Luis Buñuel Portolés was a Spanish filmmaker, naturalised Mexican in 1949, who worked in France and Spain. When Buñuel died at age 83, his obituary in The New York Times called him "an iconoclast and revolutionary, a leader of avant-garde surrealism in his youth and a dominant international movie director half a century later", his first picture, Un Chien Andalou—made in the silent era—was called "the most famous short film made" by critic Roger Ebert, his last film, That Obscure Object of Desire—made 48 years later—won him Best Director awards from the National Board of Review and the National Society of Film Critics. Writer Octavio Paz called Buñuel's work "the marriage of the film image to the poetic image, creating a new reality...scandalous and subversive". Associated with the surrealist movement of the 1920s, Buñuel created films from the 1920s through the 1970s, his work spans two continents, three languages, an array of genres, including experimental film, melodrama, musical, comedy, costume dramas, crime film and western.
Despite this variety, filmmaker John Huston believed that, regardless of genre, a Buñuel film is so distinctive as to be recognizable, or, as Ingmar Bergman put it, "Buñuel nearly always made Buñuel films". Seven of Buñuel's films are included in Sight & Sound's 2012 critics' poll of the top 250 films of all time. Fifteen of his films are included in the They Shoot Pictures, Don't They? List of the 1,000 greatest films of all time, for which he ranks second only to Jean-Luc Godard, with sixteen, he ranks number 13 on their list of the top 250 directors. Buñuel was born in Calanda, a small town in the province of Teruel, in the Aragon region of Spain, to Leonardo Buñuel, the cultivated scion of an established Aragonese family, María Portolés, many years younger than her husband, with wealth and family connections of her own, he would describe his birthplace by saying that in Calanda, "the Middle Ages lasted until World War I". The oldest of seven children, Luis had two brothers and Leonardo, four sisters: Alicia, Concepción, Margarita and María.
When Buñuel was four and a half months old, the family moved to Zaragoza, where they were one of the wealthiest families in town. In Zaragoza, Buñuel received a strict Jesuit education at the private Colegio del Salvador. After being kicked and insulted by the study hall proctor before a final exam, Buñuel refused to return to the school, he told his mother he had been expelled, not true. Buñuel finished the last two years of his high school education at the local public school; as a child, Buñuel was something of a cinematic showman. He excelled at boxing and playing the violin. In his youth, Buñuel was religious, serving at Mass and taking Communion every day, until, at the age of 16, he grew disgusted with what he perceived as the illogicality of the Church, along with its power and wealth. In 1917, he attended the University of Madrid, first studying agronomy industrial engineering and switching to philosophy, he developed a close relationship with painter Salvador Dalí and poet Federico García Lorca, among other important Spanish creative artists living in the Residencia de Estudiantes, with the three friends forming the nucleus of the Spanish Surrealist avant-garde, becoming known as members of "La Generación del 27".
Buñuel was taken with Lorca writing in his autobiography: "We liked each other instantly. Although we seemed to have little in common—I was a redneck from Aragon, he an elegant Andalusian—we spent most of our time together... We used to sit on the grass in the evenings behind the Residencia, he would read me his poems, he read and beautifully, through him I began to discover a wholly new world." Buñuel's relationship with Dalí was somewhat more troubled, being tinged with jealousy over the growing intimacy between Dalí and Lorca and resentment over Dalí's early success as an artist. Since he was 17, he dated the future poet and dramatist Concha Méndez, with whom he vacationed every summer at San Sebastián, he introduced her to his friends at the Residencia as his fiancée. After five years, she broke off the relationship, citing Buñuel's "insufferable character". During his student years, Buñuel became an accomplished hypnotist, he claimed that once, while calming a hysterical prostitute through hypnotic suggestion, he inadvertently put one of the several bystanders into a trance as well.
He was to insist that watching movies was a form of hypnosis: "This kind of cinematographic hypnosis is no doubt due to the darkness of the theatre and to the changing scenes and camera movements, which weaken the spectator's critical intelligence and exercise over him a kind of fascination."Buñuel's interest in films was intensified by a viewing of Fritz Lang's Der müde Tod: "I came out of the Vieux Colombier transformed. Images did become for me the true means of expression. I decided to devote myself to the cinema". At age 72, Buñuel had not lost his enthusiasm for this film, asking the octogenarian Lang for his autograph. In 1925 Buñuel moved to Paris, where he began work as a secretary in an organization called the International Society of Intellectual Cooperation, he became involved in cinema and theater, going to the movies as as three times a day. Th
Greenwood Academy is an 11–18 state secondary school in Dreghorn, North Ayrshire, Scotland. The school opened in August 1972, serving the areas of Dreghorn, Bourtreehill and the outer areas of Irvine, moved into new buildings in October 2008; the school provides tuition in the subjects required by the Curriculum for Excellence, including English, sciences and well-being, ICT, modern languages and moral education and design. Extra curricular activities include drama, chess and a variety of sports; the school uses a house system, with each pupil placed in one of seven houses: Annick, Montgomery, Perceton and Warrix. The school has two sports halls, a dance studio, a fitness suite, a range of grass pitches and an AstroTurf pitch. Sports offered include Athletics, Basketball, Fitness training, 5-a-side Football, Gymnastics, Hockey, Volleyball, Rounders, Short Tennis and Table Tennis. Nicola Sturgeon Official website
James Keir FRS was a Scottish chemist, geologist and inventor, an important member of the Lunar Society of Birmingham. Keir was born in Stirlingshire, Scotland, in 1735 as the eighteenth child of John and Magdaline Keir. James attended the Royal High School and studied medicine at the University of Edinburgh where he met and formed a lasting friendship with Erasmus Darwin. At the age of 22, Keir was commissioned into the 61st Regiment. During the seven years' war he was stationed with his regiment in the West Indies, he became lieutenant on, 31 March 1759, captain-lieutenant on 16 May 1766, captain on 23 June of the same year. In the spring of 1768 he resigned his commission, being disappointed at not meeting with more sympathy in his studies from his brother-officers, he found, one congenial friend in Alexander Blair, afterwards a captain in the 69th regiment of foot. While in the army Keir wrote a treatise on the art of war, accidentally burnt at his publishers, a pamphlet addressed to the Marquis of Granby in favour of the sale of commissions.
