The Fifie is a design of sailing boat developed on the east coast of Scotland. It was a traditional fishing boat used by Scottish fishermen from the 1850s until well into the 20th century; these boats were used to fish for herring using drift nets, along with other designs of boat were known as herring drifters. While the boats varied in design, they can be categorised by their vertical stem and stern, their long straight keel and wide beam; these attributes made the Fifies stable in the water and allowed them to carry a large set of sails. The long keel, made them difficult to manoeuvre in small harbours. Sailing Fifies had two masts with the standard rig consisting of a main dipping lug sail and a mizzen standing lug sail; the masts were positioned far forward and aft on the boat to give the maximum clear working space amidships. A large fifie could reach just over 20 metres in length; because of their large sail area they were fast sailing boats. Fifies built after 1860 were all decked and from the 1870s onwards the bigger boats were built with carvel planking, i.e. the planks were laid edge to edge instead of the overlapping clinker style of previous boats.
The introduction of steam powered capstans in the 1890s, to help raising the lugs sails, allowed the size of these vessels to increase from 30 foot to over 70 foot in length. From about 1905 onwards sailing Fifies were fitted with engines and converted to motorised vessels. There are few surviving examples of this type of fishing boat still in existence; the Scottish Fisheries Museum based in Anstruther, Fife has restored and still sails a classic example of this type of vessel named the Reaper. The Swan Trust in Lerwick, Shetland have restored and maintain another Fifie, The Swan, as a sail training vessel, she now takes over 1000 trainees each year, has taken trainees to participate in the Cutty Sark Tall Ships Races to ports in France, the Netherlands, Ireland as well as around the UK. The Reaper - The Boats that Built Britain - Tom Cunliffe The history of herring fishing on the east coast of Scotland Scottish Fisheries Museum The Swan Trust
The lug sail, or lugsail, is a fore-and-aft, four-cornered sail, suspended from a spar, called a yard. When raised the sail area overlaps the mast. For "standing lug" rigs, the sail remains on the same side of the mast on both the port and starboard tacks. For "dipping lug" rigs, the sail is lowered to be brought around to the leeward side of the mast in order to optimize the efficiency of the sail on both tacks; the lug sail is evolved from the square sail to improve. Square sails, on the other hand, are symmetrically mounted in front of the mast and are manually angled to catch the wind on opposite tacks. Since it is difficult to orient square sails fore and aft or to tension their leading edges, they are not as efficient upwind, compared with lug sails; the lug rig differs from the gaff rig fore-and-aft, whose sail is instead attached at the luff to the mast and is suspended from a spar, attached to, raised at an angle from, the mast. The lug sail was one of the earliest fore-and-aft rigs. Campbell cites the lug sail as an intermediate step between the square sail and the lateen sail, developed for use on the Indian Ocean.
McGrail notes the presence of temple carvings of vessels with lug sails, dating from the eighth-ninth century in Borobudur, Indonesia. Block reports a sixth-century depiction of a vessel with lug sails in the Ajanta Caves of India. Salamon suggests that the lateen may have evolved back towards a balanced lug rig, as used in the Adriatic; the origin of its name is uncertain. According to Skeat, the name of the sail may derive from the ease with which it may be raised or "lugged" or it may derive from the vessel type, " lugger", on which the sail is used, which name may come from Dutch, logger meaning "slow ship", East Friesian, log meaning "slow". Lug sails are divided into three types: balanced lug and dipping lug. Standing lug: The sail and yard remain on one side of the mast and the tack of the sail is set close to the mast; when the wind blows onto the side of the mast where the sail is mounted, it deforms the sail over the mast. The standing lug differs from the balanced rig. On a standing lug the yard extends past the mast, but the foot of the sail, which may be loose-footed, does not.
