composed mainly by former Democrats, Maria Paola Merloni, Lorenzo Dellai, Gianluca Susta, Andrea Causin, Pietro Ichino, no member of Future Italy, a liberal think tank, took a leading role. Since then, the party was riven by internal disputes. Monti twice presented his resignation from president, in late July he clashed with the Catholic wing of the party, especially with Olivero, whom he accused of being too close to the UdC. Also Future Italy, seemed to have patience with the Catholic wing. In this phase, an issue which divided SC was the debate on European party affiliation and it emerged that Monti had favoured the EPP and had consequently started talks with the EPPs leadership in order to appease the partys Christian democrats led by Mauro and avoid a split. On 17 October 2013 Monti resigned as president of SC and was replaced by his deputy Alberto Bombassei as acting president.
Monti cited his disagreement with 12 senators, including Mario Mauro, Andrea Olivero, Gabriele Albertini, Pier Ferdinando Casini, Maria Paola Merloni, Luigi Marino and Lucio Romano. Particularly, Monti criticized Mauros line of unconditioned support to the government and of transforming SC in a larger centre-right political party, one of the 12 senators, Tito Di Maggio, was even unveiled as PdL–SC–UdC joint candidate for President in Basilicata. On 22 October the executive voted in favour of the separation from the UdC. On 15 November the Populars walked away from the national assembly. The assembly elected Bombassei president and appointed Stefania Giannini secretary, on 23 November the Populars, led by Mauro and Olivero, launched Populars for Italy
Formula One is the highest class of single-seat auto racing that is sanctioned by the Fédération Internationale de lAutomobile. The FIA Formula One World Championship has been the form of racing since the inaugural season in 1950. The formula, designated in the name, refers to a set of rules, the F1 season consists of a series of races, known as Grands Prix, held worldwide on purpose-built F1 circuits and public roads. The results of each race are evaluated using a system to determine two annual World Championships, one for drivers, one for constructors. The racing drivers are required to be holders of valid Super Licences, the races are required to be held on tracks graded 1, the highest grade a track can receive by the FIA. Most events are held in locations on purpose-built tracks, but there are several events in city centres throughout the world. Formula One cars are the fastest road racing cars in the world. Formula One cars race at speeds of up to approximately 375 km/h with engines currently limited in performance to a maximum of 15,000 RPM, the cars are capable of lateral acceleration in excess of five g in corners.
The performance of the cars is very dependent on electronics – although traction control and other driving aids have been banned since 2008 – and on aerodynamics, the formula has radically evolved and changed through the history of the sport. F1 had a global television audience of 425 million people during the course of the 2014 season. Grand Prix racing began in 1906 and became the most popular internationally in the second half of the twentieth century. The Formula One Group is the holder of the commercial rights. Its high profile and popularity have created a major merchandising environment, since 2000 the sports spiraling expenditures and the distribution of prize money favoring established top teams have forced complaints from smaller teams and led several teams to bankruptcy. On 23 January 2017 it was confirmed that Liberty Media had completed its $8 billion acquisition of Delta Topco, the Formula One series originated with the European Grand Prix Motor Racing of the 1920s and 1930s.
The formula is a set of rules that all cars must meet. Formula One was a new formula agreed upon after World War II during 1946, the first world championship race was held at Silverstone, United Kingdom in 1950. A championship for constructors followed in 1958, national championships existed in South Africa and the UK in the 1960s and 1970s. Non-championship Formula One events were held for years, but due to the increasing cost of competition
Andreas Nikolaus Niki Lauda is an Austrian former Formula One driver and a three-time F1 World Drivers Champion, winning in 1975,1977 and 1984. He is currently the driver to have been champion for both Ferrari and McLaren, the sports two most successful constructors. More recently an aviation entrepreneur, he has founded and run two airlines and he is Bombardier Business Aircraft brand ambassador. He was a consultant for Scuderia Ferrari and team manager of the Jaguar Formula One racing team for two years and he is currently working as a pundit for German TV during Grand Prix weekends and acts as non-executive chairman of the Mercedes AMG Petronas F1 Team. Lauda owns 10% of the team, however, he survived, and recovered enough to race again just six weeks at the Italian Grand Prix. Niki Lauda was born on 22 February 1949 in Vienna and his paternal grandfather was the Viennese-born businessman Hans Lauda. Lauda became a racing driver despite his familys disapproval, after starting out with a Mini, Lauda moved on into Formula Vee, as was normal in Central Europe, but rapidly moved up to drive in private Porsche and Chevron sports cars.
