Lucania was an ancient area of Southern Italy. It was the land of an Oscan people, it extended from the Tyrrhenian Sea to the Gulf of Taranto. It bordered with Samnium and Campania in the north, Apulia in the east, Bruttium in the south-west, at the tip of the peninsula, now called Calabria, it thus comprised all the modern region of Basilicata, the southern part of the Province of Salerno and a northern portion of the Province of Cosenza. The precise limits were the river Silarus in the north-west, which separated it from Campania, the Bradanus, which flows into the Gulf of Taranto, in the east; the lower tract of the river Laus, which flows from a ridge of the Apennine Mountains to the Tyrrhenian Sea in an east-west direction, marked part of the border with Bruttium. The whole area is occupied by the Apennine Mountains, which here are an irregular group of lofty masses; the main ridge approaches the western sea, continues from the lofty knot of mountains on the frontiers of Samnium, in a southerly direction, to within a few miles of the Gulf of Policastro.

From on it is separated from the sea by only a narrow interval until it enters Bruttium. Just within the frontier of Lucania rises Monte Pollino, 7,325 ft, the highest peak in the southern Apennines; the mountains descend in a much more gradual slope to the coastal plain of the Gulf of Taranto. Thus the rivers which flow to the Tyrrhenian Sea are of little importance compared with those that descend towards the Gulf of Tarentum. Of these the most important are the Bradanus, the Casuentus, the Aciris, the Siris; the Crathis, which forms at its mouth the southern limit of the province, belongs wholly to the territory of the Bruttii, but it receives a tributary, the Sybaris, from the mountains of Lucania. The only considerable stream on the western side is the Silarus, which constitutes the northern boundary, has two important tributaries in the Calor and the Tanager which joins it from the south. There are several hypotheses on the origin of the name Lucania, inhabited by Lucani, an Osco-Samnite population from central Italy.

Lucania might be derived from Greek λευκός, leukos meaning "white", cognate of Latin lux. According to another hypothesis, Lucania might be derived from Latin word lucus meaning "sacred wood", or from Greek λύκος, lykos meaning "wolf"; the district of Lucania was so called from the people bearing the name Lucani by whom it was conquered about the middle of the 5th century BC. Before that period it was included under the general name of Oenotria, applied by the Greeks to the southernmost portion of Italy; the mountainous interior was occupied by the tribes known as Oenotrians and Choni, while the coasts on both sides were occupied by powerful Greek colonies which doubtless exercised a protectorate over the interior. The Lucanians were a southern branch of the Sabellic race, who spoke the Oscan language, they had a democratic constitution save in time of war, when a dictator was chosen from among the regular magistrates. A few Oscan inscriptions survive in Greek characters, from the 4th or 3rd century BC, some coins with Oscan legends of the 3rd century.

The Lucanians conquered the whole country from the borders of Samnium and Campania to the southern extremity of Italy. Subsequently the inhabitants of the peninsula, now known as Calabria, broke into insurrection, under the name of Bruttians established their independence, after which the Lucanians became confined within the limits described. After this we find them engaged in hostilities with the Tarentines, with Alexander, king of Epirus, called in by that people to their assistance, 334 BC. In 298 BC they made alliance with Rome, Roman influence was extended by the colonies of Venusia and above all Tarentum. Subsequently they were sometimes in alliance, but more engaged in hostilities, during the Samnite wars. On the landing of Pyrrhus in Italy they were among the first to declare in his favor, found themselves exposed to the resentment of Rome when the departure of Pyrrhus left his allies at the mercy of the Romans. After several campaigns they were reduced to subjection. Notwithstanding this they espoused the cause of Hannibal during the Second Punic War, their territory during several campaigns was ravaged by both armies.