Balanced lug: The sail has both a yard and a boom, which both extend past the mast and remain on the same side of the mast on either tack. A junk rig is similar to a balanced lug. Dipping lug: This is a loose-footed sail whose yard is designed to be lowered, "dipped", sufficiently to bring the sail around to the leeward side of the mast when tacking to allow the sail to achieve a shape, not influenced by the mast pressing into it; this reduces wear of the canvas. Because of the complexity of dipping, the yard is smaller than on the standing lug. Gunter lug: is a rig where the yard is much more aligned with the mast and the luff is laced to the mast, it can look quite similar to a Bermudan sail. It allows shorter spars rather than a long mast that can be difficult to store; some examples are the Heron dinghies. Common on European Lake boats like Jollenkreuzer and the restricted sail area Rennjollen Lug sail design varies with the angle that the yard crosses the mast. Whereas a standing lug may be tacked conventionally by moving the sail across the vessel, as the wind crosses the bow, a dipping lug must be brought around to the leeward side by a multi-step procedure: Hauling in the sheets to get the sail over the boat.
Lowering the halyard so that the peak of the sail can be reached, yet the yard is free of interfering with the rest of the boat. Gathering the after part of the sail and bringing it around forward of the mast. Bringing the peak down and passing it under the luff of the sail to the new leeward side. Bringing the halyard to windward aft of the mast. Shackling on the sheets and bringing the sail aft. Rehoisting the sail and sheeting in; this procedure is necessary for gybing a dipping lug. This action can be completed expeditiously on a larger boat with four hands. On smaller boats, the sail is lowered and the mast unstepped to allow the sail to be moved beneath it to the other side and the mast to be re-stepped and the sail raised. There are other ways to gybe a lugsail; some methods use a downhaul to the forward end of the spar so that a sharp downward tug on the line will pull dip the forward end around the aft side of the mast. The procedure, which may be feasible only on smaller sails, is to: lower the yard sufficiently to allow the dip swap the sail tack and tug the yard downhaul move the halyard to windward rehoist and sheet in.
The Beer Luggers, which have the tack of the sail set to a small bowsprit where untacking it is difficult, will have the lazy sheet forward of the luff of the sail and will use it haul the whole sail around its own luff, leaving the old working but now lazy sheet again forwards around the luff of the sail. On larger luggers, like the Fifie, large dipping lug sails were possible only with the introduction of steam-powered capstans to facilitate with dipping. Block reports that the rig was used in Europe from the seventeenth through the nineteenth centuries for small fishing vessels and other coasters because of their good performance to windward; this popularity extended to the French chasse-marée fishing boats. Lug rigs are used on certain small sailing craft, like the International Twelve Foot Dinghy, a dinghy, the SCAMP, a pocket cruiser. and the Oz Goose 12ft sailing dinghy. There are several lu
Traditional fishing boat
Traditionally, many different kinds of boats have been used as fishing boats to catch fish in the sea, or on a lake or river. Today, many traditional fishing boats are still in use. According to the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, at the end of 2004, the world fishing fleet consisted of about 4 million vessels, of which 2.7 million were undecked boats. While nearly all decked vessels were mechanised, only one-third of the undecked fishing boats were powered with outboard engines; the remaining 1.8 million boats were traditional craft of various types, operated by sail and oars. This article is about the boats used for fishing that are or were built from designs that existed before engines became available. Early fishing vessels included rafts, dugout canoes, reed boats, boats constructed from a frame covered with hide or tree bark, such as coracles; the oldest boats found by archaeological excavation are dugout canoes dating back to the Neolithic Period around 7,000-9,000 years ago.
These canoes were cut from coniferous tree logs, using simple stone tools. A 7000-year-old sea going boat made from reeds and tar has been found in Kuwait; these early vessels had limited capability. They were used for fishing and hunting; the development of fishing boats took place in parallel with the development of boats built for trade and war. Early navigators began to use animal skins or woven fabrics for sails. Affixed to a pole set upright in the boat, these sails gave early boats more range, allowing voyages of exploration According to the FAO, at the end of 2004, the world fishing fleet included 1.8 million traditional craft of various types which were operated by sail and oars. These figures for small fishing vessels are under reported; the FAO compiles these figures from national registers. These records omit smaller boats where registration is not required or where fishing licences are granted by provincial or municipal authorities. Indonesia has about 700,000 current fishing boats, 25 percent of which are dugout canoes, half of which are without motors.
