Martin Luther University of Halle-Wittenberg
The Martin Luther University of Halle-Wittenberg, referred to as MLU, is a public, research-oriented university in the cities of Halle and Wittenberg within Saxony-Anhalt, Germany. MLU offers German and international courses leading to academic degrees such as B. A. B. Sc, the university was created in 1817 through the merger of the University of Wittenberg and the University of Halle. The university is named after the Protestant reformer Martin Luther, who was a professor in Wittenberg, the university itself is located in Halle, while the Leucorea Foundation in Wittenberg serves as MLU’s convention centre for seminars as well as for academic and political conferences. Both Halle and Wittenberg are about one hour from Berlin via the Berlin–Halle railway, the University of Wittenberg was founded in 1502 by Frederick the Wise, Elector of Saxony. Notable attendees include George Müller, Georg Joachim Rheticus and – in fiction – William Shakespeares Prince Hamlet and Horatio, the University of Halle was founded in 1694 by Frederick III, Elector of Brandenburg, who became Frederick I, King in Prussia, in 1701.
In the late 17th century and early 18th century, Halle became a centre for Pietism within Prussia, in the 17th and 18th centuries the universities were centers of the German Enlightenment. Christian Wolff was an important proponent of rationalism and he influenced many German scholars, such as Immanuel Kant. Christian Thomasius was at the time the first philosopher in Germany to hold his lectures not in Latin. He contributed to a programme in philosophy but tried to establish a more common-sense point of view. The University of Wittenberg was closed in 1813 during the Napoleonic Wars, the town of Wittenberg was granted to Prussia in the Congress of Vienna in 1815, and the university was merged with the Prussian University of Halle in 1817. It took its present name on 10 November 1933, more than a dozen professors were expelled. MLUs historical observatory, built in 1788 by Carl Gotthard Langhans, members are mostly gifted students of all faculties, but academic staff and alumni. The university choir regularly performs at the international Handel Festival in George Frideric Handel’s birthplace, C. D.
Wyneken, Z, Paul Zarifopol, Caspar Ziegler, Karl Ziegler, Nicolaus Ludwig Zinzendorf, Max Zorn, Leopold Zunz. List of early modern universities in Europe The New Encyclopædia Britannica, Official website Official website Download MLU Yearbook 2007 /
Wikisource is an online digital library of free content textual sources on a wiki, operated by the Wikimedia Foundation. Wikisource is the name of the project as a whole and the name for each instance of that project, the projects aims are to host all forms of free text, in many languages, and translations. Originally conceived as an archive to store useful or important historical texts, the project officially began in November 24,2003 under the name Project Sourceberg. The name Wikisource was adopted that year and it received its own domain name seven months later, the project has come under criticism for lack of reliability but it is cited by organisations such as the National Archives and Records Administration. The project holds works that are either in the domain or freely licensed, professionally published works or historical source documents, not vanity products. Verification was initially made offline, or by trusting the reliability of digital libraries. Now works are supported by online scans via the ProofreadPage extension, some individual Wikisources, each representing a specific language, now only allow works backed up with scans.
While the bulk of its collection are texts, Wikisource as a whole hosts other media, some Wikisources allow user-generated annotations, subject to the specific policies of the Wikisource in question. Wikisources early history included several changes of name and location, the original concept for Wikisource was as storage for useful or important historical texts. These texts were intended to support Wikipedia articles, by providing evidence and original source texts. The collection was focused on important historical and cultural material. The project was originally called Project Sourceberg during its planning stages, in 2001, there was a dispute on Wikipedia regarding the addition of primary source material, leading to edit wars over their inclusion or deletion. Project Sourceberg was suggested as a solution to this, perhaps Project Sourceberg can mainly work as an interface for easily linking from Wikipedia to a Project Gutenberg file, and as an interface for people to easily submit new work to PG.
