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Luigi Russolo

Luigi Carlo Filippo Russolo was an Italian Futurist painter, builder of experimental musical instruments, the author of the manifesto The Art of Noises. He is regarded as one of the first noise music experimental composers with his performances of noise music concerts in 1913–14 and again after World War I, notably in Paris in 1921, he constructed a number of noise-generating devices called Intonarumori. Luigi Russolo was the first noise artist, his 1913 manifesto, L'Arte dei Rumori, stated that the industrial revolution had given modern men a greater capacity to appreciate more complex sounds. Russolo found traditional melodic music confining, he envisioned noise music as its future replacement. Russolo designed and constructed a number of noise-generating devices called Intonarumori, assembled a noise orchestra to perform with them. A performance of his Gran Concerto Futuristico was met with strong disapproval and violence from the audience, as Russolo himself had predicted. None of his intoning devices have survived, though some have been reconstructed and used in performances.

Although Russolo's works bear little resemblance to modern noise music, his pioneering creations cannot be overlooked as an essential stage in the evolution of the several genres in this category. Many artists are now familiar with Russolo's manifesto. Antonio Russolo, another Italian Futurist composer and Luigi's brother, produced a recording of two works featuring the original Intonarumori; the phonograph recording, made in 1921, included works entitled Corale and Serenata, which combined conventional orchestral music set against the sound of the noise machines. It is the only surviving contemporaneous sound recording of Luigi Russolo's noise music. Russolo and Filippo Tommaso Marinetti gave the first concert of Futurist music, complete with intonarumori, in April 1914, causing a riot; the program comprised four "networks of noises". Some of Russolo's instruments were destroyed in World War II. Replicas of the instruments have since been built. Ugo Piatti Musica Futurista Experimental music Custom-made instruments Noise music List of noise musicians Futurism Theosophical colour mysticism Chilvers, Ian, & John Glaves-Smith.

A Dictionary of Modern and Contemporary Art. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press. Chessa, Luciano: Luigi Russolo, Futurist: Noise, Visual Arts, the Occult. University of California Press, 2012. Russolo, Luigi Carlo Filippo. Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani. Media Art Net | Russolo, Luigi: Intonarumori Archive Russolo recordings at LTM Peggy Guggenheim Collection: Luigi Russolo Bob Osborn's Futurism: Luigi Russolo Prof. Russolo & His Noise IntonersAudioMP3 audio files of music of Luigi Russolo on UbuWeb Three audio clips by Luigi Russolo: Serenata and Risveglio di una cittàVideoMusic for 16 Futurist Noise Intoners on YouTube

Bannatyne manuscript (Clan MacLeod)

The Bannatyne manuscript is a traditional account of Clan MacLeod. It consists of 142 sheets of foolscap paper; the author's name does not appear in it. Although the work is undated, a watermark dates the paper upon which it is written to 1829; the textual material from which the manuscript is based is regarded to have been the work of William Macleod Bannatyne, Lord Bannatyne. Lord Bannatyne was the son of Roderick Macleod, Isabel, daughter of Hector Bannatyne of Kames, it was through his mother that William Macleod Bannatyne inherited the estate of Kames and assumed the name "Bannatyne". William Macleod Bannatyne is known to have compiled an earlier account of the clan in 1767. Another candidate for the authorship of the Bannatyne manuscript is Bannatyne William Macleod, a cousin of William Macleod Bannatyne; the manuscript, seems to date from 1829 to the year of Bannatyne William Macleod's death in 1857

Quarr Abbey

Quarr Abbey is a monastery between the villages of Binstead and Fishbourne on the Isle of Wight in southern England. The name is pronounced as "Kwor", it belongs to the Catholic Order of St Benedict. The Grade I listed monastic buildings and church, completed in 1912, are considered some of the most important twentieth-century religious structures in the United Kingdom, they were constructed from Belgian brick in a style combining French and Moorish architectural elements. In the vicinity are a few remains of the original twelfth-century abbey. A community of fewer than a dozen monks maintains the monastery's regular life and the attached farm; as of 2013, the community provides two-month internships for young men. St. Mary's Abbey at Quarr was part of the Cistercian Order and was founded in 1132 by Baldwin de Redvers, 1st Earl of Devon, fourth Lord of the Isle of Wight; the founder was buried in the Abbey in 1155, his remains, along with those of a royal princess, Cecily of York, second daughter of King Edward IV of England and godmother of Henry VIII, still lie on the site of the mediaeval monastery, as do other important personages.