With his career stalled, he took out a £30,000 GBP bank loan, secured by an insurance policy. Because of his familys disapproval he had a feud with his family over his racing ambitions. He was quickly promoted to the F1 team, but drove for March in F1, although the F2 cars were good, Marchs 1972 F1 season was catastrophic. Lauda took out another loan to buy his way into the BRM team in 1973. Regazzoni spoke so favourably of Lauda that Ferrari promptly signed him, after an unsuccessful start to the 1970s culminating in a disastrous start to the 1973 season, Ferrari regrouped completely under Luca di Montezemolo and were resurgent in 1974. The teams faith in the little-known Lauda was quickly rewarded by a finish in his début race for the team. His first Grand Prix victory – and the first for Ferrari since 1972 – followed only three races in the Spanish Grand Prix and he finished fourth in the Drivers Championship and demonstrated immense commitment to testing and improving the car. The 1975 F1 season started slowly for Lauda, after no better than a finish in the first four races.
Lauda famously gave away any trophies he won to his garage in exchange for his car to be washed and serviced. It would be a feat not achieved since Jack Brabhams victories in 1959 and 1960 and he looked set to win the most races in a season, a record held by the late Jim Clark since 1963. Most of the other drivers voted against the boycott and the race went ahead, unlike Lunger, Lauda was trapped in the wreckage
McLaren Racing Limited, competing as McLaren Honda, is a British Formula One team based at the McLaren Technology Centre, Surrey, England. McLaren is best known as a Formula One constructor but has competed in and won the Indianapolis 500. The team is the second oldest active team after Ferrari and they are one of the most successful teams in Formula One history, having won 182 races,12 drivers championships and eight constructors championships. The team is an owned subsidiary of McLaren Technology Group. Further American triumph followed, with Indianapolis 500 wins in McLaren cars for Mark Donohue in 1972, the combination of Prost and Senna was particularly dominant—together they won all but one race in 1988—but their rivalry soured and Prost left for Ferrari. Fellow English team Williams offered the most consistent challenge during this period, however, by the mid-1990s, Honda had withdrawn from Formula One, Senna had moved to Williams, and the team went three seasons without a win. Ron Dennis retired as McLaren team principal in 2009, handing the role to longtime McLaren employee Martin Whitmarsh.
At the end of 2013, after the teams worst season since 2004, McLaren announced in 2013 that they would be using Honda engines from 2015 onwards, replacing Mercedes-Benz. The team raced as McLaren-Honda for the first time since 1992 at the 2015 Australian Grand Prix, Bruce McLaren Motor Racing was founded in 1963 by New Zealander Bruce McLaren. Bruce was a driver for the British Formula One team Cooper with whom he had won three Grands Prix and come second in the 1960 world championship. In 1964 and 1965, McLaren were based in New Malden, during this period, Bruce drove for his team in sports car races in the United Kingdom and North America and entered the 1965 Tasman Series with Phil Hill, but did not win it. He continued to drive in Grands Prix for Cooper, but judging that teams form to be waning, Bruce made the teams Grand Prix debut at the 1966 Monaco race. His race ended after nine laps due to an oil leak. Neither car brought great success, the best result being a fourth at Monaco, for 1968, after driving McLarens sole entry for the previous two years, Bruce was joined by 1967 champion and fellow New Zealander Denny Hulme, who was already racing for McLaren in Can-Am.
That years new M7A car, Herds final design for the team, was powered by Cosworths new and soon to be ubiquitous DFV engine, Hulme won the Italian and Canadian Grands Prix in the year, helping the team to second in the constructors championship. The year 1970 started with a place each for Hulme. After his death, Teddy Mayer took over control of the team, Hulme continued with Dan Gurney. Gurney won the first two Can-Am events at Mosport and St. Jovite and placed ninth in the third, but left the team mid-season, and Gethin took over from there
The Fiat Group contained many brands such as Ferrari, Fiat, Alfa Romeo, the Chrysler Group, and many more. On 29 January 2014, it was announced that Fiat S. p. A. was to be merged into a new Netherlands-based holding company Fiat Chrysler Automobiles NV, Fiat Chrysler Automobiles became the new owner of Fiat Group. On 1 August 2014, Fiat S. p. A. received necessary shareholder approval to proceed with the merger, the merger became effective 12 October 2014. Fiat was founded in 1899 by a group of investors, including Giovanni Agnelli, during its more than century-long history, Fiat has manufactured railway engines and carriages, military vehicles, farm tractors, and aircraft. In 2013, Fiat was the second largest European automaker by volumes produced, and the seventh in the world ahead of Honda, PSA Peugeot Citroën, Suzuki and Daimler AG. Fiat Group currently produces vehicles under twelve brands, Alfa Romeo, Dodge, Fiat, Fiat Professional, Lancia, Ram Trucks, and SRT. In 1970, Fiat employed more than 100,000 in Italy when its production reached the highest number,1.4 million cars, in that country.