Wed want to complement Project Gutenberg--how and Jimmy Wales adding like Larry, Im interested that we think it over to see what we can add to Project Gutenberg. It seems unlikely that primary sources should in general be editable by anyone -- I mean, Shakespeare is Shakespeare, unlike our commentary on his work, the project began its activity at ps. wikipedia. org. The contributors understood the PS subdomain to mean either primary sources or Project Sourceberg, this resulted in Project Sourceberg occupying the subdomain of the Pashto Wikipedia. A vote on the name changed it to Wikisource on December 6,2003. Despite the change in name, the project did not move to its permanent URL until July 23,2004, since Wikisource was initially called Project Sourceberg, its first logo was a picture of an iceberg
Heinrich von Kleist
Bernd Heinrich Wilhelm von Kleist was a German poet, novelist, short story writer and journalist. The Kleist Prize, a prize for German literature, is named after him. Kleist was born into the von Kleist family in Frankfurt an der Oder in the Margraviate of Brandenburg. After a scanty education, he entered the Prussian Army in 1792, served in the Rhine campaign of 1796 and he studied law and philosophy at the Viadrina University and in 1800 received a subordinate post in the Ministry of Finance at Berlin. In the following year, Kleists roving, restless spirit got the better of him, and procuring a lengthened leave of absence he visited Paris and settled in Switzerland. There he found friends in Heinrich Zschokke and Ludwig Wieland, son of the poet Christoph Martin Wieland, and to them he read his first drama. On a journey to Dresden in 1807, Kleist was arrested by the French as a spy, on regaining his liberty, he proceeded to Dresden, where, in conjunction with Adam Heinrich Müller, he published the journal Phöbus in 1808.
In 1809 Kleist went to Prague, and ultimately settled in Berlin, according to the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, Kleists whole life was filled by a restless striving after ideal and illusory happiness, and this is largely reflected in his work. He was by far the most important North German dramatist of the Romantic movement, in the spring of 1799, the 21-year-old Kleist wrote a letter to his half-sister Ulrike in which he found it incomprehensible how a human being can live without a plan for his life. In effect, Kleist sought and discovered an overwhelming sense of security by looking to the future with a plan for his life. It brought him happiness and assured him of confidence, especially knowing that life without a plan only saw despair, the irony of his suicide has been the fodder of his critics. His first tragedy was The Schroffenstein Family, the material for the second, queen of the Amazons, is taken from a Greek source and presents a picture of wild passion. More successful than either of these was his play, Käthchen of Heilbronn, a poetic drama full of medieval bustle and mystery.
In comedy, Kleist made a name with The Broken Jug, while Amphitryon, of Kleists other dramas, Die Hermannsschlacht is a dramatic work of anti-Napoleonic propaganda, written as Austria and France went to war. It has been described by Carl Schmitt as the greatest partisan work of all time, in it he gives vent to his hatred of his countrys oppressors. This, together with the drama The Prince of Homburg, which is among his best works, was first published by Ludwig Tieck in Kleists Hinterlassene Schriften, robert Guiskard, a drama conceived on a grand plan, was left a fragment. The Earthquake in Chile and St. Cecilia, or the Power of Music are examples of Kleists story telling as is The Marquise of O. His short narratives influenced those of Kafka and the novellas of the Austrian writer and he wrote patriotic lyrics in the context of the Napoleonic Wars
Christian Friedrich Tieck
Christian Friedrich Tieck, often known only as Friedrich Tieck, was a German sculptor and a brother of Ludwig and Sophie Tieck. Tieck was born in Berlin, the brother of the writers Ludwig. He was taught by Johann Gottfried Schadow in Berlin and David dAngers in Paris, in 1801-05 he was employed at Weimar, where he associated with Goethe, and designed his bust, which he afterwards executed in marble for the Walhalla temple. In 1805 he went to Italy, returning to Germany in 1809, for this patron he executed at Munich and Carrara a large number of busts, including those of the Prince himself, of Schelling, of Alexander von Humboldt, and of his brother Ludwig. Based on a concept by Schinkel, Tieck created the tomb of General Gerhard von Scharnhorst at Berlins Invalidenfriedhof in 1822 and he created a bust of Wilhelm Heinrich Wackenroder and a lion made of bronze after a model by Christian Daniel Rauch. Tiecks monument to Nicolaus Copernicus was erected posthumously in Thorn, Tieck was one of the principal representatives of the school founded by Rauch.
His technique, was less naturalistic than that of Rauch and he died in Berlin in 1851. Wilhelm Bernhardi, Christian Friedrich, Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie,38, Duncker & Humblot, pp. 247–251 Gilman, thurston, H. T. Colby, F. M. eds. Media related to Christian Friedrich Tieck at Wikimedia Commons Christian Friedrich Tieck in the German National Library catalogue
Jena is a German university city and the second largest city in Thuringia. Jena is a centre of education and research, the Friedrich Schiller University was founded in 1558 and has 21,000 students today, there are many institutes of the leading German research societies. Jena was first mentioned in 1182 and stayed a small town until the 19th century, for most of the 20th century, Jena was a world centre of the optical industry around companies like Carl Zeiss and Jenoptik. As one of only a few medium-sized cities in Germany, it has some buildings in the city centre. These have their origin in the former Carl Zeiss factory, between 1790 and 1850, Jena was a focal point of the German Vormärz as well as of the student liberal and unification movement and German Romanticism. Notable persons of this period in Jena were Friedrich Schiller, Johann Gottlieb Fichte, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, the citys economy is based on the high-technology industry and research. The optical and precision industry is the branch to date, while software engineering, other digital businesses.
