Mazabuka is a town in the Southern Province of Zambia, lying south west of Lusaka, on the Lusaka-Livingstone Road and the railway to Livingstone. The town lies on the south east edge of the Kafue Flats wetland; the name Mazabuka originates from a Tonga local language word "Twazabuka" or "Kuzabuka" which means "To cross over the river". It is believed that the name was coined after the Tonga people crossed the Magoye river during their migrations; the town has grown around sugar cane plantations, Zambia Sugar is Zambia's leading sugar producer. It lies near the Mwanachingwala Conservation Area, its population in 2000 was estimated at 35,000. Musikili Primary School is a private boarding school for children between 13 years old. Luyobolola Community School is a free primary school of Assumption Parish. Ching'ang'auka primary school is an ordinary primary school. Near Mwanamainda. Mazabuka is the site of a large and important long-term test of preventive measures in the war against AIDS. Mazabuka Municipal Council is the local authority located on Livingstone Road.
Flamboyant is located on the outskirts of the town. Website of Assumption Parish Mazabuka Website of Musikili Primary School
Kapiri Mposhi is a Zambian town, seat of the Kapiri Mposhi District, Central Province. Located north of Lusaka, it stands on the Great North Road and is significant for the railway connection between Zambia Railways line from Kitwe to Lusaka and Livingstone and western terminal of the Tanzania-Zambia Railway Authority from Dar es Salaam since 1976; the town lies in the middle of Zambia, next to the borders with Copperbelt Province. The homonym district borders with the ones of Chibombo, Kabwe, Masaiti, Mkushi and Ngabwe. Kapiri Mposhi has two railways stations, a TAZARA Railway station that connects it to Dar-es-Salaam and a Zambia Railways stations that connects it to Lusaka and Livingstone; the TAZARA Railway station is larger and more modern than the Zambia Railways station. Just north of the town, there is a major junction, with the road north to Mkushi and the Tanzanian border going north-eastwards, the road to the Copperbelt heading to the north west. This, combined with the railway links, makes Kapiri Mposhi an important point in the regional freight network.
Most shops and businesses in Kapiri Mposhi can be found along the main road and include a bakery, Agricultural Equipment shop CAMCO EQUIPMENT LTD, Shoprite, LK Motors and Barclays bank. Janny Sikazwe, association football referee. Kapiri Mposhi Railway stations in Zambia Railway stations in Tanzania Kapiri Mposhi travel guide from Wikivoyage A portrait of the town
Mongu is the capital of Western Province in Zambia and was the capital of the formerly-named province and historic state of Barotseland. Its population is 179,585, it is the headquarters of Mongu District. Mongu is situated on a small blunt promontory of higher ground on the eastern edge of the 30-kilometre-wide Barotse Floodplain of the Zambezi River running north-south, which in the wet season floods right up to the town; the city is 15 kilometres from the river's main channel, to which its small harbour is connected in the dry season by a 35-kilometre route via a canal and a meandering channel. The whole region is flat and sandy, with the dry land no more than 50 m higher than the floodplain. Mongu is the home city of the Lozi people, who speak a language derived in part from that of the Makololo, related to the South African Sesotho language; the Lozi ruler, the Litunga, has a dry season palace 12 km north-west at Lealui on the floodplain, a flood season palace on higher ground at Limulunga, 17 km north.
The Kuomboka ceremony marks the court's transfer between the two locations. At the end of the 18th century, a significant number of Mbunda from Angola settled here; the area has an annual average rainfall of 945 mm falling in the rainy season from late October to April. The flood arrives by January, peaks in April and is gone by June, leaving a floodplain green with new grass on which a population of about 250,000 moves in to graze a similar number of cattle, catch fish and raise crops in small gardens. Mongu is hot from September to December, with a mean maximum for October of 35.4°C, cool from May to August, with a mean maximum in June of 26.9°C and a mean minimum of 10.3°C. Three ecoregions are represented in Mongu and its vicinity: the floodplain comprises Zambezian flooded grasslands, while the higher dry ground is a mosaic of Central Zambezian Miombo woodlands and Cryptosepalum dry forests. To the east the soil is sandy and there are many pans which dry out in the dry season, beyond the Lui River no surface water is available so this zone of scrubby miombo woodland is uninhabited as far east as the Luampa River.