The Philippines have reported a similar number of small fishing boats. Traditional fishing boats are characteristic of the stretch of coast along which they operate, they evolve over time to meet the local conditions, such as the materials available locally for boat building, the type of sea conditions the boats will encounter, the demands of the local fisheries. Artisan fishing is small-scale commercial or subsistence fishing practices involving coastal or island ethnic groups using traditional fishing techniques and traditional boats; this may include heritage groups involved in customary fishing practices. Artisan fishers use small traditional fishing boats that are open and have sails. Large numbers of artisan fishing boats are still in use in developing countries with long productive marine coastlines. A raft is a structure with a flat top, it is the most basic boat design, characterised by the absence of a hull. The classic raft is constructed by lashing several logs, placed side by side, to two or more additional logs placed transverse to the others.
In many Asian countries, the rafts are constructed using bamboo. In shallow waters, rafts can be punted with a push pole, they can be used as stealthy platforms for fishing shallow waters around lakes. In sheltered coastal waters, anchored or drifting rafts can become effective fish aggregating devices. Payaos were traditional bamboo rafts used in Southeast Asia as aggregating device. Fishermen on the top of the raft used handlines to catch tuna. Pontoon boats, to some degree the punt, can be viewed as modern derivatives of rafts. Boats and small floating islands have been made from reeds. Reed rafts can be distinguished from reed boats; the earliest known boat made with reeds is a 7000-year-old sea going boat found in Kuwait. The Uros are an indigenous people pre-dating the Incas, they live, still today, on man-made floating islands scattered across Lake Titicaca. These islands are constructed from totora reeds; each floating island supports between three and ten houses built of reeds. The Uros build their boats from bundled dried reeds.
These days some Uros boats, used for hunting seabirds, have motors. Reed boats were constructed in Easter Island with a markedly similar design to those used in Peru. Apart from Peru and Bolivia, reed boats are still used in Ethiopia and were used until in Corfu. Coracles are light boats shaped like a bowl with a frame of woven grass or reeds, or strong saplings covered with animal hides; the keel-less, flat bottom evenly spreads the weight across the structure reducing the required depth of water to only a few inches. Coracles have been used, to a degree are still used, in India, Iraq, North America and Britain. Coracles in Iraq are called "quffa." Their history goes back to antiquity where they appear on Assyrian-era reliefs sculpted between 600 and 900 BC. These reliefs are now in the British Museum. Herodotus visited Babylon in the 5th century BC, wrote a long description of the coracles he encountered there. Traditionally, quffa were covered with hides or reeds; the outside was coated with hot bitumen for waterproofing, although the inside could be coated for larger vessels.
These coracles have been in continuous use on the Tigris and Euphrates rivers around Baghdad, through the 1970s. Some of the Iraqi coracles are
The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa and on the east by the Levant. Although the sea is sometimes considered a part of the Atlantic Ocean, it is identified as a separate body of water. Geological evidence indicates that around 5.9 million years ago, the Mediterranean was cut off from the Atlantic and was or desiccated over a period of some 600,000 years, the Messinian salinity crisis, before being refilled by the Zanclean flood about 5.3 million years ago. It covers an approximate area of 2.5 million km2, representing 0.7 % of the global ocean surface, but its connection to the Atlantic via the Strait of Gibraltar-the narrow strait that connects the Atlantic Ocean to the Mediterranean Sea and separates Spain in Europe from Morocco in Africa- is only 14 km wide. In oceanography, it is sometimes called the Eurafrican Mediterranean Sea or the European Mediterranean Sea to distinguish it from mediterranean seas elsewhere.
The Mediterranean Sea has an average depth of 1,500 m and the deepest recorded point is 5,267 m in the Calypso Deep in the Ionian Sea. The sea is bordered on the north by Europe, the east by Asia, in the south by Africa, it is located between latitudes 30° and 46° N and longitudes 6° W and 36° E. Its west-east length, from the Strait of Gibraltar to the Gulf of Iskenderun, on the southwestern coast of Turkey, is 4,000 km; the sea's average north-south length, from Croatia's southern shore to Libya, is 800 km. The sea was an important route for merchants and travellers of ancient times that allowed for trade and cultural exchange between emergent peoples of the region; the history of the Mediterranean region is crucial to understanding the origins and development of many modern societies. The countries surrounding the Mediterranean in clockwise order are Spain, Monaco, Slovenia, Croatia and Herzegovina, Albania, Turkey, Lebanon, Egypt, Tunisia and Morocco. In addition, the Gaza Strip and the British Overseas Territories of Gibraltar and Akrotiri and Dhekelia have coastlines on the sea.
