Isfahan province, transliterated as Esfahan, Isfahan, or Isphahan, is one of the thirty-one provinces of Iran. It is located in the center of the country in Irans Region 2 and its secretariat is located in the city of Isfahan. The Isfahan province covers an area of approximately 107,027 square km and is situated in the center of Iran, to its north, stand the Markazi Province and the provinces of Qom and Semnan. To its south, it is bordered by the provinces of Fars, aminabad is the most southern city of Isfahan province just 2 km north of the border. To the east, it is bordered by the province of Yazd, to the west, it is bordered by the province of Lurestan and to the southwest by the province of Chahar Mahal and Bakhtiyari. According to the census in the year 2006, the population of the province was 4,559,256 of which approximately 83.3 percent were urban residents and 16.7 percent resided in the rural areas, the literacy rate was 88.65 percent. In 2011 population of Isfahan grew up to 4,879,312, the province experiences a moderate and dry climate on the whole, ranging between 40.6 °C and 10.6 °C on a cold day in the winter season.
The average annual temperature has been recorded as 16.7 °C, the city of Sepahan however experiences an excellent climate, with four distinct seasons. With an elevation of 4,040 metres, the Shahankuh is the highest peak in Isfahan Province and this mountain is located about 20 kilometres southwest of the city of Fereydunshahr in the western part of Isfahan Province. Historians have recorded Espahan, Sepahan or Isfahan initially as a defense and these historical castles were Atashgah, Tabarok, Kohan Dej, and Gard Dej to name a few. The oldest of these is Ghaleh Sefeed and the grounds at Tamijan from prehistoric times, the historic village of Abyaneh, a nationwide attraction, has Sassanid ruins and fire temples among other historical relics. During the 17th and 18th centuries, Isfahan province enjoyed high standards of prosperity as it became the capital of Safavid Persia, while the city of Sepahan was their seat of monarchy, Kashan was their place of vacation and leisure. Isfahan province encompasses various sects today, the majority of the people in the province are Persian speakers, but Bakhtiari Lurs, Armenians and Persian Jews reside in the province.
The official language of the province is Persian, though different ethnic groups and tribes abide by their own such as Judeo-Persian, Georgian. Isfahan province is noted for its reputed personalities such as writers and other eminent figures who have been born, london, J. Murray and Royal Geographical Society. The Georgians’ position in the Iranian history and civilization, Yekta Rahimi, the Georgians of Iran, Sepahan, Yekta Sepiani, M. Georgian Iranians, Arash Isfahans tourist exhibition mentions the Georgians from Fereydunshahr and Fereydan. The report of this exhibition is available in the web site of the Iranian Cultural Heritage News agency. com Naein News
Shia is a branch of Islam which holds that the Islamic prophet Muhammad designated Ali ibn Abi Talib as his successor. Shia Islam primarily contrasts with Sunni Islam, whose adherents believe that Muhammad did not appoint a successor, instead they consider Abu Bakr to be the correct Caliph. Adherents of Shia Islam are called Shias of Ali, Shias or the Shia as a collective or Shii individually, Shia Islam is the second-largest branch of Islam, in 2009, Shia Muslims constituted 10–13% of the worlds Muslim population. Twelver Shia is the largest branch of Shia Islam, in 2012 it was estimated that perhaps 85 percent of Shias were Twelvers. Shia Islam is based on the Quran and the message of Muhammad attested in hadith, Shia consider Ali to have been divinely appointed as the successor to Muhammad, and as the first Imam. The word Shia means follower and is the form of the historic phrase shīʻatu ʻAlī, meaning followers of Ali, faction of Ali. Shia and Shiism are forms used in English, while Shiite or Shiite, as well as Shia, the term for the first time was used at the time of Muhammad.
At present, the word refers to the Muslims who believe that the leadership of the community after Muhammad belongs to Ali, nawbakhti states that the term Shia refers to a group of Muslims that at the time of Muhammad and after him regarded Ali as the Imam and Caliph. Al-Shahrastani expresses that the term Shia refers to those who believe that Ali is designated as the Heir and caliph by Muhammad, for the Shia, this conviction is implicit in the Quran and history of Islam. And Allah is Hearing and Knowing, Shia search for the true meaning of the revelation to get the purpose of the life blood and the human destiny. Shia Muslims believe that just as a prophet is appointed by God alone and they believe God chose Ali to be Muhammads successor, the first caliph of Islam. The Shias believe that Muhammad designated Ali as his successor by Gods command, Ali was Muhammads first cousin and closest living male relative as well as his son-in-law, having married Muhammads daughter Fatimah. Ali would eventually become the fourth Muslim caliph, after the Farewell Pilgrimage, Muhammad ordered the gathering of Muslims at the pond of Khumm and it was there that Shia Muslims believe Muhammad nominated Ali to be his successor.