Mongu lies at the end of the 610-km Great West Road from Lusaka -- 8 hours to drive. The road to Kalabo called Barotse Floodplain causeway has been finished in 2016; the city is known for carpet weaving. It produces the best mango and fish in the country the tiger fish. Mongu is the major rice growing region of Zambia, it is home to a cathedral and a water tower, while among the several shopping places and social places, the town has a large market and an airport. Mongu Airport is used by the Zambian Air Force and the United Nations to transport Angolan Refugees back to Angola; the town is the location of the Nayuma Museum. General references Camerapix. "Spectrum Guide to Zambia." Nairobi: Camerapix International Publishing. ISBN 1-874041-14-8. Terracarta/International Travel Maps, Vancouver Canada: "Zambia, 2nd edition", 2000. Google Earth has high-resolution photographs of Mongu. Http://www.barotseland.com/
Luanshya is a town in Zambia, in the Copperbelt Province near Ndola. It has a population of 117,579. Luanshya was founded in the early part of the 20th century after a prospector/explorer, William Collier, Wankumbu Wapakwenda and killed a Roan Antelope on the banks of the Luanshya River, discovering a copper deposit in the process; the antelope fell to the ground, its head resting on a rock where an exposed seam of copper ore was visible. The mining company formed to exploit Collier's find was named "Roan Antelope Copper Mines Ltd". For most of the 20th century, copper was mined in great quantities at Luanshya but towards the end of the century, mining there became uneconomic, causing a severe recession in the town. There is still a fair amount of copper underground. Whether the town sees a revival in its fortunes will depend on how efficiently the copper is extracted and sold; the city is the birthplace of folk singer, John Edmond, writer A. C. Grayling and former Vice President of Zambia, the late George Kunda.
The Roan Antelope Rugby Club in Luanshya held the record for highest goal posts in the world, which were recognised by the Guinness Book of Records. They were 110 ft, 6 inches high. A popular myth is that there was a river snake, held responsible for the floodings and deaths during the early development work at Roan Antelope Mine. Roan's workers suffered such high illness and mortality rates from malaria and blackwater fever, as well as from typhus and pneumonia, that the mine had great difficulty keeping African laborers from one week to the next, it became common knowledge that the local Lamba attributed these problems to a giant snake, which wriggled along the river and mine shafts causing floodings and cave-ins, spewing poisonous gas. By 1928, construction of the plant and township had begun soon after reserves of 20 million tons of copper had been found; the flooding problem was solved when the Luanshya River was channeled and its swamps drained during the 1929-32 anti-malaria campaign.
The death rate from the epidemic that occurred during the early days of mine development earned the town the nickname of Valley of Death which some people latched on to as the real meaning. However, Luanshya means river of antelopes due to the many antelopes that were found in the area before mining settlements drove them away. Places thus named are Luanshya Stream, Luanshya Town and Luanshya Township; the name for the Town is said to have been derived from the Luanshia mining claim. Three mining claims were named after antelopes, Roan Antelope and Luanshia Mining Claims. For those who are confused about the meaning of the name it is better to think of it in this manner "Once upon a time there was a river and stream which derived its name from the antelopes that would go to drink from there; some foreigners came and found some copper and started mining works on the land. In the style of the local chiefs, they adopted the two animal totems and named their mine after the antelopes, roan being the mpelembe, nsha being the duiker.
They amassed a lot of wealth from the mine and lived ever after." Luanshya is the home base of a Technical and Vocational Teacher's College from which a generation of the country's teachers in technical subjects have graduated. The town has Luanshya Technical and Business College offering technical subjects to tertiary students. LTBC and TVTC are just separated by fence, across the road to the West is Da Gama school, one of the only school on the Copperbelt Province for people with disabilities, is managed by nuns and named after the famous Portuguese explorer Vasco da Gama. Before Independence, schools were racially segregated, with separate schooling for Europeans, Asians, "Cape Coloureds" and Africans. There were two schools for white pupils: Luanshya Primary School, now called Central and Luanshya High School. There was Asoka Primary School for Asians named Gandhi, near the Second Class Trade area. For Africans there was Arusha Primary School in Mikomfwa, Mwaiseni in Mpatamatu and Fisansa in Roan townships.