As of 2002, Fiat built more than 1 million vehicles at six plants in Italy, fiat-brand cars are built in several locations around the world. Outside Italy, the largest country of production is Brazil, where the Fiat brand is the market leader, the group has factories in Argentina and Mexico and a long history of licensing manufacture of its products in other countries. It has alliances and joint ventures around the world. He was succeeded briefly by Paolo Fresco, who served as chairman, Umberto Agnelli took over as chairman from 2003 to 2004. After Umberto Agnellis death on 28 May 2004, Luca Cordero di Montezemolo was named chairman, with Agnelli heir John Elkann becoming vice chairman, on 1 June 2004, Giuseppe Morchio was replaced by Sergio Marchionne as CEO. Giovanni Agnelli, with investors, founded the Fabbrica Italiana Automobili Torino società per azioni. Its acronymous name was changed to upper- and lower-case Fiat in 1906, Agnelli led the company until his death in 1945, while Vittorio Valletta administered the firms daily activities.
Its first car the 3 ½ CV strongly resembled contemporary Benz, in 1903, Fiat produced its first truck. In 1908, the first Fiat was exported to the US and that same year, the first Fiat aircraft engine was produced. Also around the time, Fiat taxis became popular in Europe. By 1910, Fiat was the largest automotive company in Italy—a position it has retained since and that same year, a new plant was built in Poughkeepsie, NY, by the newly founded American F. I. A. T
Giannini Automobili S. p. A. is an Italian-American tuning company and a former producer of cars. Their focus has mainly been on Fiat cars and it was founded in 1920 by brothers Attilio and Domenico Giannini. The company headquarters are in Rome, founded in 1885 as a garage, in 1922 Giannini became part of Italas service network. Giannini expanded their scope during the 1930s by working on smaller cars, in addition to engine modifications, the brake arrangements were changed. In 1938 Giannini broke a number of records with a single seat racer powered by one of these 499 cc engines. After World War II, the Giannini brothers began building their own engines, in 1947 they built a three-cylinder direct injection diesel truck engine, called the 3A. This produced 40 PS at 3,000 rpm and it was not a huge success, only selling a few hundred. In 1948, the Giannini brothers abandoned the transport sector, preferring instead to focus on something closer to their hearts, competition. Building on over an experience with Topolino engines and with the aid of young engineer Carlo Gianini, who began the CNA Rondine motorcycle project.
The G1 met with success at the 1949 Mille Miglia. Gianini developed the twin-cam G2 engine which saw use in the Giaur, the Giaur project was codeveloped with Berardo Taraschi. Giannini engines were used by other Etceterinis such as Gilco. The G2 powered Gianninis entry in the 1950 Mille Miglia, which led to a victory in the hands of Maggiorelli. In the 1950s Giannini opened a number of new ventures across Italy, such as Fiat sales outlets, for various reasons, and in spite of good sales, the company found itself in serious financial difficulties which led to its closing in 1961. Costruzioni Meccaniche Giannini S. p. A. focused on the field of conceptualizing and this choice, despite much excellent work, was to prove fatal to the company. Attilios Costruzioni Meccaniche Giannini was to close for good in 1971, Giannini Automobili S. p. A. retained Gianninis distribution network and series of repair shops. Customization work was curtailed, now consisting only of minor surgery. In 1963 Domenico began modifying standard cars and selling conversion kits, in the year the 500 TV
Nuovo Trasporto Viaggiatori
Nuovo Trasporto Viaggiatori is an Italian company which is Europes first private open access operator of 300 km/h high-speed trains. NTV was created by four Italian businessmen to compete with Trenitalia, the company intended to start services in late 2011, following certification of its trains in mid-2011. In March 2011, NTV complained that the Italian infrastructure manager, RFI is controlled by the same government group that controls Trenitalia, the incumbent provider of passenger train services in Italy. After delays due to the complexity of the project, NTV started service on 28 April 2012 under the. italo brand, NTV ridership for whole year 2012 was 2,051,702. Ridership increased to 9.1 million in 2015, with a factor of 71. 5% and 56 trains daily. An order for 25 Alstom Automotrice à grande vitesse trainsets each with 11 cars was announced on 17 January 2008, Alstom assembled 17 at its La Rochelle plant, while eight were produced at Savigliano in Italy. NTV has an option for a further ten trains, the contract includes maintenance for 30 years.