The country never recovered from these disasters, under the Roman government fell into decay, to which the Social War, in which the Lucanians took part with the Samnites against Rome gave the finishing stroke. In the time of Strabo the Greek cities on the coast had fallen into insignificance, owing to the decrease of population and cultivation the malaria began to obtain the upper hand; the few towns of the interior were of no importance. A large part of the province was given up to pasture, the mountains were covered with forests, which abounded in wild boars and wolves. There were some none of great importance. For administrative purposes under the Roman empire, Lucania was always united with the district of the Bruttii, a practice continued by Theodoric; the two together constituted the third region of Augustus. The towns on the east coast were Metapontum, a few miles south of the Bradanus. Close to its southern frontier stood Sybaris

Peshawar High Court

The Peshawar High Court is the highest judicial institution of Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa. It is located in the provincial capital Peshawar; the Parliament passed a bill extending the jurisdiction of the Supreme Court and the Peshawar High Court to Federally Administered Tribal Areas, one of a handful of reforms paving the way for a merger of the tribal areas with Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. During the last days of the 19th century, the viceroy of India Lord Curzon, proposed the creation of Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa province, approved by the Secretary of State for India, Lord George F. Hamilton, on 20 December 1900; the province was formally founded on 9 November 1901, had to get one Judicial Commissioner. The Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa Law and Justice Regulation No. VII of 1901 was enacted by the Governor-General-in-Council, under section 3 of the Government of India Act, 1854, in order to establish judicial institutions; the Constitution of Pakistan, 1973 provides that Peshawar High Court shall have a Bench each at Abbottabad and DI Khan.

Article 199 of the Constitution lays down in detail the jurisdiction of the High Court. The jurisdiction was more or less the same as provided under the Constitution of 1956 and further detailed under the Constitution of 1962; the Constitution of Pakistan, 1956, Article 170, states that: "Notwithstanding anything contained in Article 22, each High Court shall have power throughout the territories in relation to which it exercise jurisdiction, to issue to any person or authority, including in appropriate cases any Government directions, orders or writs, including writs in the nature of habeas corpus, prohibition, quo warranto and certiorari, for the enforcement of any of the rights conferred by Part II and for any other purpose." High Court is headed by a Chief Justice. The bench consist of additional judges; the retirement age of Chief Justice and Justices is 62 years. The Additional Judges are appointed for one year. After that their services could either be extended or they could be confirmed or they are retired.