The hadith of the pond of Khumm was narrated on 18th of Dhu al-Hijjah of 10 AH in the Islamic calendar at a place called Ghadir Khumm, located near the city of al-Juhfah, Saudi Arabia. Muhammad there stated, Shia Muslims believe this to be Muhammads appointment of Ali as his successor, when Muhammad died in 632 CE, Ali and Muhammads closest relatives made the funeral arrangements. While they were preparing his body, Abu Bakr, Umar and his family accepted the appointment for the sake of unity in the early Muslim community. Alis rule over the early Muslim community was often contested, as a result, he had to struggle to maintain his power against the groups who betrayed him after giving allegiance to his succession, or those who wished to take his position. This dispute eventually led to the First Fitna, which was the first major civil war within the Islamic Caliphate, the Fitna began as a series of revolts fought against Ali ibn Abi Talib, caused by the assassination of his political predecessor, Uthman ibn Affan
For the historical general who fought at the Battle of al-Qādisiyyah for the Sasanian Empire, mentioned in the Shahnameh, see Rostam Farrokhzād. Rostam or Rustam is the most celebrated legendary hero in Shahnameh, in Shahnameh and his predecessors are Marzbans of Sistan. Rostam was eventually killed by Shaghad, his half-brother and he was son of Zal and Rudaba. Rostam was always represented as the mightiest of Iranian paladins, and he was immortalized by the 10th-century Persian poet Ferdowsi in the Shahnameh, or Epic of Kings, which contains pre-Islamic Iranian folklore and history. He wore a suit named Babr-e Bayan in battles. In Ferdowsis Shahnameh, Rostam is a native of the Zabulistan a historical region roughly corresponding to todays Zabul Province in southern Afghanistan and his mother Rudaba was a princess of Kabul. Rostam is the champion of champions and is involved in numerous stories, in Shahnameh, Rostam - like his grandfather Sam - works as both a faithful military general as well as king-maker for the Kayanian dynasty of Persia.
As a young child, he slays the white elephant of the king Manuchehr with just one blow of the mace owned by his grandfather Sam. He tames his legendary stallion, the etymology of the name Rostam is from Raodh+Takhma, where Raodh means growth, reaped and Takhma means brave. In the Avesta, the form is *Raosta-takhma and in Pahlavi *Rodastahm, mehrdad Bahar regards the etymology of the name to be Ruta-staxma, i. e. the river that descends, and argues that Rostam could have been an ancient god of the river Helmand. Rostams mother was Rudaba, the princess of Kabul, who was known for her peerless beauty, Zal was one of Persias most powerful warriors and a great general who conquered many rebellious tribes and ruled over Zabulistan. Zal was known for his wisdom and was unparalleled in riding and fighting on horseback and he once demonstrated his skills to Emperor Menuchihr, to seek his approval to marry his lover Rudaba. In Persian mythology, Rudabas labor of Rostam was prolonged due to the size of her baby.
Zal, her lover and husband, was certain that his wife would die in labor, Rudaba was near death when Zal decided to summon the Simurgh. The Simurgh appeared and instructed him upon how to perform a Rostamzad, thus saving Rudaba, after Zals father, Sam came to know of his grandchilds birth, he rushed to see Rostam and was overjoyed. Rostam was brought up and trained by Zal in warfare, when Rostam single handedly slew a mad elephant, his father sent him on his first military assignment. Rostams task was to conquer the fortress on the summit of Mt Sipand where his grandfather, Nariman. Rostam breached the fortress, defeated the enemy, ransacked its treasury and reported his success to his father and grandfather and he passes through a heros journey to save his sovereign, Kay Kavus who is captured by the demons of Mazandaran
Sepidan County is a county in Fars Province in Iran. The capital of the county is Ardakan, at the 2006 census, the countys population was 87,801, in 20,127 families. The county is subdivided into three districts, the Central District, Beyza District, and Hamaijan District, the county has three cities, Beyza and Ardakan
Encyclopaedia of Islam
The Urdu Encyclopaedia of Islam is an encyclopaedia published by the University of the Punjab. The encyclopaedia began in the 1950s as a translation of the Leiden University Encyclopaedia of Islam into Urdu, the editor in chief was Professor Dr. Muhammad Shafi. The editorial board worked on translating the Leiden Encyclopaedia into Urdu, correcting, at the time of Shafis death in 1963, one volume of the encyclopaedia had been published, and a second volume was in press. Because of Shafis death, and lack of funding, work on the Encyclopaedia stalled until 1971, volumes 10 and 12 were completed by 1973. By 1985,21 out of a planned 25 volumes had been published, islamic culture & civilization in Pakistan. Shigeo Minowa and Amadio Antonio Arboleda, ed. Urdu Encyclopaedia of Islam, Asian quarterly of culture and synthesis. Department of Urdu Encyclopaedia of Islam at the University of the Punjab