NTV unveiled the first of its trains in a ceremony on 13 December 2011, in 2015, NTV announced the procurement of eight new trains to expand its fleet. The new units would be from Alstoms Pendolino family, with a maximum speed approximately 60 km/h slower than the existing AGVs, the procurement is intended to allow NTV to expand its existing Italo services, as well as offer services to new destinations. Italo offers four classes of service, which it refers to as journey ambiances, free Wi-Fi is available throughout the train. Smart, the lowest class of service, with 2x2 leather seats with table and airline style, extra large, this class has 2x1 seating primarily in airline style, with footrests. Prima, offers 2x1 seating with armrests, power sockets, reading lights, glove compartments, complimentary drinks and sweets. Club Executive, the most expensive class, with only 19 seats per train and these are available in either 2x1 open seating or two compartments which can be reserved en bloc for up to 4 passengers.
Complimentary coffee and pastries are served, routes served by NTV are those of the Italian high-speed rail network, comprising 13 cities and 16 stations. Italo’s High Speed train service contains four lines, Turin-Salerno, stops in Milan, Reggio Emilia, Florence, venice-Salerno, stops in Padua, Florence and Naples. Brescia-Napoli, stops in Verona, Bologna and Rome, MDP Holdings,33, 5% IMI Investimenti S. p. A
He was widely known as il Commendatore or il Drake. In his final years he was referred to as lIngegnere or il Grande Vecchio. Ferrari was born on 18 February 1898 in Modena and his birth certificate had recorded his birth date on 20 February because a heavy snowstorm had prevented his father from reporting the birth at the local registry office. He was the younger of two children to Alfredo and Adalgisa Ferrari, after his elder sibling Alfredo Junior, Alfredo Senior was the son of a grocer from Carpi and started a workshop fabricating metal parts at the family home. Enzo grew up with formal education. At the age of 10 he witnessed Felice Nazzaros win at the 1908 Circuit di Bologna, during World War I he served in the 3rd Mountain Artillery Regiment of the Italian Army. His father Alfredo, and his brother, Alfredo Jr. died in 1916 as a result of a widespread Italian flu outbreak. Ferrari became severely sick himself in the 1918 flu pandemic and was discharged from Italian service. Following the familys carpentry business collapse, Ferrari started searching for a job in the car industry and he unsuccessfully volunteered his services to FIAT in Turin, eventually settling for a job as test-driver for C. M. N.
A car manufacturer in Milan, which rebuilt used truck bodies into small passenger cars, on November 23 of the same year, he took part in the Targa Florio but had to retire after his cars fuel tank developed a leak. The prancing horse emblem was created when Italian fighter pilot Francesco Baracca was shot down during World War I, Baracca gave Enzo Ferrari a necklace with the prancing horse on it prior to takeoff. Baracca was tragically shot down and killed, in memory of his death, Enzo Ferrari used the prancing horse to create the emblem that would become the world famous Ferrari shield. However the world first saw this emblem on an Alfa Romeo as Ferrari was still tied up with Alfa Romeo and it was not until 1947 that the shield was first seen on a Ferrari. This was the birth of Ferrari, in 1924 Ferrari won the Coppa Acerbo at Pescara, a success that encouraged Alfa Romeo to offer him a chance to race in much more prestigious competitions. Ferrari himself continued racing until 1932, before he left Alfa Romeo to found Scuderia Ferrari, despite the quality of the Scuderia drivers, the team struggled to compete with Auto Union and Mercedes.
In 1937 Alfa Romeo decided to regain control of its racing division. Unhappy with the arrangement, Ferrari left and founded Auto-Avio Costruzioni, with the outbreak of World War II in 1943, Ferraris factory was forced to undertake war production for Mussolinis fascist government. Following Allied bombing of the factory, Ferrari relocated from Modena to Maranello, at the end of the conflict, Ferrari decided to start making cars bearing his name, and founded Ferrari S. p. A. in 1947