Furthermore, Jena is a hub for the surrounding regions. Jena lies in a landscape in the east of Thuringia. Until the High Middle Ages, the Saale was the border between Germanic regions in the west and Slavic regions in the east, owing to its function as a river crossing, Jena was conveniently located. The first unequivocal mention of Jena was in an 1182 document, the first local rulers of the region were the Lords of Lobdeburg with their eponymous castle near Lobeda, roughly 6 km south of the city centre on the eastern hillside of the Saale valley. Around 1230, Jena received town rights and a city grid was established between todays Fürstengraben, Löbdergraben and Leutragraben. The city got a marketplace, main church, town hall and city walls during the late 13th, in this time, the citys economy was based mainly on wine production on the warm and sunny hillsides of the Saale valley. The two monasteries of the Dominicans and the Cistercians rounded out Jenas medieval appearance, as the political circumstances in Thuringia changed in the middle of the 14th century, the weakened Lords of Lobdeburg sold Jena to the aspiring Wettins in 1331.
Jena obtained the Gotha municipal law and the citizens strengthened their rights, the Wettins were more interested in their residence in the nearby city of Weimar, and so Jena could develop itself relatively autonomously. The Protestant Reformation was brought to the city in 1523, Martin Luther visited the town to reorganize the clerical relations and Jena became an early centre of his doctrine. In the following years, the Dominican and the Carmelite convents were attacked by the townsmen, an important step in Jenas history was the foundation of the university in 1558. Ernestine Elector John Frederick the Magnanimous founded it, because he had lost his old university in Wittenberg to the Albertines after the Schmalkaldic War
Berlin is the capital and the largest city of Germany as well as one of its constituent 16 states. With a population of approximately 3.5 million, Berlin is the second most populous city proper, due to its location in the European Plain, Berlin is influenced by a temperate seasonal climate. Around one-third of the area is composed of forests, gardens, rivers. Berlin in the 1920s was the third largest municipality in the world, following German reunification in 1990, Berlin once again became the capital of all-Germany. Berlin is a city of culture, media. Its economy is based on high-tech firms and the sector, encompassing a diverse range of creative industries, research facilities, media corporations. Berlin serves as a hub for air and rail traffic and has a highly complex public transportation network. The metropolis is a popular tourist destination, significant industries include IT, biomedical engineering, clean tech, biotechnology and electronics. Modern Berlin is home to world renowned universities, orchestras and its urban setting has made it a sought-after location for international film productions.
The city is known for its festivals, diverse architecture, contemporary arts. Since 2000 Berlin has seen the emergence of a cosmopolitan entrepreneurial scene, the name Berlin has its roots in the language of West Slavic inhabitants of the area of todays Berlin, and may be related to the Old Polabian stem berl-/birl-. All German place names ending on -ow, -itz and -in, since the Ber- at the beginning sounds like the German word Bär, a bear appears in the coat of arms of the city. It is therefore a canting arm, the first written records of towns in the area of present-day Berlin date from the late 12th century. Spandau is first mentioned in 1197 and Köpenick in 1209, although these areas did not join Berlin until 1920, the central part of Berlin can be traced back to two towns. Cölln on the Fischerinsel is first mentioned in a 1237 document,1237 is considered the founding date of the city. The two towns over time formed close economic and social ties, and profited from the right on the two important trade routes Via Imperii and from Bruges to Novgorod.
In 1307, they formed an alliance with a common external policy, in 1415 Frederick I became the elector of the Margraviate of Brandenburg, which he ruled until 1440. In 1443 Frederick II Irontooth started the construction of a new palace in the twin city Berlin-Cölln
Oxford University Press
Oxford University Press is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press. It is a department of the University of Oxford and is governed by a group of 15 academics appointed by the known as the delegates of the press. They are headed by the secretary to the delegates, who serves as OUPs chief executive, Oxford University has used a similar system to oversee OUP since the 17th century. The university became involved in the print trade around 1480, and grew into a printer of Bibles, prayer books. OUP took on the project became the Oxford English Dictionary in the late 19th century. Moves into international markets led to OUP opening its own offices outside the United Kingdom, by contracting out its printing and binding operations, the modern OUP publishes some 6,000 new titles around the world each year. OUP was first exempted from United States corporation tax in 1972, as a department of a charity, OUP is exempt from income tax and corporate tax in most countries, but may pay sales and other commercial taxes on its products.