After independence, more schools were built. In Mikomfwa, new schools were Ndelela, East School now Twatemwa, West School now Muchinshi, Mipundu and Arusha was renamed Bwananyina. In Roan Township there were Roan, Makoma, Kafubu primary schools, while Mpatamatu had Mpatamatu, Nkambo, primay schools. Luanshya township had Harrison now Mpelembe, Convent now known as Buteko. SECONDARY SCHOOLS: Mikomfwa township had no secondary school, Luanshya township had Luanshya High School for boys and Luanshya Girls High school, Roan township had only Roan Antelope and Mpatamatu township had Mpatamatu secondary. During Zambia's painful privatisation period, thousands of miners were laid off by the Indian run RAMCOZ. During the Presidency of Levy Mwanawasa, the town was revived when Luanshya Copper Mines resumed full scale mining production and hired thousands of people, although, to be short lived when the mining operator ran into financial problems; the mines were taken over by a Chinese firm. The Chinese workforce has been accused of gross negligence and flouting Labour laws.
In 2011 three Chinese workers were arrested for molesting local girls by taking advantage of their deprived economic status. Early in 2012 Minister for Labour and Sport and area Member of Parliament Chishimba Kambwili made a surprise stop over at the multimillion-dollar Mulyashi Mine Project only to be turned away by its Chinese employers. While the opening of the mines may have brought some social problems to Luanshya, employment rates have risen and revived the town; the population has been increasing and more economic activ
Southern Province, Zambia
Southern Province is one of Zambia's ten provinces, home to Zambia's premier tourist attraction, Mosi-oa-Tunya, shared with Zimbabwe. The centre of the province, the Southern Plateau, has the largest area of commercial farmland of any Zambian province, produces most of the maize crop; the Zambezi River is the province's southern border, Lake Kariba, formed by the Kariba Dam, lies along the province's south-eastern edge. The eastern border is the Kariba Gorge and Zambezi, the north-east border is the Kafue River and its gorge, dividing it from Lusaka Province; the Kafue Flats lie within the province's northern border with Central Province. In the north west lies part of the famous Kafue National Park, the largest in Zambia, the lake formed by the Itezhi-Tezhi Dam; the south-western border with Western Province runs through the teak forests around Mulobezi which once supported a commercial timber industry and for which the Mulobezi Railway was built. The provincial capital is Choma; until 2011 the provincial capital was Livingstone City.
The Batonga are the largest ethnic group in the Province. A rail line and the Lusaka-Livingstone road forms the principal transport axis of the province, running through its centre and its farming towns: Kalomo, Pemba and Mazabuka. In addition to maize, other commercially important activities include sugar cane plantations at the edge of the Kafue Flats, cattle ranching. Southern Province has the only large source of fossil fuel in Zambia, the Maamba coal mine in the Zambezi valley, served by a branch line of the railway; as per the 2010 Zambian census, Southern Province had a population of 1,589,926 accounting to 12.08% of the total Zambian population of 13,092,666. There were 779,659 males and 810,267 females, making the sex ratio to 1,039 for every 1,000 males, compared to the national average of 1,028; the literacy rate stood at 71.20% against a national average of 70.2%. The rural population constituted 75.33%, while the urban population was 24.67%. The total area of the province was 85,283 km2 and the population density was 18.60 per km2.
