Eastern Front (World War II)
The Eastern Front of World War II was a theatre of conflict between the European Axis powers and co-belligerent Finland against the Soviet Union and other Allies, which encompassed Central Europe, Eastern Europe, Northeast Europe, Southeast Europe from 22 June 1941 to 9 May 1945. It has been known as the Great Patriotic War in the former Soviet Union and modern Russia, while in Germany it was called the Eastern Front, or the German-Soviet War by outside parties; the battles on the Eastern Front of the Second World War constituted the largest military confrontation in history. They were characterized by unprecedented ferocity, wholesale destruction, mass deportations, immense loss of life due to combat, exposure and massacres; the Eastern Front, as the site of nearly all extermination camps, death marches and the majority of pogroms, was central to the Holocaust. Of the estimated 70-85 million deaths attributed to World War II, over 30 million, the majority of them civilian, occurred on the Eastern Front.
The Eastern Front was decisive in determining the outcome in the European theatre of operations in World War II serving as the main reason for the defeat of Nazi Germany and the Axis nations. The two principal belligerent powers were Germany and the Soviet Union, along with their respective allies. Though never engaged in military action in the Eastern Front, the United States and the United Kingdom both provided substantial material aid in the form of the Lend-Lease to the Soviet Union; the joint German–Finnish operations across the northernmost Finnish–Soviet border and in the Murmansk region are considered part of the Eastern Front. In addition, the Soviet–Finnish Continuation War may be considered the northern flank of the Eastern Front. Germany and the Soviet Union remained unsatisfied with the outcome of World War I. Soviet Russia had lost substantial territory in Eastern Europe as a result of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, where the Bolsheviks in Petrograd conceded to German demands and ceded control of Poland, Estonia, Latvia and other areas, to the Central Powers.
Subsequently, when Germany in its turn surrendered to the Allies and these territories were liberated under the terms of the Paris Peace Conference of 1919 at Versailles, Soviet Russia was in the midst of a civil war and the Allies did not recognize the Bolshevik government, so no Soviet Russian representation attended. Adolf Hitler had declared his intention to invade the Soviet Union on 11 August 1939 to Carl Jacob Burckhardt, League of Nations Commissioner, by saying: Everything I undertake is directed against the Russians. If the West is too stupid and blind to grasp this I shall be compelled to come to an agreement with the Russians, beat the West and after their defeat turn against the Soviet Union with all my forces. I need the Ukraine as happened in the last war; the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact signed in August 1939 was a non-aggression agreement between Germany and the Soviet Union. It contained a secret protocol aiming to return Central Europe to the pre–World War I status quo by dividing it between Germany and the Soviet Union.
Finland, Estonia and Lithuania would return to the Soviet control, while Poland and Romania would be divided. The Eastern Front was made possible by the German–Soviet Border and Commercial Agreement in which the Soviet Union gave Germany the resources necessary to launch military operations in Eastern Europe. On 1 September 1939 Germany invaded Poland, starting World War II. On 17 September, the Soviet Union invaded Eastern Poland, and, as a result, Poland was partitioned among Germany, the Soviet Union and Lithuania. Soon after that, the Soviet Union demanded significant territorial concessions from Finland, after Finland rejected Soviet demands, the Soviet Union attacked Finland on 30 November 1939 in what became known as the Winter War – a bitter conflict that resulted in a peace treaty on 13 March 1940, with Finland maintaining its independence but losing its eastern parts in Karelia. In June 1940 the Soviet Union illegally annexed the three Baltic states; the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact ostensibly provided security to the Soviets in the occupation both of the Baltics and of the north and northeastern regions of Romania, although Hitler, in announcing the invasion of the Soviet Union, cited the Soviet annexations of Baltic and Romanian territory as having violated Germany's understanding of the Pact.