The Ancient Greeks called the Mediterranean ἡ θάλασσα or sometimes ἡ μεγάλη θάλασσα, ἡ ἡμέτερα θάλασσα, or ἡ θάλασσα ἡ καθ'ἡμᾶς. The Romans called it Mare Mare Internum and, starting with the Roman Empire, Mare Nostrum; the term Mare Mediterrāneum appears later: Solinus used it in the 3rd century, but the earliest extant witness to it is in the 6th century, in Isidore of Seville. It means'in the middle of land, inland' in Latin, a compound of medius, -āneus; the Latin word is a calque of Greek μεσόγειος, from μέσος and γήινος, from γῆ. The original meaning may have been'the sea in the middle of the earth', rather than'the sea enclosed by land'; the Carthaginians called it the "Syrian Sea". In ancient Syrian texts, Phoenician epics and in the Hebrew Bible, it was known as the "Great Sea" or as "The Sea". Another name was the "Sea of the Philistines", from the people inhabiting a large portion of its shores near the Israelites. In Modern Hebrew, it is called HaYam HaTikhon'the Middle Sea'. In Modern Arabic, it is known as al-Baḥr al-Mutawassiṭ'the Middle Sea'.
In Islamic and older Arabic literature, it was Baḥr al-Rūm'the Sea of the Romans' or'the Roman Sea'. At first, that name referred to only the Eastern Mediterranean, but it was extended to the whole Mediterranean. Other Arabic names were Baḥr al-šām'the Sea of Syria' and Baḥr al-Maghrib'the Sea of the West'. In Turkish, it is the Akdeniz'the White Sea'; the origin of the name is not clear, as it is not known in earlier Greek, Byzantine or Islamic sources. It may be to contrast with the Black Sea. In Persian, the name was translated as Baḥr-i Safīd, used in Ottoman Turkish, it is the origin of the colloquial Greek phrase Άσπρη Θάλασσα. Johann Knobloch claims that in Classical Antiquity, cultures in the Levant used colours to refer to the cardinal points: black referred to the north, yellow or blue to east, red to south, white to west; this would explain both the Turkish Akdeniz and the Arab nomenclature described above. Several ancient civilizations were located around the Mediterranean shores and were influenced by their proximity to the sea.
It provided routes for trade and war, as well as food for numerous communities throughout the ages. Due to the shared climate and access to the sea, c
A lateen or latin-rig is a triangular sail set on a long yard mounted at an angle on the mast, running in a fore-and-aft direction. Dating back to Roman navigation, the lateen became the favorite sail of the Age of Discovery because it allows a boat to tack "against the wind." It is common in the Mediterranean, the upper Nile River, the northwestern parts of the Indian Ocean, where it is the standard rig for feluccas and dhows. The lateen is used today in a different form on small recreational boats like the Sailfish and Sunfish, but is still used as a working rig by coastal fishermen in the Mediterranean; the lateen evolved out of the dominant square rig by setting the sails more fore-and-aft – along the line of the keel – rather than athwartship, while tailoring the luff and leech. One theory is that the lateen sail originated during the early Roman empire in the Mediterranean Sea; the theory of Roman origin for lateen was first proposed by Lynn White and was elaborated upon by Lionel Casson.
Some scholars have proposed alternative explanations for the origins of the lateen. The political scientist John M. Hobson argues that some early passages interpreted by White as references to the lateen were only alluding to triangular topsails, expresses skepticism over early Byzantine depictions of lateen sails, he states that the long-distance seafaring of the Persians in the third and fourth centuries would have been impossible with square sails, so the lateen sail originated in Persia or Arabia and was introduced to the western Mediterranean region. However, such long distance sailing across the Indian Ocean was well established in the 1st century on the Hellenistic ships of Greco-Egyptian and Roman traders, as detailed in the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea. Historian George Hourani as well as specialists in the study of Austronesian cultures have instead suggested a Southeast Asian origin; the triangular shape of the lateen sail is characteristic of the far more ancient crab claw sails of the Austronesian sailors in the Indo-Pacific.