The population density during 2000 Zambian census stood at 18.60. The decadal population growth of the province was 2.80%. The median age in the province at the time of marriage was 20.6. The average household size was 5.4, with the families headed by females being 4.6 and 5.7 for families headed by men. The total eligible voters in the province was 64.10%. The unemployment rate of the province was 12.10%. The total fertility rate was 6.1, complete birth rate was 6.2, crude birth rate was 37.0, child women population at birth was 807, general fertility rate was 160, gross reproduction rate was 2.5 and net reproduction rate was 1.8. The total labour force constituted 55.00% of the total population. Out of the labour force,64.1% were men and 46.7% women. The annual growth rate of labour force was 4.4%. Tonga was the most spoken language with 74.70% speaking it. Albinism is a condition where the victims do not have any pigment in hair or eyes; the total population in the province with the condition stood at 3,068.
The life expectancy at birth stood at 56 compared to the national average of 51. Agriculture is the primary economic activity in Southern Province with a mix of small holder and commercial maize farms across the province. Compared to other major agricultural regions, such as Eastern Province, Southern Province has more abundant land and access to water, but receives less rainfall. Southern Province is home to the "Sweetest Town in Zambia", where sugarcane farming and sugar processing are a major business; the total area of crops planted during the year 2014 in the province was 360,160.32 hectares which constituted 18.98% of the total area cultivated in Zambia. The net production stood at 688,122 metric tonnes, which formed 16.89% of the total agricultural production in the country. Sorghum was the major crop in the province with 4,695 metric tonnes, constituting 40.62% of the national output. Mazabuka grows 90% of sugar grown in Zambia with an estimated 430 tons produced annually. Sugarcane fields in Mazabuka are among the most productive in the world by hectare and low production costs allow production to compete on international markets.
Around 60 % of sugar is exported to other markets. However, the export industry is limited due to high transport costs linking processed sugar to export markets. Nationally, the sugar industry in Mazabuka contributes to around 4% of GDP each year; the sugar industry in Mazabuka made international news in 2013 when it was discovered that Zambia Sugar, the biggest sugar company in the country, had paid nothing in corporate taxes to Zambia in the previous 5 years. Southern Province and Eastern Province are the two primary breadbaskets of Zambia. Southern Province produces more than 600,000 metric tons of maize each year from a combination of commercial, which are unique to Southern Province, smallholder farms. Despite poor rains in recent years and a strong El Nino weather cycle in 2016, Zambian maize output has been predicted to continue to grow. Growth in Southern Province and across the country has allowed Zambia to remain a net-exporter of maize to food insecure neighboring countries, such as Zimbabwe and Malawi which have been hit more by the weather.
As of 2004, the province had 995 basic schools, 45 high schools and the number of school children out of school in ages between 7 and 15 stood at 995. The unemployment rate was 7 per cent and the general unemployment rate for youth stood at 6 per cent as of 2008; the province had 50 doctors as of 2005. There were 344 Malaria incidence for every 1,000 people in the province as of 2005 and there were 12,403 AIDS death as of 2010. Southern Province is bordered along Zimbabwe in the south divided by Victoria Fall
Lusaka Province is one of Zambia's ten provinces. The provincial capital is Lusaka, the national capital, it is the smallest provence in Zambia, with a size of 21,896 km2. Lusaka is Zambia's the most populated and most densely populated province, with a population of 2,191,225 and density of 100 persons per km2 as of 2010, it is the most urban province, with fewest malaria related incidents. The province is bordered along Zimbabwe and Mozambique, separated by the Lower Zambezi National Park; the Lower Zambezi National Park, part of the Lunsemfwa River valley, the lower Luangwa Valley in the north-east and the Kafue Flats in the south-west are the major National parks and game area in Lusaka Province. In Lusaka, the Nkhombalyanga festival is celebrated in Chongwe District by Soli tribe during July, the Dantho festival is celebrated in Luangwa District by the Chikunda tribe during September, the Chakwela Makumbi festival celebrated in Chongwe District by Soli tribe during September. There are eight districts in the province.