Moscow partitioned the annexed Romanian territory between the Ukrainian and Moldavian Soviet republics. Adolf Hitler had argued in his autobiography Mein Kampf for the necessity of Lebensraum: acquiring new territory for Germans in Eastern Europe, in particular in Russia, he envisaged settling Germans there, as according to Nazi ideology the Germanic people constituted the "master race", while exterminating or deporting most of the existing inhabitants to Siberia and using the remainder as slave labour. Hitler as early as 1917 had referred to the Russians as inferior, believing that the Bolshevik Revolution had put the Jews in power over the mass of Slavs, who were, in Hitler's opinion, incapable of ruling themselves but instead being ruled by Jewish masters; the Nazi leadership, saw the war against the Soviet Union as a struggle between the ideologies of Nazism and Jewish Bolshevism, ensuring territorial expansion for the Germanic Übermensch, who according to Nazi ideology were the Aryan Herrenvolk, at the expense of
Álex de la Iglesia
Alejandro "Álex" de la Iglesia Mendoza is a Spanish film director, screenwriter and former comic book artist. De la Iglesia's films combines grotesque and dark elements such as death and murder: most of his work is considered dark comedies, but are often considered to have horror and/or drama elements. All his films, with the notable exceptions of The Last Circus and As Luck Would Have It, were written together with Jorge Guerricaechevarría. Álex de la Iglesia was born in Bilbao, Spain, in 1965. He is a philosophy graduate of the University of Deusto who ended up working in the comic book field at a young age, he had a brief stint in television before finding work as production designer on Pablo Berger's Mamá. This little seen short film focuses on a family forced to live in a basement after a nuclear war and features a little boy who wears a Batman costume. Enrique Urbizu came calling for his production designer services in 1991 for Todo por la pasta, a Basque crime thriller, nominated for 4 Goya Awards, won 1.
He met José Guerricaechevarria and together they made the short film, Mirindas Asesinas, in which a boring man, whose mind is degenerating, is on the verge of becoming a psychotic killer. The two men became fast friends and have worked together since, with José writing the screenplays to many of De La Iglesia's films. In 1993 De La Iglesia received a big break when Spain's most famous director, Pedro Almodóvar, produced his debut feature Accion mutante; this tale of a group of crippled and handicapped outcasts in the future taking arms against handsome oppressors, became an independent success globally. The next step he took was El día de la Bestia, it won the Best Director award amongst them. It marked his first collaboration with producer Andrés Vicente Gómez. Wanting to build on the success of The Day Of The Beast, Gómez hired Iglesia to direct Perdita Durango based on novelist Barry Gifford's 59 Degrees and Raining. Barry Gifford helped out on the script also. Isabella Rossellini played Perdita Durango in David Lynch's Wild At Heart based on a Gifford work.
The film did not prove as great a success as hoped. The film was more nasty in its violence, its confrontational style, resulted in cuts and running times around the globe varying from 95 minutes in South Korea to 126 minutes in Spain, it was rumoured Bigas Luna was offered the directors chair for the film. In 1997, Iglesia wrote Payasos en la lavadora, a satirical novel. Back in Spain, in 1999 de la Iglesia had success with Dying of Laughter a dark comedy about a Martin & Lewis style comic duo with no love for each other, nominated for 3 Goyas, winning 2. La Comunidad, a dark comedy/thriller set in an apartment block with a money scamble, got 15 Goya nominations, won 3. 800 Bullets, a homage to spaghetti westerns, got 4 Goya nominations, 1 win. And Crimen ferpecto, a dark comedy thriller with a man aspiring to perfection, winning 6 Goya prizes as a result. All these films have the recipe of dark humour, selfish aspirational characters, sexy situations. De la Iglesia himself provided the voice of The Underminer in the Spanish language dubbing of The Incredibles.
