A lullaby, or cradle song, is a soothing song or piece of music, played for children. The purposes of lullabies vary. In some societies they are used to pass down cultural tradition. In addition, lullabies are used for the developing of communication skills, indication of emotional intent, maintenance of infants' undivided attention, modulation of infants' arousal, regulation of behavior. One of the most important uses of lullabies is as a sleep aid for infants; as a result, the music is simple and repetitive. Lullabies can be found in many countries, have existed since ancient times; the term derives by. A folk etymology derives lullaby from "Lilith-Abi". In the Jewish tradition, Lilith was a demon, believed to steal children's souls in the night. To guard against Lilith, Jewish mothers would hang four amulets on nursery walls with the inscription "Lilith – abei". Lullabies tend to share exaggerated melodic tendencies, including simple pitch contours, large pitch ranges, higher pitch; these clarify and convey heightened emotions of love or affection.
When there is harmony, infants always prefer consonant intervals over dissonant intervals. Furthermore, if there is a sequence of dissonant intervals in a song, an infant will lose interest and it becomes difficult to regain its attention. To reflect this, most lullabies contain consonant intervals. Tonally, most lullabies are simple merely alternating tonic and dominant harmonies. In addition to pitch tendencies, lullabies share several structural similarities; the most frequent tendencies long pauses between sections. This dilutes the rate of material and appeals to infants' slower capacity for processing music. Rhythmically, there are shared patterns. Lullabies are in triple meter or 6/8 time, giving them a "characteristic swinging or rocking motion." This mimics the movement. In addition, infants' preference for rhythm shares a strong connection with what they hear when they are bounced, their own body movements; the tempos of lullabies tend to be slow, the utterances are short. Again, this aids in the infant's processing of the song.
Lullabies never have instrumental accompaniments. Infants have shown a strong preference for unaccompanied lullabies over accompanied lullabies. Again, this appeals to infants' more limited ability to process information. Lullabies are used for their soothing nature for non-infants. One study found lullabies to be the most successful type of music or sound for relieving stress and improving the overall psychological health of pregnant women; these characteristics tend to be consistent across cultures. It was found that adults of various cultural backgrounds could recognize and identify lullabies without knowing the cultural context of the song. Infants have shown a strong preferences for songs with these qualities. Lullabies are used to pass down or strengthen the cultural roles and practices. In an observation of the setting of lullabies in Albanian culture, lullabies tended to be paired with the rocking of the child in a cradle; this is reflected in the swinging rhythmicity of the music. In addition to serving as a cultural symbol of the infant's familial status, the cradle's presence during the singing of lullabies helps the infant associate lullabies with falling asleep and waking up.
Studies conducted by Dr. Jeffery Perlman, chief of newborn medicine at New York–Presbyterian Hospital's Komansky Center for Children's Health, find that gentle music therapy not only slows down the heart rate of prematurely delivered infants but helps them feed and sleep better; this speeds their recovery. A study published in May 2013 in the Journal of the American Academy of Pediatrics under the aegis of the Beth Israel Medical Center in New York City found that the type of music matters. Therapeutically designed "live" music – and lullabies sung in person – can influence cardiac and respiratory function. Another study published in February 2011 in Arts in Psychotherapy by Jayne M. Standley of the National Institute for Infant and Child Medical Music Therapy at Florida State University suggests that babies who receive this kind of therapy leave the hospital sooner. Additional research by Jayne M. Standley has demonstrated that the physiological responses of prematurely delivered infants undergoing intensive care can be regulated by listening to gentle lullabies through headphones.
In addition to slowing heart and respiration rates, lullabies have been associated with increased oxygen saturation levels and the possible prevention of life-threatening episodes of apnea and bradycardia. Gentle music can provide stimulation for premature infants to behave in ways that boost their development and keep them alive. Lullabies can serve as a low-risk source of stimulation and reinforcement for increasing nipple sucking rates, providing infants with the nutrition they require for growth and development. Lullabies are thus associated with encouraging the rapid development of the neurological system and with a shorter length of hospitalization. More recent research has shown that lullabies sung live can have beneficial effects on physiological functioning and development in premature infants; the live element of a slow, repetitive entrained rhythm can regulate sucking behavior. Infants have a natural tendency to entrain to the sounds. Beat perception begins during fetal development in the womb and infants are born with an innate mu
Mustang Bio is a clinical-stage biopharmaceutical company founded in 2015 and headquartered in Worcester, MA, U. S. Operating as a partner company of Fortress Biotech, Mustang Bio develops CAR-T immunotherapies and gene therapies for multiple diseases, including hematologic cancers, solid tumors, X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency. Mustang Bio was founded in the same year became a partner company of Fortress Biotech. In April 2017, Manuel Litchman took over as CEO of Mustang Bio, in October of the same year, the company signed a lease with the University of Massachusetts Medicine Science Park in Worcester, MA, for a manufacturing facility to support the clinical development and commercialization of CAR-T products for glioblastoma and acute myeloid leukemia; until 2018, the company's studies focused on cancer-fighting therapies and cell therapies. After licensing a gene therapy for X-SCID from St Jude Children's Research Hospital, Mustang Bio expanded its efforts to immunodeficiency treatments.