As of 2004, the literacy rate was 83%, the unemployment rate was 31% and the general unemployment rate for youth was 52% as of 2008. Kenneth Kaunda International Airport and Lusaka City Airport are the two airports in the province. Lusaka Province is bordered along Zimbabwe along Lower Zambezi National Park in the south, Central Province in the north, Southern Province in the southwest and Eastern Province in the north east; the general topography of the province is characterized by uplifted plantation surfaces. The general elevation of the nation as a whole is tended towards West to East from the Kalahari Basin; the level of land falls from the upper Congo towards the Zambezi depression in the South forming a plateau. Kafue River is a tributary of Zambezi River and it has huge valleys breaking the plateau; the province lies in the watershed between Congo Zambezi river systems. The province lies in the frontier formed between the continental divide separating the Atlantic Ocean and the Indian Ocean, which traverses from DR Congo to the south of Tanzania.
There are three major seasons: a cool dry season from April to August, a hot dry season from August to November and a warm wet season from November to April. The maximum heat and rainfall, both are experienced during October; the annual rainfall is less than 750 mm in the region. As per 2010 Zambian Census, Lusaka's population was 2,191,225, making it the most populated province; the majority of this population is concentrated in its smallest district, that's Lusaka Districts, with its population of 1,747,152 or 79.74%. With a population density of 4,853.2 people per km2. The province has the population highest growth rate, with an average of 4.6%, compared to the national growth rate of 2.8%. In 2000, it was the second most populated province from the Copperbelt province, with a population of 1,391,329. However, as of the previous census growth rate, Lusaka had surpassed the Copperbelt has the most populated province. A compilation of districts of Lusaka with there respective populations source of information in data As Of 2011, The President Of Zambia, The Late Michael Sata, made Chilanga its own district.
Chilanga covers a small area separating Lusaka and Kafue along the Great North Road as well as a large area to the west of Lusaka Central before Shibuyunji District, Making Chilanga District Bigger Than Lusaka. As Of 2018, The President Of Zambia, Edgar Lungu, Moved Shibuyunji District from Lusaka Province to Central Province As Part Of A Development Plan for the area. Excluding Shibuyunji District, Lusaka Province has 7 districts as of March 2018. Lusaka is an ethnically diverse province and is the only province in Zambia without a single ethnic group making up a third of the Population; the Bemba form the largest ethnicity at 20.2%, while the largest ethnic cluster is the Nyanja cluster making up 30.5%. The native Soil and Chikunda people only markup 0.8%,0.6% and 1.2% respectively. Other natives are the Nsenga Luzi ). There is a considerable presence of Europeans and other African nationalities; the most spoken language in Lusaka is ciNyanja, a language that exhibits the melting pot that the Province has become.
CiNyanja is a linga franca, close to ciChewa, ChiNsenga, other languages of Eastern Province and notable influence from Nguni languages. The contemporary Lusaka Nyanja has incorporated a lot of borrowed words from English and other languages, due to the massive influx of people from the entire Southern and Central African region. Bemba is another language, common, Tonga is spoken in pockets of the province. While English was the fastest growing language between 2000 and 2010, it must be noted that there is no clear distinction between dialects and languages in mainstream Zambia. Therefore, languages in the diagrams below will listed individually; the Lower Zambezi National Park, parts of the Lunsemfwa River valley and the lower Luangwa Valley in the north-east and part of the Kafue Flats in the south-west are the major National parks and game area in Lusaka Province. The Nkhombalyanga festival celebrated in Chongwe District by Soli tribe during July, Dantho festival celebrated in Luangwa District by Chikunda tribe during September, Chakwela Makumbi festival celebrated in Chongwe District by Soli tribe during September, Mbambara festival celebrated in Luangwa District by Nsenga Luzi tribe during November, Chibwela Kumushi festival celebrated in Luangwa District by Soli t
The term Norman architecture is used to categorise styles of Romanesque architecture developed by the Normans in the various lands under their dominion or influence in the 11th and 12th centuries. In particular the term is traditionally used for English Romanesque architecture; the Normans introduced large numbers of castles and fortifications including Norman keeps, at the same time monasteries, abbeys and cathedrals, in a style characterised by the usual Romanesque rounded arches and massive proportions compared to other regional variations of the style. These Romanesque styles originated in Normandy and became widespread in north western Europe in England, which contributed considerable development and has the largest number of surviving examples. At about the same time a Norman dynasty ruled in Sicily, producing a distinctive variation incorporating Byzantine and Saracen influences, known as Norman architecture, or alternatively as Sicilian Romanesque. Ancient Rome's invention of the arch is the basis of all Norman architecture.