The OUP today transfers 30% of its surplus to the rest of the university. OUP is the largest university press in the world by the number of publications, publishing more than 6,000 new books every year, the Oxford University Press Museum is located on Great Clarendon Street, Oxford. Visits must be booked in advance and are led by a member of the archive staff, displays include a 19th-century printing press, the OUP buildings, and the printing and history of the Oxford Almanack, Alice in Wonderland and the Oxford English Dictionary. The first printer associated with Oxford University was Theoderic Rood, the first book printed in Oxford, in 1478, an edition of Rufinuss Expositio in symbolum apostolorum, was printed by another, printer. Famously, this was mis-dated in Roman numerals as 1468, thus apparently pre-dating Caxton, roods printing included John Ankywylls Compendium totius grammaticae, which set new standards for teaching of Latin grammar. After Rood, printing connected with the university remained sporadic for over half a century, the chancellor, Robert Dudley, 1st Earl of Leicester, pleaded Oxfords case.
Some royal assent was obtained, since the printer Joseph Barnes began work, Oxfords chancellor, Archbishop William Laud, consolidated the legal status of the universitys printing in the 1630s. Laud envisaged a unified press of world repute, Oxford would establish it on university property, govern its operations, employ its staff, determine its printed work, and benefit from its proceeds. To that end, he petitioned Charles I for rights that would enable Oxford to compete with the Stationers Company and the Kings Printer and these were brought together in Oxfords Great Charter in 1636, which gave the university the right to print all manner of books. Laud obtained the privilege from the Crown of printing the King James or Authorized Version of Scripture at Oxford and this privilege created substantial returns in the next 250 years, although initially it was held in abeyance. The Stationers Company was deeply alarmed by the threat to its trade, under this, the Stationers paid an annual rent for the university not to exercise its full printing rights – money Oxford used to purchase new printing equipment for smaller purposes
German Romanticism was the dominant intellectual movement in the philosophy, the arts, and the culture of German-speaking countries in the late-18th and early 19th centuries. Late-stage German Romanticism emphasized the tension between the world and the irrational and supernatural projections of creative genius. In particular, the critic Heinrich Heine criticized the tendency of the early German romantics for looking to the medieval past for a model of unity in art, key figures of German romanticism include, Ludwig van Beethoven. In his earlier works, Beethoven was a Classicist in the traditions of Mozart and Haydn, because Beethoven wrote some of his greatest music after he became totally deaf, he embodies the Romantic ideal of the tragic artist who defies all odds to conquer his own fate. His works portray the triumph of the spirit, most notably his Choral Symphony No. 9, the stirring Ode to Joy from this symphony has been adopted as the anthem of the European Union and his works are cast in the formal moulds of Classicism, he had a profound reverence for Beethoven.
Liszt was by nationality a Hungarian, but nevertheless he spent many years in Germany, credited as the inventor of the tone poem. In his old age, Liszt adopted a more dissonant, ominous flavour, characteristic works being la Lugubre Gondola and Die Zelle in Nonnenwerth—predating Impressionism, a composer of the Early Romantic period, together with such figures as Schumann and Liszt. One of the responsible for reviving interest in the almost-forgotten music of Johann Sebastian Bach. His body of work consists mainly of song cycles and German Lieder set to poems by his contemporaries and his works recall the nostalgia of lost childhood innocence, first love, and the magnificence of the German countryside. As an influential critic, he played a role in discovering new talents, among them Chopin. The greatest composer of German opera, was an exponent of Leitmotif, one of the main figures in the so-called War of the Romantics. The emotional intensity and supernatural, folklore-based themes in his operas presented a break from the Neoclassical traditions of that time.
The Mystical Sources of German Romantic Philosophy, translated by Blair R. Reynolds, caspar David Friedrich, translated by Sarah Twohig. Introduction, A Revolution in Culture, in European Romanticism, A Brief History with Documents, “Making of a Romantic Icon, The Religious Context of Friedrich Overbeck’s ‘Italia und Germania. ’” American Philosophical Society,2007. “Orpheus Philologus, Bachofen versus Mommsen on the Study of Antiquity. ”Painting the Sacred in the Age of German Romanticism, baltic Light, Early Open-Air Painting in Denmark and North Germany. New Haven and London, Yale University Press,1999, caspar David Friedrich and the Age of German Romanticism. New Haven and London, Yale University Press,1980, ISBN 3-8228-2293-0 ONeill, J, ed. German masters of the nineteenth century and drawings from the Federal Republic of Germany
Sophie Tieck, known as Sophie Bernhardi or Sophie von Knorring, was a German Romantic writer and poet. Her role as a writer of the Romantic period was overshadowed by her brother Ludwig and she was only really appreciated as an important writer when her letters were published in the 1960s. A plot twist in her brothers story Eckbert the Blond is an invention by Sophie Tieck. Tieck was born in Berlin in 1775 to Ludwig and Ann Sophie Tieck and her father was a rope maker. She was the child of three and, unlike her two brothers, she was educated at home by her mother. Her elder brother was Ludwig Tieck, a notable writer and Ludwig worked closely together particularly in the period 1795–96, when they worked on stories for Friedrich Nicholais Ostrich Feathers. Ludwig submitted sixteen stories but eight of these were from the pen of Sophie and it has been said that their relationship was too close and may have been incestuous. They wrote and performed plays, translated Shakespeare and read the works of the Enlightenment, when the Shakespeare translations were published it was Ludwig who took the credit.