In 2006 he directed an episode of the TV series Películas para no dormir titled The Baby's Room. In 2008, de la Iglesia directed the science-fiction comedy TV series Plutón B. R. B. Nero, he has directed Elijah Wood and John Hurt in The Oxford Murders, his second movie in English, released in Spain in January 2008. His first feature film Accion mutante received two prizes at the Montreal Fantasia Festival, three Goya's. For The Day of the Beast, de la Iglesia won the Goya Award for Best Director; the films El día de la bestia, Muertos de risa, Perdita Durango, The Oxford Murders, La comunidad, 800 balas, Crimen Ferpecto, La Chispa de la Vida, Las brujas de Zugarramurdi and Balada triste de trompeta was part of the Álex de la Iglesia: Dancing with the Devil at the Toronto International Film Festival 2015. On November 17, 2017, Álex de la Iglesia received the star on Almeria Walk of Fame. Acción mutante El día de la Bestia Perdita Durango Muertos de risa La comunidad 800 balas Crimen ferpecto La habitación del niño The Oxford Murders Balada Triste de Trompeta La chispa de la vida Las Brujas de Zugarramurdi Messi Words With Gods Mi gran noche El Bar Perfectos desconocidos Shrew's Nest Los Increíbles Spanish Movie Toy Story 3 Herederos de la bestia Slant Green Cine Daily Boston Globe IFC Village Voice Álex de la Iglesia on IMDb Álex de la Iglesia at AllMovie
Vicente Aranda Ezquerra was a Spanish film director and producer. Due to his refined and personal style, he was one of the most renowned Spanish filmmakers, he started as a founding member of the Barcelona School of Film and became known for bringing contemporary Spanish novels to life on the big screen. Aranda was noted for exploring difficult social issues and variations on the theme of desire while using the codes of melodrama. Love as uncontrollable passion and cruelty are constant themes in his filmography; the frank examination of sexuality is one of the trademarks of his work, as seen in his most internationally successful film: Amantes. Vicente Aranda Ezquerra was born in Barcelona on 9 November 1926, he was the youngest son in a large and impoverished family who had emigrated from Aragón to Barcelona twenty years before he was born. He knew his father, an itinerant photographer, who died when the child was only seven years old; the Spanish Civil War, in which his family took the side of the losing Republicans, marked his childhood.
Thinking that the war was going to be more bearable in a small town than in Barcelona, the family moved early in the war to Peñalba, his mother's native village. The dire situation there, close to the front at Aragon, forced them to return to Barcelona in 1938. After the war ended, Aranda spent a lot of time in the local movie theatre, much against the wishes of his mother, who took to smelling him on his return for traces of the disinfectant, sprayed in cinemas of the time, he never finished his formal studies. At age thirteen, he began to work, he had a number of different jobs in his home town, trying a multitude of trades before following his brother Palmiro to Venezuela in 1952. He emigrated for political reasons. In Venezuela, Aranda worked as a cargo technician for an American shipping business, he directed programs at NCR. After seven years, he returned to Spain in 1959. Wealthy and married upon his return, he intended to become a novelist, but found that he lacked enough talent as a writer.
He was encouraged to try his hand at filmmaking. He was not allowed to enroll at the School of Cinema in Madrid because he had not graduated from high school. In Barcelona and self-taught, Aranda found a way to direct his first feature film. Nearly 40 years old when he started directing, Aranda did not gain international success until his 60s, he had a prolific career, making 27 films in more than 40 years as a director. Vicente Aranda married twice, his first wife, Luisa, a name he used for the female leads in his films, committed suicide years after they divorced. They did not have children. Aranda's second wife, Teresa Font, was thirty years his junior, she was the editor of his movies since the mid-1980s. Aranda made his directorial debut with the low-budget Brillante Porvenir, co-directing with screenwriter Román Gubern to avoid problems with the directors guild of Spain. Loosely inspired by the American novel, The Great Gatsby, the film used the aesthetic of the neorealism in a story of a young man from the provinces who tries to make it into the Catalan middle class.