The term may have originated with eighteenth-century antiquarians, but its usage in a sequence of styles has been attributed to Thomas Rickman in his 1817 work An Attempt to Discriminate the Styles of English Architecture from the Conquest to the Reformation which used the labels "Norman, Early English and Perpendicular". The more inclusive term romanesque was used of the Romance languages in English by 1715, was applied to architecture of the eleventh and twelfth centuries from 1819. Although Edward the Confessor built Westminster Abbey in Romanesque style just before the Conquest, still believed to be the earliest major Romanesque building in England, no significant remaining Romanesque architecture in Britain can be shown to predate the Conquest, although historians believe that many surviving "Norman" elements in buildings, nearly all churches, may well in fact be Anglo-Saxon; the Norman arch is a defining point of Norman architecture. Grand archways are designed to evoke feelings of awe and are commonly seen as the entrance to large religious buildings such as cathedrals.
Viking invaders arrived at the mouth of the river Seine in 911, at a time when Franks were fighting on horseback and Frankish lords were building castles. Over the next century the population of the territory ceded to the Vikings, now called Normans, adopted these customs as well as Christianity and the langue d'oïl. Norman barons built timber castles on earthen mounds, beginning the development of motte-and-bailey castles, great stone churches in the Romanesque style of the Franks. By 950, they were building stone; the Normans were among the most travelled peoples of Europe, exposing them to a wide variety of cultural influences which became incorporated in their art and architecture. They elaborated on the early Christian basilica plan. Longitudinal with side aisles and an apse they began to add in towers, as at the Church of Saint-Étienne]] at Caen, in 1067; this would form a model for the larger English cathedrals some 20 years later. In England, Norman nobles and bishops had influence before the Norman Conquest of 1066, Norman influences affected late Anglo-Saxon architecture.
Edward the Confessor was brought up in Normandy and in 1042 brought masons to work on the first Romanesque building in England, Westminster Abbey. In 1051 he brought in Norman knights. Following the invasion, Normans constructed motte-and-bailey castles along with churches and more elaborate fortifications such as Norman stone keeps; the buildings show massive proportions in simple geometries using small bands of sculpture. Paying attention to the concentrated spaces of capitals and round doorways as well as the tympanum under an arch; the "Norman arch" is the rounded with mouldings carved or incised onto it for decoration. Chevron patterns termed "zig-zag mouldings", were a frequent signature of the Normans; the cruciform churches had deep chancels and a square crossing tower which has remained a feature of English ecclesiastical architecture. Hundreds of parish churches were built and the great English cathedrals were founded from 1083. After a fire damaged Canterbury Cathedral in 1174 Norman masons introduced the new Gothic architecture.
Around 1191 Wells Cathedral and Lincoln Cathedral brought in the English Gothic style, Norman became a modest style of provincial building. Oxford Castle 1074: church tower doubles as a place of refuge St John's Chapel, Tower of London Durham Cathedral was the first to employ a ribbed vault system with pointed arches Winchester Cathedral Ely Cathedral Peterborough Cathedral Kilpeck Church, Herefordshire St Nicholas Church, Surrey Southwell Minster St Mary the Virgin, Oxfordshire St Swithun's in Nately Scures, Hampshire, an example of a Norman single-cell apsidal church. Norwich Cathedral St Edward's Church St Botolph's Priory, Colchester St John's Abbey, Colchester St Peter’s Church, Rutland – Norman chancel Dunstable PrioryBibliography Sedding, Edmund H. Norman Architecture in Cornwall: a handbook to old ecclesiastical architecture. With over 160 plates. London: Ward & Co. White Tower Rochester Castle Norwich Castle Colchester Castle, the largest Norman castle built and the first stone Keep in England Hedingham Castle, Essex Jew's House, Lincoln Boothby Pagnell Manor, Lincolnshire Oakham Castle, Rutland Moyse's Hall Museum Bury St Edmunds Suffolk Scotland came under early