At this same period he used to rise at four o'clock in the morning to read the classics and military writers, he translated many chapters of Polybius. Keir settled at Hill Top, West Bromwich and devoted himself to chemistry and geology. In 1772, with others, Keir leased a long-established glassworks at Amblecote near Stourbridge, which he managed. Partners included John Taylor. While there, Keir continued his chemical experiments into the properties of alkalis. A paper by him "On the Crystallisations observed on Glass" was communicated to the Royal Society by his friend George Fordyce and printed in the Society's Philosophical Transactions in 1776. Early in the same year Keir completed his translation of Macquer's Dictionnaire de Chymie, with additions and notes, published at London in two quarto volumes. In 1777 he issued a Treatise on the Different kinds of Gases. Keir had become friends with Matthew Boulton, in the autumn of 1768 he first met James Watt at Boulton's house. In 1778 Keir gave up his glass business to undertake, in the absence of Boulton and Watt, the sole charge of their engineering works at Soho, Birmingham near Handsworth.
He declined, the offer of a partnership on account of the financial risk, limited his connection with the firm to the letter-copying machine department. In 1779 he invented and took out a patent for an alloy of copper and iron, which could be forged hot or cold, it has been said to be identical with what became known as Muntz metal. In 1780 Keir, in conjunction with Alexander Blair, established a chemical works at Tipton, near Dudley, for the manufacture of alkali from the sulfates of potash and soda, to which he afterwards added a soap manufactory; the method of extraction proceeded on a discovery of Keir's. A nearby road was called Soap Factory Road; when Joseph Priestley came to Birmingham in 1780, he found an able assistant in Keir, who had discovered the distinction between carbon dioxide gas and atmospheric air. Keir worked with Priestley to investigate the properties of gases. On 3 May 1787 Keir communicated to the Royal Society some "Experiments on the Congelation of the Vitriolic Acid", on 1 May 1788 "Remarks on the Principle of Acidity, Decomposition of Water, Phlogiston".
Another paper, on "Fossil Alkali", appeared in 1788 in the "Transactions of the Society of Arts". Keir published the first part of his "Dictionary of Chemistry" in 1789, he discontinued it upon becoming convinced of the weakness of his theory of phlogiston. On 20 May 1790, Keir communicated to the Royal Society "Experiments and Observations on the Dissolution of Metals in Acids, their Precipitations, with an Account of a new compound Acid Menstruum, useful in some technical operations of parting metals"; this paper contains suggestions which may have contributed to the discovery of the electro-plate process. It was translated into German the same year by Augustin Gottfried Ludwig Lentin as Versuche und Beobachtungen über die Auflösung der Metalle in Säuren... About 1794, Keir and Blair purchased land in the Tividale area, on the borders of Dudley and Tipton, on which they established the Tividale colliery. Keir studied the mineralogy of Staffordshire, in 1798 wrote an article on it for Stebbing Shaw's History of Staffordshire.
He gave Shaw information on Staffordshire manufacturing. Sir Humphry Davy, while visiting Gregory Watt at Birmingham in 1800, was introduced to Keir. In February 1811 Keir forwarded to the Geological Society "An Account of the Strata in sinking a Pit in Tividale Colliery", accompanied by a number of specimens. On 19 December 1807, while Keir was staying with Blair at Hilton Park, his house at West Bromwich was burnt, though most of his books and papers were saved. For a time he lived at a small farmhouse in the neighbourhood. Keir died at West Bromwich on 11 October 1820, was buried there at All Saints Church, Charlemont. By his marriage in 1770 to Susanna Harvey he had an only child, who in 1801 married John Lewis Moilliet of Geneva and Abberley, afterwards merchant and banker of Birmingham. In 1791 Keir wrote, at the special desire of the widow, a memoir of his friend Thomas Day, author of "Sandford and Merton". During the same year Keir's avowal of sympathy with the French revolution at a public dinner on 14 July exposed him to much virulent abuse.
He defended himself and Priestley in v