Brillante Porvenir, cut by censors, was received coldly by public and critics. This failure made; the director's second film, Fata Morgana, an unusual work in Spanish Cinema, is an experimental film, based on a script written with Gonzalo Suárez. The film took inspiration for its graphic visual style from comic strips. Ignored upon release, Fata Morgana would be recognized for inspiring the particular kitsch aesthetic of La Escuela de Barcelona, an avant garde movement which sought creative innovation in Spanish films. In the following years, Aranda's work played between pushing the artistic envelope and using a virtual style drawn from mass media. In these films, Aranda tackled established film genres with an eye on modernizing them. Since his first features were not seen, Aranda produced a commercially oriented film with fantastic and erotic overtones: Las Crueles. In it, a mysterious woman elaborates a scheme to avenge the death of her girlfriend by a callous publisher; this filmed was plagued with a series of problems: it was long in the making.
It would take Aranda many years to recover ownership of this film. The experience made him found his own production company: Morgana Film, which produced his next six features. In La Novia Ensangrentada, a female vampire seeks revenge against all men. A genre film for the cultural elite, it evaded censors by virtue of its incomprehensibility. By Aranda's own admission, he sacrificed conventional coherence for the cinematographic and phenomenological possibilities of each action; the film was distributed internationally in the United States and Italy. Aranda started to use the codes of melodrama with Clara es el Precio, an offbeat mix of melodrama and surreal comedy, he cast Amparo Muñoz, Spain's future Miss Universe, as a naive housewife adrift in a world without taboo. She pursues a career as a pornographic film actress in order to fund a business project for her impotent husband; this was made during El Destape, a period in Spanish Cinema that had a prolife
Berlin International Film Festival
The Berlin International Film Festival called the Berlinale, is a film festival held annually in Berlin, Germany. Founded in West Berlin in 1951, the festival has been held every February since 1978 and is one of the "Big Three" alongside the Venice Film Festival and Cannes Film Festival. With around 300,000 tickets sold and 500,000 admissions each year, it has the largest public attendance of any annual film festival. Up to 400 films are shown in several sections across cinematic genres. Around twenty films compete for the festival's top awards, called the Golden Bear and several Silver Bears. Since 2001 the director of the festival has been Dieter Kosslick; the European Film Market, a film trade fair held to the Berlinale, is a major industry meeting for the international film circuit. The trade fair serves distributors, film buyers, financiers and co-production agents; the Berlinale Talents, a week-long series of lectures and workshops, is a gathering of young filmmakers held in partnership with the festival.
The film festival, EFM, other satellite events are attended by around 20,000 professionals from over 130 countries. More than 4200 journalists produce media coverage in over 110 countries. At some high-profile feature film premieres held during the festival, movie stars and celebrities are present on the red carpet; the Berlin International Film Festival was founded in West Berlin in 1951, with film historian Dr. Alfred Bauer as its first director, a position he would hold until 1976. Alfred Hitchcock's Rebecca opened the first festival. Bauer was succeeded by film journalist Wolf Donner in 1976. After his first Berlinale in June 1977, he negotiated the shift of the festival from the summer to February, a change which has remained since. After only three years in the role, Donner was followed by Moritz de Hadeln who held the position from 1980 until current director Dieter Kosslick took over in 2001; the festival is composed of seven different film sections. Films are chosen in each category by a section director with the advice of a committee of film experts.
Categories include: Competition: comprises feature-length films yet to be released outside their country of origin. Films in the Competition section compete for several prizes, including the top Golden Bear for the best film and a series of Silver Bears for acting and production. Panorama: comprises new independent and arthouse films that deal with "controversial subjects or unconventional aesthetic styles". Films in the category are intended to provoke discussion, have involved themes such as LGBT issues. Forum: comprises experimental and documentary films from around the world with a particular emphasis on screening works by younger filmmakers. There are no format or genre restrictions, films in the Forum do not compete for awards. Generation: comprises a mixture of feature-length films aimed at children and youths. Films in the Generation section compete in two sub-categories: Generation Kplus and Generation 14plus. Awards in the section are determined by three separate juries—the Children's Jury, the Youth Jury and an international jury of experts—whose decisions are made independent of one another.