Some believe that early contact of Arab trade ships in the Indian Ocean with Austronesian sailors resulted in the development of the Arabic lateen sail. Arab ships are believed to have influenced the development of the Austronesian rectangular tanja sail, prevalent in western Southeast Asia. Austronesian sails, differ from western Eurasian sails in that they have spars along both the upper and lower edges. According to Lionel Casson, both types of lateen were known from an early date on: a 2nd-century AD gravestone depicts a quadrilateral lateen sail, while a 4th-century mosaic shows a triangular one, to become the standard rig throughout the Middle Ages. Casson argues that the earliest fore-and-aft rig was the spritsail, appearing in the 2nd century BC in the Aegean Sea on small Greek craft. According to the Belgian maritime historian Basch, the earliest lateen rig appears as early as the 1st century BC, in a wall painting found in a Hypogeum in Alexandria, Hellenistic Egypt. However, such an interpretation has been disputed.
The earliest archaeologically excavated lateen-rigged ship, the Yassi Ada II, dates to ca. 400 AD, with a further four being attested prior to the Arab advance to the Mediterranean. The Kelenderis ship mosaic and the Kellia ship graffito from the early 7th century complement the picture. By the 6th century, the lateen sail had replaced the square sail throughout the Mediterranean, the latter disappearing from Mediterranean iconography until the mid-13th century, it became the standard rig of the Byzantine dromon war galley and was also employed by Belisarius' flagship in the 532 AD invasion of the Vandal kingdom. After the Muslim conquests in Syria and North Africa, they adopted the lateen sail by way of the Coptic populace, which shared the existing Mediterranean maritime tradition and continued to provide the bulk of galley crews for centuries to come; this is indicated by the terminology of the lateen among Mediterranean Arabs, derived from Greco-Roman nomenclature. One theory suggests that the lateen sail was brought to the Indian Ocean by the Alexandrian merchants from Hellenistic Egypt and Roman Egypt who sailed the Red Sea in Roman and Byzantine and Arab times.
The emergence of evidence for the development and spread of the lateen sail in the ancient Mediterranean in recent decades has led to a reevaluation of the role of Roman and Arab seafaring in the Indian Ocean in that process, with some arguing that neither the attribution of the lateen to the Arabs nor its origin in the Indian Ocean can any longer be upheld: The origin of the lateen sail has been attributed by scholars to the Indian Ocean and its introduction into the Mediterranean traditionally ascribed to the Arab expansion of the early-7th century. This was due to the earliest iconographic depictions of lateen rigged ships from the Mediterranean post-dating the Islamic expansion into the Mediterranean basin... It was assumed that the Arab people who invaded the Mediterranean basin in the 7th century carried with them the sailing rig familiar to them; such theories have been superseded by unequivocal depictions of lateen-rigged Mediterranean sailing vessels which pre-date the Arab invasion.
Further inquiries into the appearance of the lateen rig in the Indian Ocean and its gulfs suggested a reversal of earlier scholarly opinion on the direction of diffusion, with Lynn White in 1978 arguing an introduction by Portuguese sailors in th
Sailing employs the wind—acting on sails, wingsails or kites—to propel a craft on the surface of the water, on ice or on land over a chosen course, part of a larger plan of navigation. A course defined with respect to the true wind direction is called a point of sail. Conventional sailing craft cannot derive power from sails on a point of sail, too close into the wind. On a given point of sail, the sailor adjusts the alignment of each sail with respect to the apparent wind direction to mobilize the power of the wind; the forces transmitted via the sails are resisted by forces from the hull and rudder of a sailing craft, by forces from skate runners of an iceboat, or by forces from wheels of a land sailing craft to allow steering the course. In the 21st century, most sailing represents a form of sport. Recreational sailing or yachting can be divided into cruising. Cruising can include extended offshore and ocean-crossing trips, coastal sailing within sight of land, daysailing; until the mid of the 19th century, sailing ships were the primary means for marine commerce, this period is known as Age of Sail.
