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Ludwig Boltzmann

Ludwig Eduard Boltzmann was an Austrian physicist and philosopher. His greatest achievement was in the development of statistical mechanics, which explains and predicts how the properties of atoms determine the physical properties of matter. Boltzmann coined the word ergodic. Boltzmann was born in the capital of the Austrian Empire, his father, Ludwig Georg Boltzmann, was a revenue official. His grandfather, who had moved to Vienna from Berlin, was a clock manufacturer, Boltzmann's mother, Katharina Pauernfeind, was from Salzburg, he received his primary education from a private tutor at the home of his parents. Boltzmann attended high school in Upper Austria; when Boltzmann was 15, his father died. Starting in 1863, Boltzmann studied physics at the University of Vienna. Among his teachers were Josef Loschmidt, Joseph Stefan, Andreas von Ettingshausen and Jozef Petzval. Boltzmann received his PhD degree in 1866 working under the supervision of Stefan. In 1867, he became a Privatdozent. After obtaining his doctorate degree, Boltzmann worked two more years as Stefan's assistant.

It was Stefan. In 1869 at age 25, thanks to a letter of recommendation written by Stefan, Boltzmann was appointed full Professor of Mathematical Physics at the University of Graz in the province of Styria. In 1869 he spent several months in Heidelberg working with Robert Bunsen and Leo Königsberger and in 1871 with Gustav Kirchhoff and Hermann von Helmholtz in Berlin. In 1873 Boltzmann joined the University of Vienna as Professor of Mathematics and there he stayed until 1876. In 1872, long before women were admitted to Austrian universities, he met Henriette von Aigentler, an aspiring teacher of mathematics and physics in Graz, she was refused permission to audit lectures unofficially. Boltzmann supported her decision to appeal, successful. On July 17, 1876 Ludwig Boltzmann married Henriette. Boltzmann went back to Graz to take up the chair of Experimental Physics. Among his students in Graz were Svante Arrhenius and Walther Nernst, he spent 14 happy years in Graz and it was there that he developed his statistical concept of nature.

Boltzmann was appointed to the Chair of Theoretical Physics at the University of Munich in Bavaria, Germany in 1890. In 1894, Boltzmann succeeded his teacher Joseph Stefan as Professor of Theoretical Physics at the University of Vienna. Boltzmann spent a great deal of effort in his final years defending his theories, he did not get along with some of his colleagues in Vienna Ernst Mach, who became a professor of philosophy and history of sciences in 1895. That same year Georg Helm and Wilhelm Ostwald presented their position on energetics at a meeting in Lübeck, they saw energy, not matter, as the chief component of the universe. Boltzmann's position carried the day among other physicists who supported his atomic theories in the debate. In 1900, Boltzmann went on the invitation of Wilhelm Ostwald. Ostwald offered Boltzmann the professorial chair in physics, which became vacant when Gustav Heinrich Wiedemann died. After Mach retired due to bad health, Boltzmann returned to Vienna in 1902. In 1903, together with Gustav von Escherich and Emil Müller, founded the Austrian Mathematical Society.

His students included Paul Ehrenfest and Lise Meitner. In Vienna, Boltzmann taught physics and lectured on philosophy. Boltzmann's lectures on natural philosophy were popular and received considerable attention, his first lecture was an enormous success. Though the largest lecture hall had been chosen for it, the people stood all the way down the staircase; because of the great successes of Boltzmann's philosophical lectures, the Emperor invited him for a reception at the Palace. In 1906, Boltzmann's deteriorating mental condition forced him to resign his position, he died by suicide on September 5, 1906, by hanging himself while on vacation with his wife and daughter in Duino, near Trieste. He is buried in the Viennese Zentralfriedhof, his tombstone bears the inscription of Boltzmann's entropy formula: S = k ⋅ log ⁡ W Boltzmann's kinetic theory of gases seemed to presuppose the reality of atoms and molecules, but all German philosophers and many scientists like Ernst Mach and the physical chemist Wilhelm Ostwald disbelieved their existence.