Perspektive Deutsches Kino: comprises a wide variety of German films, with an emphasis on highlighting current trends in German cinema. There are few entry requirements, enabling emerging filmmakers to display their work to domestic and international audiences. Berlinale Shorts: comprises domestic and international short films those that demonstrate innovative approaches to filmmaking. Films in the category compete for the Golden Bear for the best short film, as well as a jury-nominated Silver Bear. Retrospective: comprises classic films shown at the Berlinale, with films collated from the Competition, Forum and Generation categories; each year, the Retrospective section is dedicated to important filmmakers. The special Homage series examines past cinema, with a focus on honouring the life work of directors and actors. In addition to the seven sections, the Berlinale contains several linked "curated special series", including the Berlinale Special, Gala Special, Forum 5, Culinary Cinema and the Homage.
Since 2002 a 50-second trailer opens the performances in all sections of the festival with the exception of the Retrospective. The Golden Bear is the highest prize awarded for the best film at the Berlin International Film Festival. Golden Bear Best Motion Picture Best Short Film Lifetime Achievement Silver Bear The Silver Bear was introduced in 1956 as an award for individual achievements in direction and acting, for best short film. In 1965 a special film award for the runner-up to the Golden Bear was introduced. Although its official name was the Special Jury Prize from 1965 to 1999, has been the Jury Grand Prix since 2000, it is known as the Silver Bear as it is regarded as a second place award after the Golden Bear. In 2002 a Silver Bear for best film music, in 2008 an award for best screenplay. Jury Grand Prix Alfred Bauer Prize: in memory of the Festival Founder—for a feature film that opens new perspectives on cinematic art Best Director Best Actor Best Actress Best Short Film Outstanding Artistic Contribution - Not awarded every year, in some years more than one award is made.
Outstanding Single Achievement - Not a
Cannes Film Festival
The Cannes Festival, until 2002 called the International Film Festival and known in English as the Cannes Film Festival, is an annual film festival held in Cannes, which previews new films of all genres, including documentaries from all around the world. Founded in 1946, the invitation-only festival is held annually at the Palais des Festivals et des Congrès, it is one of the "Big Three" alongside the Venice Film Festival and Berlin International Film Festival. On 1 July 2014, co-founder and former head of French pay-TV operator Canal+, Pierre Lescure, took over as President of the Festival, while Thierry Fremaux became the General Delegate; the board of directors appointed Gilles Jacob as Honorary President of the Festival. The 2018 Cannes Film Festival took place between 8 and 19 May 2018; the jury president was Australian actress Cate Blanchett, Shoplifters, directed by Hirokazu Kore-eda, won the Palme d'Or. The Cannes Film Festival has its origins in 1932 when Jean Zay, the French Minister of National Education, on the proposal of historian Philippe Erlanger and with the support of the British and Americans, set up an international cinematographic festival.
Its origins may be attributed in part to the French desire to compete with the Venice Film Festival, which at the time was shocking the democratic world by its fascist bias. The first festival was planned for 1939, Cannes was selected as the location for it, but the funding and organization were too slow and the beginning of World War II put an end to this plan. On 20 September 1946, twenty-one countries presented their films at the First Cannes International Film Festival, which took place at the former Casino of Cannes. In 1947, amid serious problems of efficiency, the festival was held as the "Festival du film de Cannes", where films from sixteen countries were presented; the festival was not held in 1950 on account of budgetary problems. In 1949, the Palais des Festivals was expressly constructed for the occasion on the seafront promenade of La Croisette, although its inaugural roof, while still unfinished, blew off during a storm. In 1951, the festival was moved to spring to avoid a direct competition with the Venice Festival, held in autumn.