Throughout history sailing has been instrumental in the development of civilization, affording humanity greater mobility than travel over land, whether for trade, transport or warfare, the capacity for fishing. The earliest representation of a ship under sail appears on a painted disc found in Kuwait dating between 5500 and 5000 BCE. Polynesian oceanfarers traveled vast distances of open ocean in outrigger canoes using navigation methods such as stick charts. Advances in sailing technology from the Middle Ages onward enabled Arab, Chinese and European explorers to make longer voyages into regions with extreme weather and climatic conditions. There were improvements in sails and rigging. From the 15th century onwards, European ships went further north, stayed longer on the Grand Banks and in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, began to explore the Pacific Northwest and the Western Arctic. Sailing has contributed to many great explorations in the world. According to Jett, the Egyptians used a bipod mast to support a sail that allowed a reed craft to travel upriver with a following wind, as late as 3,500 BCE.
Such sails evolved into the square-sail rig. Such rigs could not sail much closer than 80° to the wind. Fore-and-aft rigs appear to have evolved in Southeast Asia—dates are uncertain—allowing for rigs that could sail as close as 60–75° off the wind; the physics of sailing arises from a balance of forces between the wind powering the sailing craft as it passes over its sails and the resistance by the sailing craft against being blown off course, provided in the water by the keel, underwater foils and other elements of the underbody of a sailboat, on ice by the runners of an ice boat, or on land by the wheels of a sail-powered land vehicle. Forces on sails depend on the speed and direction of the craft; the speed of the craft at a given point of sail contributes to the "apparent wind"—the wind speed and direction as measured on the moving craft. The apparent wind on the sail creates a total aerodynamic force, which may be resolved into drag—the force component in the direction of the apparent wind—and lift—the force component normal to the apparent wind.
Depending on the alignment of the sail with the apparent wind, lift or drag may be the predominant propulsive component. Depending on the angle of attack of a set of sails with respect to the apparent wind, each sail is providing motive force to the sailing craft either from lift-dominant attached flow or drag-dominant separated flow. Additionally, sails may interact with one another to create forces that are different from the sum of the individual contributions each sail, when used alone; the term "velocity" refers both to direction. As applied to wind, apparent wind velocity is the air velocity acting upon the leading edge of the most forward sail or as experienced by instrumentation or crew on a moving sailing craft. In nautical terminology, wind speeds are expressed in knots and wind angles in degrees. All sailing craft reach a constant forward velocity for a given true wind velocity and point of sail; the craft's point of sail affects its velocity for a given true wind velocity. Conventional sailing craft cannot derive power from the wind in a "no-go" zone, 40° to 50° away from the true wind, depending on the craft.
The directly downwind speed of all conventional sailing craft is limited to the true wind speed. As a sailboat sails further from the wind, the apparent wind becomes smaller and the lateral component becomes less. In order to act like an airfoil, the sail on a sailboat is sheeted further out as the course is further off the wind; as an iceboat sails further from the wind, the apparent wind increases and the boat speed is highest on the broad reach. In order to act like an airfoil, the sail on an iceboat is sheeted in for all three points of sail. Lift on a sail, acting as an airfoil, occurs in a direction perpendicular to the incident airstream and is a result of pressure differences between the windward and leeward surfaces and depends on angle of attack, sail shape, air density, speed of the apparent wind; the lift force results from the average pressure on the windward surface of the sail being higher than the ave
A full-rigged ship or rigged ship is a sailing vessel's sail plan with three or more masts, all of them square-rigged. A full-rigged ship is said to be ship-rigged. Sometimes such a vessel will be called a ship in 18th- to early-19th-century and earlier usage, to distinguish it from other large three-masted blue-water working vessels such as barques, fluyts etc; this full or ship-rig sail plan thus is a term of art that differentiates such vessels as well from other working or cargo vessels with diverse alternative sail-plans such as galleons, sloops, schooners and carracks. The ship-rig sail plan differs drastically from the large panoply of one and two masted vessels found as working and recreational sailboats. Alternatively, a full-rigged ship may be referred to by its function instead, as in collier or frigate, rather than being called a ship. In many languages the word frigate or frigate rig refers to a full-rigged ship; the masts of a full-rigged ship, from bow to stern, are: Foremast, the second tallest mast Mainmast, the tallest Mizzenmast, the third tallest Jiggermast, which may not be present but will be fourth tallest if soThere is no standard name for a fifth mast on a ship-rigged vessel.