In April 2019, it was announced that the gene therapy developed by St. Jude's showed positive results in a trial involving eight infants suffering from X-SCID. Mustang Bio expects to take over the trial from St Jude by 2020. In May 2019, Mustang Bio raised $32 million in an underwritten public offering to fund its continued development of products for the treatment of blood cancers, solid tumors, rare genetic diseases. Alongside the X-SCID therapy developed in partnership with St Jude, Mustang Bio is conducting research and trials on CAR-T therapies for several diseases, including glioblastoma, acute myeloid leukemia, non-Hodgkin lymphoma and chronic lymphocytic leukemia. In May 2019, an oncolytic virus licensed from Nationwide Children's Hospital for the treatment of malignant glioma was granted Orphan Drug status by the Food and Drug Administration. In May 2019, the company began recruiting patients for a trial at City of Hope for the treatment of patients with multiple myeloma
The censor was a magistrate in ancient Rome, responsible for maintaining the census, supervising public morality, overseeing certain aspects of the government's finances. The power of the censors was absolute: no magistrate could oppose their decisions, only another censor who succeeded them could cancel it; the censors' regulation of public morality is the origin of the modern meaning of the words censor and censorship. The census was first instituted by sixth king of Rome, c. 575–535 BC. After the abolition of the monarchy and the founding of the Republic in 509 BC, the consuls had responsibility for the census until 443 BC. In 442 BC, no consuls were elected; this was a move by the plebeians to try to attain higher magistracies: only patricians could be elected consuls, while some military tribunes were plebeians. To prevent the possibility of plebeians obtaining control of the census, the patricians removed the right to take the census from the consuls and tribunes, appointed for this duty two magistrates, called censores, elected from the patricians in Rome.
The magistracy continued to be controlled by patricians until 351 BC, when Gaius Marcius Rutilus was appointed the first plebeian censor. Twelve years in 339 BC, one of the Publilian laws required that one censor had to be a plebeian. Despite this, no plebeian censor performed the solemn purification of the people until 280 BC. In 131 BC, for the first time, both censors were plebeians; the reason for having two censors was that the two consuls had taken the census together. If one of the censors died during his term of office, another was chosen to replace him, just as with consuls; this happened only once, in 393 BC. However, the Gauls captured Rome in that lustrum, the Romans thereafter regarded such replacement as "an offense against religion". From on, if one of the censors died, his colleague resigned, two new censors were chosen to replace them; the office of censor was limited to eighteen months by a law of the dictator Mamercus Aemilius Mamercinus. However, during the censorship of Appius Claudius Caecus, the prestige of the censorship massively increased: Caecus built the first Roman road and the first Roman aqueduct, both named after him.
With these efforts and reforms, Appius Claudius Caecus was able to held the censorship for a whole lustrum, the office of censor subsequently entrusted with various important duties received one of the highest political status in the Roman Republic, second only to the consuls. The censors were elected in the Centuriate Assembly. Barthold Niebuhr suggests that the censors were at first elected by the Curiate Assembly, that the Assembly's selections were confirmed by the Centuriate, but William Smith believes that "there is no authority for this supposition, the truth of it depends upon the correctness of views respecting the election of the consuls". Both censors had to be elected on the same day, accordingly if the voting for the second was not finished in the same day, the election of the first was invalidated, a new assembly had to be held; the assembly for the election of the censors was held under different auspices from those at the election of the consuls and praetors, so the censors were not regarded as their colleagues, although they possessed the maxima auspicia.
The assembly was held by the new consuls. As a general principle, the only ones eligible for the office of censor were those, consuls, but there were a few exceptions. At first, there was no law to prevent a person being censor twice, but the only person, elected to the office twice was Gaius Marcius Rutilus in 265 BC. In that year, he originated. In consequence of this, he received the cognomen of Censorinus; the censorship differed from all other Roman magistracies in the length of office. The censors were chosen for a whole lustrum, but as early as ten years after its institution their office was limited to eighteen months by a law of the dictator Mamercus Aemilius Mamercinus; the censors were unique with respect to rank and dignity. They had no imperium, accordingly no lictors, their rank was granted to them by the Centuriate Assembly, not by the curiae, in that respect they were inferior in power to the consuls and praetors. Notwithstanding this, the censorship was regarded as the highest dignity in the state, with the exception of the dictatorship.
The high rank and dignity which the censorship obtained was due to the various important duties entrusted to it, to its possessing the regimen morum, or general control over the conduct and the morals of the citizens. In the exercise of this power, they were regulated by their own views of duty, were not responsible to any other power in the state; the censors possessed