During the 1890s, Boltzmann attempted to formulate a compromise position which would allow both atomists and anti-atomists to do physics without arguing over atoms. His solution was to use Hertz's theory that atoms were Bilder, that is, pictures. Atomists could think the pictures were the real atoms while the anti-atomists could think of the pictures as representing a useful but unreal model, but this did not satisfy either group. Furthermore and many defenders of "pure thermodynamics" were trying hard to refute the kinetic theory of gases and statistical mechanics because of Boltzmann's assumptions about atoms and molecules and statistical interpretation of the second law of thermodynamics. Around the turn of the century, Boltzmann's science was being threatened by another philosophical objection; some physicists, including Mach's student, Gustav Jaumann, interpreted Hertz to mean that all electromagnetic behavior is continuous, as if there were no atoms and molecules, as if all physical behavior wer

May Lansfield Keller

May Lansfield Keller was a college professor and dean. Born in Baltimore, Maryland to Wilmer Lansfield Keller and Jeanie née Simonton, May Lansfield Keller received an early private school education at the Little Dames' School in the Baltimore area. From 1888 to 1894, she studied at the Girls' Latin School matriculated to Goucher College in 1894, she joined Pi Beta Phi, would remain active in the sorority past her graduation in 1898. At this point she became interested in taking graduate studies in Germany, but her father was opposed so she instead enrolled at the University of Chicago in the fall of 1898. However, she didn't appreciate. Gaining her father's consent, in 1901 she traveled to Heidelberg, Germany to study for her doctorate with financial assistance from her family and from Goucher. Both Heidelberg and Freiburg had allowed women to matriculate beginning in 1900, but nonetheless she met stiff resistance to her attendance. What she did find though was that, when she overcame the obstacles placed in her path she was treated no differently than the men in her classes.

She graduated with a doctoral degree in 1950 magna cum laude with a thesis titled, The Anglo-Saxon Weapon Names − with an Archaeological Investigation of the Weapons of Attack and Defense in use among the Anglo-Saxons from the 5th century to the time of the Norman Conquest. Upon her return to the United States, a job was waiting her. From 1904−06, she was head of the Department of German at Wells College in New York, becoming associate professor of English in 1906 at Goucher College. Dr. Keller became Grand President of Pi Beta Phi in 1908, held that position until 1918, she founded the Maryland branch of the Southern Association of College Women in 1909 served as president of the organization during 1910–1914. In 1914, Keller became dean of the newly-formed Westhampton College in Richmond, would remain at that position for 32 years, retiring June, 1946, she was the first woman to be named dean of a Virginia college. The Pi Beta Phi foundation named the May Lansfield Keller Award for Philanthropic Leadership after her, as was the Keller Hall named at Westhampton College.

Keller, May Lansfield, The Anglo-Saxon weapon names treated archæologically and etymologically, Heidelberg: C. Winter. Turnbull, May Lansfield Keller and letters, 1877-1964, McClure Press. "May Lansfield Keller", Find a Grave Memorial, retrieved 2019-05-03

Gas House Kids Go West

Gas House Kids Go West is a 1947 American comedy film directed by William Beaudine and starring Emory Parnell, Chili Williams and Vince Barnett. It followed by a third Gas House Kids in Hollywood; the Gas House Kids travel west to California after winning a basketball competition. The boys get the idea to sell their train tickets and buy a used car to save money and replenish their funds; when seeking a new car, the shady dealer decides to let the gang drive a stolen car too hot for New York to his contact in California. After depositing the car, the boys stay at a ranch manned by a gang of crooks. Alfalfa croons "West of the Pecos". Carl Switzer as Alfalfa Benny Bartlett as Orvie Rudy Wissler as Scat Tommy Bond as Chimp Ray Dolciame as Corky Vince Barnett as Steve Emory Parnell as Police Sergeant Casey Chili Williams as Nan Crowley William Wright as Jim Kingsley Lela Bliss as Mrs. Crowley Ronn Marvin as Pulaski Art Miles as Sheriff Syd Saylor as Motorcycle Cop Jay Silverheels as Kingsley's Henchman Delmar Watson as Young Boy Marshall, Wendy L. William Beaudine: From Silents to Television.

Scarecrow Press, 2005. Gas House Kids Go West on IMDb