Fars Province known as Pars or Persia in historical context, is one of the thirty-one provinces of Iran and known as the cultural capital of Iran. It is in the south of the country, in Irans Region 2 and it has an area of 122,400 km². In 2011, this province had a population of 4.6 million people, of which 67. 6% were registered as urban dwellers,32. 1% villagers, and 0. 3% nomad tribes. The etymology of the word Persian, found in many ancient names associated with Iran, is derived from the importance of this region. Fars Province is the homeland of the Persian people. The word Fârs is derived from
Bushehr Province is one of the 31 provinces of Iran. It is in the south of the country, with a long coastline onto the Persian Gulf and its center is Bandar-e-Bushehr, the provincial capital. The province has nine counties, Bushehr, Dashti, Deylam, Kangan, Ganaveh, in 2011, the province had a population of approximately 1 million people. The province was put as part of Region 2 upon the division of the provinces into 5 regions solely for coordination, the Greeks knew of Bushehr by Mezambria during the battles of Nearchus. A French excavating team however in 1913 determined the origin of Bushehr to date back to the Elamite Empire, a city there, known as Lyan, contained a temple that was designed to protect the compound from naval attacks. Its remains can still be seen today 10 kilometers south of the present city of Bushehr, marco Polo describes this region as part of the Persian province of Shabankareh. It contains the village of Saba, Iran where are buried the three Magi which visited the Christ Child.
A key turning point in the history of Bor event of significance is known to have taken place in this region until the arrival of the European colonialists in the 16th century. The Portuguese, invaded the city of Bushehr in 1506 and remained there until Shah Abbas Safavi defeated and liberated the Persian Gulf region of their presence. By 1734, Bushehr had once again risen to prominence due to Nader Shah of the Afsharid dynasty, Bushehr was selected by Nader to be the central base of Naders Naval fleet in the Persian Gulf. He thus changed the name of the city to Bandar e Naderiyeh and he hired an Englishman by the name of John Elton to help build his fleet. Dutch accounts report his naval fleet to have amounted to 8000-10000 personnel as well as several ship construction installations, by then, the city of Bushehr had become Irans major port city in the Persian Gulf. By the Qajar era, Norway, Italy, Germany, close to 100 British ships are reported to have docked at the port city every year during the Qajar era.
The Bushehr Light water PWR Nuclear Reactor, designed by Siemens AG, as many as 70,000 foreign engineers and technicians are currently working in this industrial zone 270 kilometers south of the provincial capital. This zone is where the nearby famous South Pars Gas field is located, the South Pars Gas field is the worlds largest natural gas field. Boushehr is home to a football team, Shahin-e Boushehr. Shahin is one of the oldest soccer team in Iran which has found in 1942, shahin is one of the most popular teams in current Iranian football league just like Tractor-Sazi from Tabriz. Despite its unique potentials, Bushehr remains to be developed for absorbing tourists, the city of Bushehr has 3-star hotels, an airport, and modern amenities
Ilam Province is one of the 31 provinces of Iran. In 2014 it was placed in Region 4 and it is in the west of the country, bordering Iraq. Its provincial center is the city of Ilam, covering an area of 19,086 square kilometers include Ilam, Dehloran, Darreh Shahr, Eyvan and Arkwaz cities. The population of the province is approximately 600,000 people, the average annual rainfall province is 578 mm. Ilams highest point is the peak Kabir Kuh at 3200 m, part of the Zagros mountains. Eyvan and Ilam are less warm than the cities in the province because they are situated in the north of the province. Wheat is the most common crop cultivated in this province. In 1996, the maximum temperature was 38 °C in August. The number of freezing days in winter was 27 days, previous reports showed that Kurds comprise approximately 86% of the provinces population, with most other inhabitants being Lurs and Arabs. Ilam Kurds are predominantly Feyli Kurds, the absolute majority of the residents in the southern part of the province are Kurds and speak Kurdish.
