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Lucius Verus

Lucius Verus was the co-emperor of Rome with his adoptive brother Marcus Aurelius from 161 until his own death in 169. He was a member of the Nerva-Antonine dynasty. Verus' succession together with Marcus Aurelius marked the first time that the Roman Empire was ruled by multiple emperors, an common occurrence in the history of the Empire; the eldest son of Lucius Aelius Caesar, first adopted son and heir to Hadrian, Verus was born and educated in Rome where he held several political offices prior to taking the throne. After his biological father’s death in 138, he was adopted by Antoninus Pius, himself adopted by Hadrian. Hadrian died that year, Antoninus Pius succeeded to the throne. Antoninus Pius was succeeded by Lucius Verus and Marcus Aurelius; the majority of Verus’s reign was occupied by his direction of the war with Parthia which ended in Roman victory and some territorial gains. After initial involvement in the Marcomannic Wars, he fell ill and died in 169, he was deified by the Roman Senate as the Divine Verus.

Lucius Verus was the first-born son to Avidia Plautia and Lucius Aelius Caesar, the first adopted son and heir of Emperor Hadrian. He was raised in Rome. Verus had another brother, Gaius Avidius Ceionius Commodus, two sisters, Ceionia Fabia and Ceionia Plautia, his maternal grandparents were the senator Gaius Avidius Nigrinus and the unattested noblewoman Ignota Plautia. Although Hadrian was his adoptive paternal grandfather, his biological paternal grandparents were the consul Lucius Ceionius Commodus and either Aelia or Fundania Plautia; when his father died in early 138, Hadrian chose Antoninus Pius as his successor. Antoninus was adopted by Hadrian on the condition that Verus and Hadrian’s great-nephew Marcus Aurelius be adopted by Antoninus as his sons and heirs. By this scheme, Hadrian's adoptive grandson through his natural father, remained as such through his new father, Antoninus; the adoption of Marcus Aurelius was a suggestion of Antoninus himself, since Marcus was the nephew of Antoninus' wife.

After Hadrian's death, Antoninus approached Marcus and requested that his marriage arrangements be amended: Marcus' betrothal to Ceionia Fabia would be annulled, he would be betrothed to Faustina, Antoninus' daughter, instead. Faustina's betrothal to Ceionia's brother Lucius Commodus would have to be annulled. Marcus consented to Antoninus' proposal; as a prince and future emperor, Verus received careful education from the famous grammaticus Marcus Cornelius Fronto. He was reported to have been an excellent student, fond of delivering speeches. Verus started his political career as a quaestor in 153, became consul in 154, in 161 was consul again with Marcus Aurelius as his senior partner. Antoninus died on 7 March 161, was succeeded by Marcus Aurelius. Marcus Aurelius bore deep affection for Antoninus. Although the senate planned to confirm Marcus alone, he refused to take office unless Lucius received equal powers; the senate accepted, granting Lucius the imperium, the tribunician power, the name Augustus.

Marcus became, in Imperator Caesar Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus. It was the first time. In spite of their nominal equality, Marcus held authority, than Verus, he had been consul once more than Lucius, he had shared in Pius' administration, he alone was Pontifex maximus. It would have been clear to the public; as the biographer wrote, "Verus obeyed Marcus...as a lieutenant obeys a proconsul or a governor obeys the emperor."Immediately after their senate confirmation, the emperors proceeded to the Castra Praetoria, the camp of the praetorian guard. Lucius addressed the assembled troops, which acclaimed the pair as imperatores. Like every new emperor since Claudius, Lucius promised the troops a special donative; this donative, was twice the size of those past: 20,000 sesterces per capita, more to officers. In return for this bounty, equivalent to several years' pay, the troops swore an oath to protect the emperors; the ceremony was not necessary, given that Marcus' accession had been peaceful and unopposed, but it was good insurance against military troubles.

Pius's funeral ceremonies were, in the words of the biographer, "elaborate". If his funeral followed the pattern of past funerals, his body would have been incinerated on a pyre at the Campus Martius, while his spirit would rise to the gods' home in the heavens. Marcus and Lucius nominated their father for deification. In contrast to their behavior during Pius's campaign to deify Hadrian, the senate did not oppose the emperors' wishes. A flamen, or cultic priest, was appointed to minister the cult of the deified Pius, now Divus Antoninus. Pius's remains were laid to rest in Hadrian's mausoleum, beside the remains of Marcus's children and of Hadrian himself; the temple he had dedicated to his wife, Diva Faustina, became the Temple of Faustina. It survives as the church of San Lorenzo in Miranda. Soon after the emperors' accession, Marcus's eleven-year-old daughter, Annia Lucilla, was betrothed to Lucius. At the ceremonies commemorating the event, new provisions were made for the support of poor children, along the lines of earlier imperial foundations.