Arreton Manor was part of the abbey from the 12th century until 1525. The name Quarr comes from ` quarry'; the original title of the monastery was the Abbey of St John. Stone from the quarry was used in the Middle Ages for both ecclesiastical and military buildings, for example for parts of the Tower of London; this site became a productive property. Because of this, it was the tradition for the abbot to be appointed lord of the island; the prevalence of piracy in the area led to the granting in 1340 of special permission to fortify the area against attack. A stone wall, sea gate and portcullis were constructed; the ruins of these defences are still visible. After the Dissolution of the Monasteries in 1536, the land was acquired by a Southampton merchant, George Mills who demolished most of the abbey, its stone was used for fortifications at the nearby towns of Yarmouth. One of the three abbey bells is preserved in the belfry of the nearby Anglican parish church built by the monks of Quarr Abbey for their lay dependants.

Salvaged stone was used to build Quarr Abbey House. A nineteenth-century French law banned religious orders except by special dispensation, though its application varied with changes of government; as a precaution, Abbot Paul Delatte of the Benedictine Solesmes Abbey had sent a monk to England to look for a house to shelter the community. A crisis came in 1880, when congregations were ordered to apply for authorisation within three months. Although this was at first brutally enforced against men's communities, protests resulted in gradual abandonment of the measures. Congregations were reconstituted. On 1 July 1901, tolerance towards religious communities came to an end with the passing of a new law; the founder of Solesmes, Prosper Guéranger, had thought of England as a possible place of refuge should the community have to go into exile. Moreover, since 1896, at the invitation of the former Empress Eugénie, the Solesmes Benedictines had taken over as a priory the former Premonstratensian house of Farnborough Abbey, which sheltered the tomb of Napoleon III.

At the end of July, attention was drawn to a suitable'large house on the Isle of Wight which seems to meet the requirements of the monks', Appuldurcombe House near Wroxall on the Isle of Wight. The house was viewed and accepted, a lease contract was signed on 19 August 1901. A former monastic site, the construction of the house had been begun in 1701 by Sir Robert Worsley on the site of a Tudor manor house and completed much by Sir Richard Worsley who, from 1787 established there what was to become a well-known art collection. On the death of Sir Richard in 1805, the estate passed to his niece, married to the Second Baron and first Earl of Yarborough; the family connection with the house ended in 1855, when the estate was sold off by her son, the Second Earl of Yarborough. The monks wasted no time in beginning their transfer from Solesmes to the Isle of Wight and, on Saturday 21 September 1901 the entire community of Solesmes reached Appuldurcombe; the first monks arrived at Quarr Abbey House from Appuldurcombe on 25 June 1907 to prepare the grounds and the beginnings of a kitchen garden.

They put up fencing around the property, established a chicken farm and planted an orchard. One of the monks, Dom Paul Bellot, aged 31, was an architect, he designed and draughted plans for the new abbey and extending Quarr Abbey House, some distance from the ruins of the medieval monastery. 300 workers from the Isle of Wight, accustomed to building only dwelling-houses, raised a building whose design and workmanship is admired by all who visit the Abbey. The building of the refectory and three sides of the cloister began in 1907 and was completed inside one year; the rest of the monks came from Appuldurcombe and, in April 1911, work began on the Abbey church, completed and consecrated on 12 October 1912. It was built with tall pointed towers of glowing Flemish brick, adding a touch of Byzantium to the skyline; the monastic buildings are considered some of the most important twentieth-century religious structures in the United Kingdom. In 1922, after World War I, the community of Solesmes returned to France.

A small community of monks was left at Quarr which, from being a priory of Solesmes, became in 1937 an independent abbey, with Engl