The north is mostly inhabited by Kurdish tribes who speak two dialects and Feyli. The majority are Feyli, such as those of Khezel, Arkawâzi, all of residents in Ilam province are Shia Muslims. Altogether, based on new research in 2014, in the southern and eastern parts of the province, the main ethnicities are Kurds, laks and Arabs respectively. Totally in ilam province Population and percentage of speakers for languages of Ilam are as following, %79.6 Kurds, %10.7 Lurs, %6.1 Laks, %1.8 Arabs. Limited archaeological studies and discoveries indicate 6,000 years of residence in Ilam. Historical evidence indicates that Ilam province was part of the ancient Elamite Empire, in some of the epigraphs left from Sumerian history, this territory was called Alam, Alamo, or Alamto meaning the high lands where the sun rises. Due to the name of Luristan or Pushtkooh, the Kurdish population in Pushtkooh are called Lur wrongly, arabic texts recorded the name as Fahla or Bahla. Subsequently, Fahla evolved to Faila and Faili -- the modern name of the Pahli Kurds.
It is worthy to note that still a town called Pahla exist in the south of the major city of Ilam, Iran. Existence of numerous historical vestiges in Ilam province belonging to the Sassanid period indicates the importance of the region in that time. During the Iran-Iraq war, Ilam province suffered heavily and Iraqs intense bombings left no economic infrastructure for the province, Ilam thus remains one of Irans more undeveloped provinces
Hamadan Province, is one of the 31 provinces of Iran. The province of Hamadan covers an area of 19,546 km², in the year 1996, Hamadan province had a population of approximately 1.7 million people, according to the National Census held in 2011 the population of the Province was 1758268 people. In 2014 it was placed in Region 4 and these are part of the Zagros mountain range of Iran. Hamadan enjoys temperate warm summers and relatively cold winters, based on official statistics of 1997, the population of Hamadan county was 563,444 people. Persian language, Spoken by the majority of Hamadan city and county centers, azerbaijani language, Most of the people living in the north and western side of Hamadan city are speak Azeri as of their native language. Lurish, Most people living in the southern of province in Malayer and Samen Kurdish, in Hamadan city, 80% of the people identified their language as Persian, 12% Azeri and 8% Luri and Laki. In the counties of Hamadan province, the Hamadan county, 70% of the people are Persian, 22% Azeri and 8% Lurish, Kurdish, in Hamadan city, 97% of the people identified their language as Persian and 3% other languages.
The population of Nahavand was 184160 with approximately 99% speaking Luri, the population of Malayer in 1997 was 297062 and approximately 45% speak Persian, 45% Luri and Laki and 10% Azeri. The population of Tooserkan county was 118945 in 1997 and the majority of the population is Luri, alongside a minority of Azeri of 22%. In Asadabad county, the population was 110077 and 63% were Persian, 19% Kurdish, 14% Azeri and 4% Luri, in Kabudarahang, the population in 1997 was 152318 with 90% speaking Azeri, 5% Persian and another 5% Kurdish. In Razan county, the population was 123790 with 99. 47% of the residents speaking Azeri and 0.53 speaking Kurdish. In Bahar country was 127600 with 86. 3% speaking Azeri,7. 9% speaking Kurdish,4. 5% speaking Persian and 1. 3% speaking Luri, Hamadan province is one of the most ancient parts of Iran and its civilization. Relics of this area confirm this fact, todays Hamedan is what is left of Ecbatana, The Medes capital before they formed a union with the Persians. The poet Ferdowsi says that Ecbatana was built by King Jamshid, according to historical records, there was once a castle in this city by the name of Haft Hessar which had a thousand rooms and its grandeur equalled that of the Babylon Tower.
The structures of city are related to Diya Aku, a King of the Medes from 700 BC, according to Greek records, this territory was called Ekbatan and Hegmataneh by this King, thus transformed into a huge capital. During the Parthian era, Ctesiphon became capital of Persia, and Hamedan became the summer capital, after the Parthians, the Sassanids constructed their summer palaces in Hamedan as well. In the year 633 when the war of Nahavand took place and Hamadan came into the hands of the invading Arabs, at times it thrived, during the Buwayhids, it suffered plenty of damages. In the 11th century, the Seljuks shifted their capital from Baghdad to Hamadan once again, the city of Hamadan was always at risk during the rise and fall of powers
The Iranian peoples or Iranic peoples are a diverse Indo-European ethno-linguistic group that comprise the speakers of the Iranian languages. Proto-Iranians are believed to have emerged as a branch of the Indo-Iranians in Central Asia in the mid 2nd millennium BC. In the 1st millennium AD, their area of settlement was reduced as a result of Slavic, Germanic and Mongol expansions and many being subjected to Slavicisation. The Iranian peoples include Balochs, Gilaks, Mazanderanis, Pashtuns, Persians, Talysh people, the term Iran derives directly from Middle Persian Ērān and Parthian Aryān. The Middle Iranian terms ērān and aryān are oblique plural forms of gentilic ēr- and ary-, there have been many attempts to qualify the verbal root of ar- in Old Iranian arya-. The following are according to 1957 and linguists, Emmanuel Laroche, Old Iranian arya- being descended from Proto-Indo-European ar-yo-, meaning assembler. Harold Walter Bailey, ar- to beget, unlike the Sanskrit ā́rya-, the Old Iranian term has solely an ethnic meaning.