During the early 1950s, the festival attracted a lot of tourism and press attention, with showbiz scandals and high-profile personalities' love affairs. At the same time, the artistic aspect of the festival started developing; because of controversies over the selection of films, the Critics' Prize was created for the recognition of original films and daring filmmakers. In 1954, the Special Jury Prize was awarded for the first time. In 1955, the Palme d'Or was created, replacing the Grand Prix du Festival, given until that year. In 1957, Dolores del Río was the first female member of the jury for the official selection. In 1959, the Marché du Film was founded, giving the festival a commercial character and facilitating exchanges between sellers and buyers in the film industry. Today it has become the first international platform for film commerce. Still, in the 1950s, some outstanding films, like Night and Fog in 1956 and Hiroshima, My Love in 1959 were excluded from the competition for diplomatic concerns.
Jean Cocteau, three times president of the jury in those years, is quoted to have said: "The Cannes Festival should be a no man's land in which politics has no place. It should be a simple meeting between friends."In 1962, the International Critics' Week was born, created by the French Union of Film Critics as the first parallel section of the Cannes Film Festival. Its goal was to showcase first and second works by directors from all over the world, not succumbing to commercial tendencies. In 1965 Olivia de Havilland was named the first female president of the jury, while the next year Sofia Loren became president; the 1968 festival was halted on 19 May. Some directors, such as Carlos Saura and Miloš Forman, had withdrawn their films from the competition. On 18 May filmmaker Louis Malle along with a group of directors took over the large room of the Palais and interrupted the projections in solidarity with students and labour on strike throughout France, in protest to the eviction of the President of the Cinémathèque Française.
The filmmakers achieved the reinstatement of the President, they founded the Film Directors' Society that same year. In 1969 the SRF, led by Pierre-Henri Deleau created the Directors' Fortnight, a new non-competitive section that programs a selection of films from around the world, distinguished by the independent judgment displayed in the choice of films. During the 1970s, important changes occurred in the Festival. In 1972, Robert Favre Le Bret was named the new President, Maurice Bessy the General Delegate, he introduced important changes in the selection of the participating films, welcoming new techniques, relieving the selection from diplomatic pressures, with films like MASH, Chronicle of the Years of Fire marking this turn. In some cases, these changes helped directors like Tarkovski overcome problems of censorship in their own country; until that time, the different countries chose the films that would represent them in the festival. Yet, in 1972, Bessy created a committee to select French films, another for foreign films.
In 1978, Gilles Jacob assumed the position of General Delegate, introducing the Caméra d'Or award, for the best first film of any of the main events, the Un Certain Regard section, for the non-competitive categories. Other changes were the decrease of length of the festival down to thirteen days, thus reducing the number of selected films.
Pedro Almodóvar Caballero, credited professionally as Pedro Almodóvar, is a Spanish filmmaker, screenwriter and former actor. He came to prominence as a director and screenwriter during La Movida Madrileña, a cultural renaissance that followed after the end of Francoist Spain, his first few films characterised the sense of political freedom of the period. In 1986, he established his own film production company, El Deseo, with his younger brother Agustín Almodóvar, responsible for producing all of his films since Law of Desire. Almodóvar achieved international recognition for his black comedy-drama film Women on the Verge of a Nervous Breakdown, nominated for the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film, went on to more success with the dark romantic comedy film Tie Me Up! Tie Me Down!, the melodrama High Heels and the romantic drama thriller Live Flesh. His subsequent two films won an Academy Award each: All About My Mother received the award for Best Foreign Language Film while Talk to Her earned him the award for Best Original Screenplay.
Almodóvar followed this with the drama Volver, the romantic thriller Broken Embraces, the psychological thriller The Skin I Live In and the drama Julieta, all of which were in competition for the Palme d'Or at the Cannes Film Festival. His films are marked by his employment of certain actors and creative personnel, complex narratives, pop culture, popular songs, irreverent humour, strong colours, glossy décor. Desire, passion and identity are among Almodóvar's most prevalent themes. Acclaimed as one of the most internationally successful Spanish filmmakers, Almodóvar and his films have gained worldwide interest and developed a cult following, he has won two Academy Awards, five British Academy Film Awards, six European Film Awards, two Golden Globe Awards, nine Goya Awards and four prizes at the Cannes Film Festival. In 1997, Almodóvar received the French Legion of Honour, followed by the Gold Medal of Merit in the Fine Arts by the Spanish Ministry of Culture in 1999, he was elected a Foreign Honorary Member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 2001 and received an honorary doctoral degree in 2009 from Harvard University in addition to an honorary doctoral degree from the University of Oxford in 2016 for his contribution to the arts.