Only one five-masted full-rigged ship had been built until recent years, when a few modern five-masted cruise sailing ships have been launched. A fourth mast is rare for full-rigged ships. Ships with five and more masts are not fully rigged and their masts may be numbered rather than named in extreme cases. If the masts are of wood, each mast is in three or more pieces, they are: The lowest piece is called the mast or the lower. Topmast Topgallant mast Royal mast, if fittedOn steel-masted vessels, the corresponding sections of the mast are named after the traditional wooden sections; the lowest and largest sail on a mast is the course sail of that mast, is referred to by the mast name: Foresail, mizzen sail, jigger sail or more forecourse etc. Note that a full-rigged ship did not have a lateral course on the mizzen mast below the mizzen topmast. Instead, the lowest sail on the mizzen was a fore/aft sail—originally a lateen sail, but a gaff sail called a spanker or driver; the key distinction between a "ship" and "barque" is that a "ship" carries a square-rigged mizzen topsail whereas the mizzen mast of a barque has only fore-and-aft rigged sails.
The cross-jack yard was the lowest yard on a ship's mizzen mast. Unlike the corresponding yards on the fore and main mast it did not have fittings to hang a sail from: its purpose was to control the lower edge of the topsail. In the rare case that the cross-jack yard did carry a square sail, this sail would be called the cross-jack rather than the mizzen course. Above the course sail, in order, are: Topsail, or Lower topsail, if fitted. Upper topsail, if fitted. Topgallant sail, or Lower topgallant sail, if fitted. Upper topgallant sail, if fitted. Royal sail, if fitted. Skysail, if fitted. Moonraker, if fitted; the division of a sail into upper and lower sails was a matter of practicality, since undivided sails were larger and more difficult to handle. Larger sails necessitated hiring, paying, a larger crew. Additionally, the great size of some late-19th and 20th century vessels meant that their correspondingly large sails would have been impossible to handle had they not been divided. Jibs are carried forward of the foremast, are tacked down on the bowsprit or jib-boom and have varying naming conventions.
Staysails may be carried between any other mast and the one in front of it or from the foremast to the bowsprit. They are named after the mast from which they are hoisted, so for example a staysail hoisted to the top of the mizzen topgallant on a stay running to the top of the main topmast would be called the mizzen topgallant staysail. In light winds studding sails may be carried on either side of any or all of the square rigged sails except royals and skysails, they are named after the adjacent sail and the side of the vessel on which they are set, for example main topgallant starboard stu'nsail. One or more spritsails may be set on booms set athwart and below the bowsprit. One or two spankers are carried aft of the aftmost mast, if two they are called the upper spanker and lower spanker. A fore-and-aft topsail may be carried above the upper or only spanker, is called the gaff sail. To stop a full-rigged ship except when running directly down wind, the sails of the foremast are oriented in the direction perpendicular to those of the mainmast.
Thus, the masts cancel out of their push on the ship. This allows the crew to stop and restart the ship without retracting and lowering the sails, to dynamically compensate for the push of the wind on the masts themselves and the yards. Running downwind. Glossary of nautical terms Rigging Sail Sail-plan Types of sailing ships Yard Willaumez, Jean-Baptiste-Philibert. Dictionnaire de marine. Bachelier. Rousmaniere, John; the Illustrated Dictionary of Boating Terms: 2000 Essential Terms for Sailors and Powerboaters. W. W. Norton & Company. P. 174. ISBN 0393339181. ISBN 978-0393339185 The Development of the Full-Rigged Ship From the Carrack to the Full-Rigger Example of full-rigged ship: Stad Amsterdam Christian Radich