Today, the Old Iranian arya- remains in ethno-linguistic names such as Iran, Alan, Ir, in the Iranian languages, the gentilic is attested as a self-identifier included in ancient inscriptions and the literature of Avesta. The earliest epigraphically attested reference to the word occurs in the Bistun Inscription of the 6th century BC. The inscription of Bistun describes itself to have composed in Arya. As is the case for all other Old Iranian language usage, in royal Old Persian inscriptions, the term arya- appears in three different contexts, As the name of the language of the Old Persian version of the inscription of Darius I in the Bistun Inscription. As the ethnic background of Darius the Great in inscriptions at Rustam Relief and Susa, as the definition of the God of Iranians, Ohrmazd, in the Elamite version of the Bistun Inscription. In the Dna and Dse and Xerxes describe themselves as an Achaemenid, a Persian, son of a Persian, although Darius the Great called his language arya-, modern scholars refer to it as Old Persian because it is the ancestor of the modern Persian language.
The trilingual inscription erected by the command of Shapur I gives a clear description. The languages used are Parthian, Middle Persian, and Greek, tou Arianon ethnous despotes eimi, which translates to I am the king of the kingdom of the Iranians. In Middle Persian, Shapur says ērānšahr xwadāy hēm and in Parthian he says aryānšahr xwadāy ahēm, the Avesta clearly uses airiia- as an ethnic name, where it appears in expressions such as airyāfi daiŋˊhāvō, airyō šayanəm, and airyanəm vaējō vaŋhuyāfi dāityayāfi. In the late part of the Avesta, one of the homelands was referred to as Airyanəm Vaējah which approximately means expanse of the Iranians. The homeland varied in its range, the area around Herat
Lorestan Province (Persian, استان لرستان, written Luristan, Lurestan, or Loristan, is a province of western Iran in the Zagros Mountains. The population of Lorestan was estimated at 1,716,527 people in 2006, in 2014 it was placed in Region 4. Lorestan covers an area of 28,392 km2, the major cities in this province are Khorramabad, Aligoodarz, Koohdasht, Alashtar, Noor Abad, Doh Râh/Dowreh, and Pol-e-Dokhtar. The name Lorestan means land of the Lurs, the terrain consists chiefly of mountains, with numerous ranges, part of the Zagros chain, running northwest to southeast. The central range has many summits that almost reach the line of snow, rising to 4000 m. It feeds the headwaters of Irans most important rivers, such as the Zayandeh rud, Karun, Abi, between the higher ranges lie many fertile plains and low hilly, well-watered districts. The highest point of the province is the Oshtorankuh peak at 4,050 m, the low-lying areas being in the southern most sector of the province are approximately 500 m above sea level.
Oak forest covers the slopes, together with elm, walnut. Western Luristan comprises a series of fertile valleys running high in the Zagros mountains. The Pusht-i Kuh region is in the foothills of the Kabir Kuh range. The Pish-i Kuh region lies to the east of Kabir Kuh and this area had human settlements during the Bronze Age as early as the mid–3rd millennium B. C. Climatically, the province can be divided into three parts, the regions, such as Boroujerd, Azna and Alishtar experience cold winters. In the central region, the season begins from mid-February. The township of Khorramabad is in this realm, southern areas such as Pol-e-Dokhtar and Papi are under the influence of the warm air currents of Khuzestan, have hot summers and relatively moderate winters. The climate is generally sub-humid continental with winter precipitation, a lot of which falls as snow, because it lies on the westernmost slopes of the Zagros Mountains, annual precipitation in Lorestan is among the highest anywhere in Iran south of the Alborz Mountains.
At Khorramabad, the annual precipitation totals 530 millimetres of rainfall equivalent. The months June to September are usually dry, but Khorramabad can expect 4 inches of rainfall equivalent in December. Temperatures vary widely with the seasons and between day and night, at Khorramabad, summer temperatures typically range from a minimum of 12 °C to a hot maximum of 32 °C