In 2013, he received an honorary European Film Academy Achievement in World Cinema Award. In January 2017 he was named as President of the Jury for the 2017 Cannes Film Festival. Pedro Almodóvar Caballero was born on 25 September 1949 in Calzada de Calatrava, a small rural town of Ciudad Real, a province of Castile-La Mancha in Spain, he has two older sisters and María Jesús, one brother Agustín. His father, Antonio Almodóvar, was a winemaker, his mother, Francisca Caballero, who died in 1999, was a letter reader and transcriber for illiterate neighbours; when Almodóvar was eight years old, the family sent him to study at a religious boarding school in the city of Cáceres, Extremadura, in western Spain, with the hope that he might someday become a priest. His family joined him in Cáceres, where his father opened a gas station and his mother opened a bodega where she sold her own wine. Unlike Calzada, there was a cinema in Cáceres. "Cinema became my real education, much more than the one I received from the priest", he said in an interview.
Almodóvar was influenced by Luis Buñuel. Against his parents' wishes, Almodóvar moved to Madrid in 1967 to become a filmmaker; when caudillo Francisco Franco closed the National School of Cinema in Madrid, he became self-taught. To support himself, Almodóvar had a number of jobs, including selling used items in the famous Madrid flea market El Rastro and as an administrative assistant with Spanish phone company Telefónica, where he worked for twelve years. Since he worked only until three in the afternoon, he had the rest of the day to pursue his film-making. In the early 1970s, Almodóvar became interested in experimental theatre, he collaborated with the vanguard theatrical group Los Goliardos, in which he played his first professional roles and met actress Carmen Maura. Madrid's flourishing alternative cultural scene became the perfect scenario for Almodóvar's social talents, he was a crucial figure in La Movida Madrileña, a cultural renaissance that followed the death of Francisco Franco. Alongside Fabio McNamara, Almodóvar sang in a glam rock parody duo.
Writing under the pseudonym Patty Diphusa, Almodóvar penned various articles for major newspapers and magazines, such as El País, Diario 16 and La Luna as well as contributing to comic strips and stories in counterculture magazines, such as Star, El Víbora and Vibraciones. He published a novella, Fuego en las entrañas and kept writing stories that were published in a compilation volume entitled El sueño de la razón. Almodóvar bought his first camera, a Super-8, with his first paycheck from Telefónica when he was 22 years old, began to make hand-held short films. Around 1974, he made his first short film, by the end of the 1970s they were shown in Madrid's night circuit and in Barcelona; these shorts had overtly sexual narratives and no soundtrack: Dos putas, o, Historia de amor que termina en boda in 1974. He remembers, "I showed them in bars, at parties… I could not add a soundtrack because it was v
Gonzalo Suárez Morilla is a Spanish writer and film director. In 1963 he published his first novel De cuerpo presente, his 1975 film The Regent's Wife was entered into the 9th Moscow International Film Festival. His 1991 film Don Juan in Hell was entered into the 17th Moscow International Film Festival. In 1984 he acted as the married writer in Pedro Almodóvar's ¿Qué he hecho yo para merecer esto?. In 1987 he directed Los pazos de Ulloa for TVE. At Gijón International Film Festival in 2003, he received the Nacho Martinez Award, he has a son, Gonzalo Suárez Girard, a videogame director, most well known for his work on Commandos. He appears as actor in small roleSource: Official site Interview in 2005 Revista Axolotl Oviedo Express Gonzalo Suarez on IMDb