Lund is a city in the southern Swedish province of Scania, across the Øresund strait from Copenhagen. The town had 91,940 inhabitants out of a municipal total of 121,510 as of 2018, it is the seat of Skåne County. The Greater Copenhagen / Øresund Region, which includes Lund, is home to 4 million people. Archeologists date the foundation of Lund to around 990. From 1103 it was the seat of the Catholic Metropolitan Archdiocese of Lund, the towering Lund Cathedral, built circa 1090–1145, still stands at the centre of the town. Denmark ceded the city to Sweden in the Treaty of Roskilde in 1658, its status as part of Sweden was formalised in 1720. Lund University, established in 1666, is one of Scandinavia's oldest and largest institutions for education and research; the university and its buildings dominate much of the centre of the city, have led to Lund becoming a regional centre for high tech industry. Lund is sometimes mentioned as the oldest town or city in present-day Sweden, although it has only been formally established as such for 300 years of its at least thousand-year history.
It is old enough that its origins are unclear, but is presumed to have existed by the end of the Viking Age. Until the 1980s, the town was thought to have been founded around 1020 by either Sweyn I Forkbeard or his son Canute the Great of Denmark; the area was part of the kingdom of Denmark. But, recent archaeological discoveries suggest that the first settlement dated to circa 990 the relocation of settlers at Uppåkra; the Uppåkra settlement dates back to the first century B. C. and its remains are at the present site of the village of Uppåkra. King Sweyn I Forkbeard moved Lund to a distance of some five kilometres; the new location of Lund, on a hill and across a ford, gave the new site considerable defensive advantages in comparison with Uppåkra, situated on the highest point of a large plain. The city was made a see in 1048 and united with Dalby in 1060, in 1103 became the see of the Metropolitan Archdiocese of Lund, whose ecclesiastical province comprised Scandinavia and Garðar on Greenland.
The diocese of nearby Dalby was absorbed in 1066. Lund Cathedral was founded in or shortly after 1103. In 1152, the Norwegian archdiocese of Nidaros was founded as a separate province of the church, independent of Lund. In 1164 Sweden acquired an archbishop of its own, although he was nominally subordinate to the archbishop of Lund, it is still, as the diocese of Lund, a diocese in the Church of Sweden. Lund Cathedral School was founded in 1085 by the Danish king Canute the Saint; this is one of the oldest in Northern Europe. Many prominent people were educated there, among them the actor Max von Sydow and several high-ranking politicians. Lund was ceded to Sweden in 1658 as part of the terms of the Treaty of Roskilde, it was recaptured by Denmark in 1676 during the early phases of the Scanian War. The exceptionally bloody Battle of Lund was fought just north of the city in 1679, ended in a decisive Swedish victory. Sweden's control over Scania, hence Lund, was formalised by treaty in 1720. Scandinavia's first University, the Academy of Lund was founded in 1425.
It was suppressed during the Danish Reformation in 1536. The present Lund University was established in 1666. In 1943, during the Second World War, Lund was accidentally bombed by a British aircraft. No deaths were reported. Over the second half of the 20th century the population of Lund more than doubled, driven in large part by the growth of the university and high tech industries. For example, Tetra Pak, the food packaging and processing company, was founded in Lund in 1952. Suburbs were added to the outer edges of the city: Klostergården, Norra Fäladen and Linero in the 1960s, Norra Nöbbelöv in the 1970s, Gunnesbo in the 1980s and Värpinge in the 1990s. Lund is located in Sweden's largest agricultural district, in the south-west of Scania, less than ten kilometres from the sandy shore of the Öresund Strait, its location on the south-facing slope of the Romeleåsen horst leads to the city rising from the low-lying Höje River in the south to 86 metres above mean sea level in the north. From the top of the Sankt Hans Hill it is possible to see the capital of Denmark.
The nearest large Swedish city, Malmö, is about 15 kilometres to the south-west. Other Swedish cities are more distant: Gothenburg is 250 kilometres away, the capital Stockholm is 600 kilometres distant, Umeå lies 1,200 kilometres to the north; the central part of Lund retains its medieval street layout. A few buildings from the Middle Ages remain, including Lund Cathedral, Liberiet, St. Peter's Priory, the restaurant Stäket and Krognoshuset. Many of today's buildings in the centre were constructed in the late 1800s, including Katedralskolan, the Grand Hotel and the main building and library of Lund University. Lund city contains four main city squares that are connected by a number of roads and passages that represent the main city centre containing numerous restaurants and bars. Clemenstorget is located alongside the railway and associated station and hosts a small market and is planned to be the central terminus of the tramway under construction. Bantorget is a green park-square, Lund's Grand Hotel is placed there.
Andrew Ellis Farmer is an American politician and a Republican member of the Tennessee House of Representatives representing District 17 since January 8, 2013. Farmer earned his bachelor's degree in business administration from East Tennessee State University and his JD from Thomas M. Cooley Law School. 2012 Farmer challenged District 17 incumbent Representative Frank S. Niceley in the three-way August 2, 2012 Republican Primary, winning with 2,980 votes, won the November 6, 2012 General election with 14,244 votes against Democratic nominee Mike Dockery, who had run for the seat in 2010. Official page at the Tennessee General Assembly Campaign site Profile at Vote Smart Andrew Farmer at Ballotpedia Andrew E. Farmer at the National Institute on Money in State Politics
The Space Report: The Authoritative Guide to Global Space Activity is published annually by the Space Foundation. The Space Report is the definitive overview of the global space industry and serves as a valuable resource for government and business leaders, financial analysts and space-relatedbusinesses. Following are major findings from the 2013 issue; the global space economy grew to $304.31 billion in commercial revenue and government budgets in 2012, reflecting growth of 6.7 percent from the 2011 total of $285.33 billion. Commercial activity - space products and services and commercial infrastructure - drove much of this increase. From 2007 through 2012, the total has grown by 37 percent. Commercial space products and services revenue increased 6.5 percent since 2011, commercial infrastructure and support industries increased by 11 percent. Government spending increased by 1.3 percent in 2012, although changes varied from country to country, with India and Brazil increasing budgets by more than 20 percent, while other nations, including several in Europe, experienced declines of 25 percent or more.
78 launch attempts took place in 2012, a drop of 7.1 percent from the 84 launches in 2011. Russia led with 24 launches, China had 19 launches and the United States totaled 13 launches. For the second year running, the Chinese launch rate was greater than that of the United States; the United States led in terms of launch vehicle diversity, with ten types of orbital rockets launched in 2012. According to U. S. Bureau of Labor Statistics data, the size of the U. S. space workforce declined for the fifth year in a row, dropping 3.8 percent, from 252,315 in 2010 to 242,724 in 2011 - a decrease of about 9,500 workers. However, the changes varied by sector, with some portions of the space industry growing while others contracted; the United States' National Aeronautics and Space Administration's civil servant workforce decreased from 18,709 in fiscal year 2012 to 18,167 in FY 2013, a drop of 2.9 percent. However, there is evidence that the employment situation in areas with significant Space Shuttle-related layoffs, including Florida, is beginning to improve.
Both Europe and Japan saw increases in space workforces. As of December 2012, the Space Foundation Index was 40.95 percent above its value at inception in June 2005. The Space Foundation Index and Space Foundation Services Index both outperformed the S&P 500 and the NASDAQ during 2012, while the Space Foundation Infrastructure Index did not perform as well as the NASDAQ, but better than the S&P 500; these indexes, which are updated daily on the Space Foundation website, are easy-to-understand mechanisms for gauging the financial performance of space industry companies listed on U. S. stock exchanges