The current Chief Justice of Peshawar High Court is Justice Waqar Ahmad Seth. The Peshawar High Court is made up of the following Justices. Muhammad Daud Khan - Refused PCO Karimullah Duranni - Refused PCO Javed NawazGandapur - Did not take oath under PCO Muhammad Nawaz Khan - Did not take oath under PCO Mian Muhammad Ajmal - Take oath under PCO was Chief Justice Sardar Muhammad Raza - Take oath under PCO Khalida Rasheed - Take oath under PCO Mian Shakirullah Jan]] - Take oath under PCO Nasir ul Mulk - Take oath under PCO Abdul Rauf Laghmani - Take oath under PCO Shahzad Akbar - Take oath under PCO Talaat Qayum Qureshi - Take oath under PCO Malik Hamid Saeed - Take oath under PCO Shah Jehan Yousafzai - Take oath under PCO Tariq Parvez Khan - Dismissed on the ground of corruption Ijaz Afzal - Did not take oath under PCO Dost Muhammad Khan - Dismissed on the ground of corruption (Elevated to the Supreme court Shah Jehan Khan Yousafzai - Dismissed on the ground of corruption Talaat Qayyum Qureshi - Take oath under PCO and become chief justice Ijazul Hassan Khan - Elevated to the Supreme court Muhammad Qaim Jan Khan - Elevated to the Supreme court M. Salim Khan - Take oath under PCO Muhammad Raza - Take oath under PCO Jehan Zaib Rahim - Take oath under PCO Raj Muhammad Khan Khattak - Take oath under PCO Said Maroof Khan - Take oath under PCO Hamid Farooq Durrani - Take oath under PCO Syed Sajjad Hassan Shah - Take oath under PCOJudges appointed after PCO Shaji-ur-Rehman Khan Khattak Ghulam Mohiuddin Malik Syed Yahya Gilani Ziauddin Khattak Syed Musadiq Hussain Gilani Bashir-ud-Din Ahmad Khan - 1-7-1970 to 24-5-1972 S. Ghulam Safdar Shah - 25-5-1972 to 31-10-1976 Abdul Hakeem Khan - 1-11-1976 to 3-10-1979 Shah Nawaz Khan - 3-10-1979 to 5-4-1981 Mian Burhan-ud-Din - 5-4-1981 to 17-12-1981 Syed Usman Ali Shah - 19-12-1981 to 7-12-1987 Sardar Fakhre Alam - 7-12-1987 to 7-2-1991 Fazal Ilahi Khan - 9-2-1991 to 1-4-1993 Abdul Karim Khan Kundi - 1-4-1993 to 24-1-1995 Syed Ibne Ali - 25-1-1995 to 28-2-1997 Abdur Rehman Khan - 1-3-1997 to 3-11-1997 Mahbub Ali Khan - 4-11-1997 to 11-5-1999 Qazi Muhammad Farooq - 12-5-1999 to 5-1-2000 Mian Muhammad Ajmal - 6-1-2000 to 27-4-2000 Sardar Muhammad Raza Khan - 28-4-2000 to 9-1-2002 Mian Shakirullah Jan - 10-1-2002 to 30-7-2004 Nasir-ul-Mulk - 31-7-2004 to 5-4-2005 Tariq Pervez Khan - 5-4-2005 to 03-11-2007 Talat Qayyum Qureshi - 3-11-2007 to 18-01-2008 Muhammad Raza Khan - 21-01-2008 to 07-08-2008 Jehan Zaib Rahim - 8-8-2008 to 5-09-2008 Tariq Parvez Khan - 5-9-2008 to 20-10-2009 Ejaz Afzal Khan - 20-10-2009 to 16-11-2011 Dost Muhammad Khan - 17-11-2011 to 31-01-2014 Mian Fasih-ul-Mulk - 31-01-2014 to 07-04-2014 Mazhar Alam Khan Miankhel - 8-04-2014 to 29-12-2016 Yahya Afridi - 30-12-2016 to 27-06-2018 Bashir-ud-Din Ahmad Khan Ghulam Safdar Shah Sher Bahadur Khan Shah Zaman Babar Qaisar Khan Muhammad Daud Khan Kareemullah Durrani Abdul Hakim Khan Shah Nawaz Khan Mian Burhanuddin S. Usman Ali Shah Sardar Fakhre Alam Ali Hussain Qazilbash Fazal Ilahi Khan Abdur Rehman Khan Kaif Fazal Ellahi Khan Abdul Karim Khan Kundi Nazir Ahmad Bhatti Muhammad Bashir Jehangiri Qazi Hamiduddin Sardar Muhammad Raza Salim Dil Khan Mian Shakirullah Jan Khalida Rashid Nasirul Mulk Jawaid Nawaz Khan Gandapur Tariq Parvez Khan Shah Jehan Khan Qazi Ehsanullah Qureshi Malik Hamid Saeed Talaat Qayyum Qureshi Shahzad Akbar Khan Ijazul Hassan Khan Muhammad Qaim Jan Khan Ejaz Afzal Khan Raj Muhammad Khan Said Maroof Khan Hamid Farooq Durrani Khalid Mahmood Fasihul Mulk Attau

Charles Tran

Charles Ernest Tran was a Canadian physician and politician in the province of Saskatchewan. He represented Pelly from 1925 to 1929 in the Legislative Assembly of Saskatchewan as a Progressive Party member, he was born in Barrie, the son of William Tran and Mary English, was educated in Barrie and at The Western University of London, Ontario. Tran came west, settling in Saskatchewan. In 1912, he married Louise McGale. Tran served in the Canadian Medical Corps during World War I, he was mayor of Kamsack from 1914 to 1916 and in 1919, 1921, 1923 and 1926. Tran owned a pharmacy in Kamsack. From 1925 to 1929, as leader of the Progressive Party, he shared the position of leader of the opposition in the provincial assembly with James Thomas Milton Anderson, the leader of the Conservative party. Tran continued to practice medicine, he died in Kamsack on March 24, 1934 following a stroke, at the age of 56