This was not an oversight, as when Ludwigs daughter Dorothea Tieck translated Shakespeares other works her father forgot to credit her too, in 1799 Sophie married a fellow writer and translator, August Ferdinand Bernhardi, who had taught her brother. Bernhardi published stories and he collaborated with Sophie and he continued Ludwigs habit and did not credit his wife. He published a work, the last volume of which is thought to have been written almost entirely by Sophie. The marriage was not happy and she had an affair with the poet, Sophie left with her two children. There was a fight over the custody of the children whilst the divorce in 1807 caused a stir. Sophie went travelling with her brother Ludwig to Rome where she met the Estonian Karl Gregor von Knorring, the three of them went on a grand tour of Munich and Vienna, before the Sophie and von Knorring set up house together in Munich. Tieck married von Knorring in 1810 and converted to Catholicism on account of him and they moved in 1812 to his estate in Erwita and von Knorring supported his wife well.
They lived in Heidelberg in 1820 and in Estonia until she died in 1833 in Tallinn and her novel was not published until 1836, three years after her death. Her son William published three volumes of his parents stories in 1847, in these it is clear which parent wrote which story and her letters were not available until the 1960s but she is now well regarded as a result. Her works are confused with those of her brother and her first husband, for example, a central figure in a plot twist in her brothers story Eckbert the Blond, has been recognised as an unattributed invention by Sophie Tieck
Danish Golden Age
The Danish Golden Age covers a period of exceptional creative production in Denmark, especially during the first half of the 19th century. Although Copenhagen had suffered fires and national bankruptcy. It saw the development of Danish architecture in the Neoclassical style, Copenhagen, in particular, acquired a new look, with buildings designed by Christian Frederik Hansen and by Michael Gottlieb Bindesbøll. In relation to music, the Golden Age covers figures inspired by Danish romantic nationalism including J. P. E. Hartmann, Hans Christian Lumbye, Niels W. Gade, literature centred on Romantic thinking, introduced in 1802 by the Norwegian-German philosopher Henrik Steffens. Key contributors were Adam Oehlenschläger, Bernhard Severin Ingemann, N. F. S. Grundtvig and, last but not least, Hans Christian Andersen, Søren Kierkegaard furthered philosophy while Hans Christian Ørsted achieved fundamental progress in science. The Golden Age thus had an effect not only on life in Denmark but, with time.
The origins of the Golden Age can be traced back to around the beginning of the 19th century, this was a very rough period for Denmark. Copenhagen, the centre of the intellectual life, first experienced huge fires in 1794 and 1795 which destroyed both Christiansborg Palace and large areas of the inner city. In 1801, as a result of the involvement in the League of Armed Neutrality. Then in 1813, as a result of the inability to support the costs of war. To make matters worse, Norway ceased to be part of the Danish realm when it was ceded to Sweden the following year, Copenhagens devastation nevertheless provided new opportunities. Architects and planners widened the streets, constructing beautifully designed Neoclassical buildings offering a brighter yet intimate look, at the time, with a population of only 100,000, the city was still quite small, built within the confines of the old ramparts. As a result, the figures of the day met frequently, sharing their ideas, bringing the arts. Henrik Steffens was perhaps the most effective proponent of the Romantic idea, in a series of lectures in Copenhagen, he successfully conveyed the ideas behind German romanticism to the Danes.
Influential thinkers, such as Oehlenschläger and Grundtvig were quick to take up his views and it was not long before Danes from all branches of the arts and sciences were involved in a new era of Romantic nationalism, known as the Danish Golden Age. Especially in the field of painting, change became apparent, grand historical art gave way to more widely appealing but less pretentious genre paintings and landscapes. The Golden Age is generally believed to have lasted until about 1850, around that time, Danish culture suffered from the outbreak of the First Schleswig War. In addition, political reforms involving the end of the monarchy in 1848