Marcus and Lucius proved popular with the people of Rome, who approved of their

Charles Francis Bolton

Charles Francis Bolton, MD, CM, MS, FRCP, is a Canadian professor of neurology at Queen's University in Ontario, Canada. He was first to describe critical illness polyneuropathy in a series of patients. Dr. Bolton earned his medical degree from Queen's University, he trained in neurology at the University of Saskatchewan and subsequently at Mayo Clinic in Minnesota. He trained in electromyography at Mayo Clinic, he has investigated and written extensively on neurological complications in the intensive care unit of a neuromuscular nature. He has described techniques for electrophysiological investigations of the neuromuscular respiratory system. Charles Bolton was born in Outlook, Canada in 1932. A paternal great, great grandfather, James Bolton, founded the town of Bolton, Ontario in 1794. Charles Bolton's father, Frank R. Bolton, was an officer in World War I and World War II, was President of the Saskatchewan Teachers' Federation, his uncle, Lambert Ernest Stanley Bolton, killed in World War I, was honored by having Mount Bolton in the Canadian Rockies named after him.

His mother, Mary Grace, graduated from St. Olaf College, Northfield, MN, USA and was a member of the famous St. Olaf Choir. In 1956, Bolton married Margaret Katherine while she was working for the Department of Public Health in the Swift Current Health Unit. Margaret's mother, Dorothy K. Kline, was an esteemed biochemist at the University of Saskatchewan. Bolton and Margaret together had David and Nancy. Bolton graduated from Queen's University, Canada, in 1956, he trained in neurology at the University of Saskatchewan, at the Mayo Clinic where he was influenced by Dr. Peter Dyck, authority on peripheral neuropathy, Dr. Edward Lambert, Director of the EMG Laboratory. Before specializing in neurology, he was in family practice in Saskatchewan for three years. From 1966 to 1973 he was at the University of Saskatchewan where he and colleagues described the beneficial effects of successful kidney transplantation on uremic neuropathy. From 1973 to 2000 he was at the University of Western Ontario where he was Chief of Clinical Neurological Sciences and Director of the EMG Laboratory at Victoria Hospital.

While there he and colleagues described critical illness polyneuropathy, a severe weakness of the muscles of breathing and limb movement, observed in the intensive care unit, reversible if the critical illness could be treated. This initiated worldwide investigations of weakness in these patients, sparked interest in neurological conditions in ICU's. Bolton published on neurological conditions, clinical neurophysiology, the nervous system control of breathing, he spearheaded in Canada the establishment of formal examinations in electromyography, the subspecialty of neurocritical care. In 1997 he received the Deans Award for Excellence at the University of Western Ontario. In 1999 he was honored by a two-day Festschrift at the University of Western Ontario. In 2003 he received the Distinguished Physician Award at the 50th Anniversary of the American Association of Electrodiagnostic Medicine. In 2013 he received the Schwab Award at the Annual Meeting of the American Clinical Neurophysiology Society

Decoupling and re-coupling

Decoupling and re-coupling during financial crises is typified by the decoupling hypothesis that, in 2007, held that Latin American and Asian economies emerging ones, had broadened and deepened to the point that they no longer depended on the United States economy for growth, leaving them insulated from a slowdown there a fledged recession. Faith in the concept had generated strong outperformance for stocks outside the United States. However, over the course of 2008, as fears of recession mounted in the United States, worldwide stock markets declined heavily. Contrary to the decoupling hypothesis, the losses were greater outside the United States, with the worst experienced in emerging markets and developed economies like Germany and Japan. Exports make up large portions of economic activity in those places, but that fact was not supposed to matter anymore in a decoupled world because domestic activity was thought to be so robust. On the other hand, after the slump the emerging countries experienced a strong recovery, much stronger than that in advanced economies.

The phenomenon of decoupling and re-coupling has been explained by observing that global demand for factors such as capital and raw material declines when one part of the world economy suffers a crisis, which benefits the remaining healthy parts of the world economy through lower interest rates and lower commodity prices. However, once the crisis reaches the stage where global lenders suffer significant losses, they will cut back on their loan supply and interest rates for everybody will rise. In organizational theory, decoupling refers to the creation and maintenance of gaps between formal, symbolic policies and actual organizational practices on the ground. In contrast, recoupling is a process by which decoupled policies and practices become coupled, leading to substantive, rather than symbolic, compliance. Thus, recoupling is a process of organizational ritual becoming reality, of pretense becoming practice. Studies on re-coupling suggest that "the created gaps between policy and practice may not be permanent: that is, policies and practices that were once decoupled may become coupled."