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Lusitania

Lusitania or Hispania Lusitana was an ancient Iberian Roman province located where modern Portugal and part of western Spain lie. It was named after the Lusitanian people, its capital was Emerita Augusta, it was part of the Roman Republic province of Hispania Ulterior, before becoming a province of its own in the Roman Empire. Romans first came to the territory around the mid-2nd century BC. A war with Lusitanian tribes followed, from 155 to 139 BC. In 27 BC, the province was created; the etymology of the name of the Lusitani remains unclear. Popular etymology connected the name to a supposed Roman demigod Lusus, whereas some early-modern scholars suggested that Lus was a form of the Celtic Lugus followed by another root *tan-, supposed to mean "tribe", while others derived the name from Lucis, an ancient people mentioned in Avienus' Ora Maritima and from tan, or from tain, meaning "a region" or implying "a country of waters", a root word that meant a prince or sovereign governor of a region.

Ancient Romans, such as Pliny the Elder and Varro, speculated that the name Lusitania had Roman origins, as when Pliny says "lusum enim Liberi Patris aut lyssam cum eo bacchantium nomen dedisse Lusitaniae et Pana praefectum eius universae". Lusus is translated as "game" or "play", while lyssa is a borrowing from the Greek λυσσα, "frenzy" or "rage", sometimes Rage personified. Luís de Camões' epic Os Lusíadas, which portrays Lusus as the founder of Lusitania, extends these ideas, which have no connection with modern etymology. In his work, the classical geographer Strabo suggests a change had occurred in the use of the name "Lusitanian", he mentions a group who had once been called "Lusitanians" living north of the Douro river but were called in his day "Callacans". The Lusitani, who were Indo-European speakers, established themselves in the region in the 6th century BC, but historians and archeologists are still undecided about their ethnogenesis; some modern authors consider them to be an indigenous people who were Celticized culturally and also through intermarriage.

The archeologist Scarlat Lambrino defended the position that the Lusitanians were a tribal group of Celtic origin related to the Lusones. Some have claimed. Others argue that the evidence points to the Lusitanians being a native Iberian tribe, resulting from intermarriage between different local tribes; the first area colonized by the Lusitani was the Douro valley and the region of Beira Alta. And yet the country north of the Tagus, Lusitania, is the greatest of the Iberian nations, is the nation against which the Romans waged war for the longest times The Lusitani are mentioned for the first time in Livy and are described as fighting for the Carthaginians. In 179 BC, the praetor Lucius Postumius Albinus celebrated a triumph over the Lusitani, but in 155 BC, on the command of Punicus first and Cesarus after, the Lusitani reached Gibraltar. Here they were defeated by the praetor Lucius Mummius. From 152 BC onwards, the Roman Republic had difficulties in recruiting soldiers for the wars in Hispania, deemed brutal.

In 150 BC, Servius Sulpicius Galba organised a false armistice. While the Lusitani celebrated this new alliance, he massacred them. Two years after, in 137 BC Decimus Junius Brutus Callaicus led a successful campaign against the Lusitani, reaching as far north as the Minho river. Romans scored other victories with proconsul Decimus Junius Brutus Callaicus and Gaius Marius, but still the Lusitani resisted with a long guerilla war. With Lusitania, Rome had completed the conquest of the Iberian peninsula, divided by Augustus into the eastern and northern Hispania Tarraconensis, the southwestern Hispania Baetica and the western Provincia Lusitana. Lusitania included the territories of Asturia and Gallaecia, but these were ceded to the jurisdiction of the new Provincia Tarraconensis and the former remained as Provincia Lusitania et Vettones, its northern border was along the Douro river, while on its eastern side its border passed through Salmantica and Caesarobriga to the Anas river. Between 28-24 BC Augustus' military campaigns pacified all Hispania under Roman rule, with the foundation of Roman cities like Asturica Augusta and Bracara Aug

The General's Garden

The General's Garden known as the Book of the Heart or the New Book, is an ancient Chinese military treatise attributed to the famous Three Kingdoms period military strategist Zhuge Liang. Although the authorship of the book is attributed to Zhuge Liang, the book is not recorded prior to the Song Dynasty, it is considered to be a forgery written during the Northern Song period. No Song Dynasty editions survive, the earliest surviving editions date to the Ming Dynasty. Editions dating to 1517, 1564 and 1637 are known, of which the 1637 edition has a colophon dated 1485; the text was republished several times during the Qing Dynasty. A scholarly edition of the text was edited by Zhang Shu, a punctuated version of Zhang Shu's edition was published in China in 1960; the Ming editions of the text comprise fifty sections, but the last four sections, relating to the "barbarians" of the north, south and west, are omitted from most Qing Dynasty editions. This omission is thought to have been made in order to avoid offending the Manchu rulers of the Qing Dynasty.

Although the earliest surviving editions of the General's Garden only date back to the Ming Dynasty, a unique manuscript of a translation of the text into the Tangut language was collected from the abandoned fortress city of Khara-Khoto by Aurel Stein in 1914, is held at the British Library in London. This translation was made during the second half of the 12th century or the early 13th century, thus predates the earliest extant Chinese editions by some 200 years; the Tangut translation differs from the Chinese version in two important respects. Firstly, the Tangut text is divided into thirty-seven sections, omitting more than ten sections compared with the Chinese text, which comprises fifty sections, it is not certain whether this difference is due to the Song Dynasty source for the translation having fewer sections than the version of the text, or whether the Tangut translator deliberately omitted sections that were not considered relevant to the situation of the Western Xia. The other major difference is the treatment of the final four sections of the text, relating to the "barbarians" of the four directions, reduced to a single section describing only the barbarians of the north, called the "Lords of the Steppes" in the Tangut translation.

This reflects the different geopolitical situation of the Western Xia state compared with the Chinese state. List of Chinese military texts Galambos, Imre. "The northern neighbors of the Tangut". Cahiers de Linguistique Asie Orientale. 40: 69–104. ISSN 0153-3320. Grinstead, Eric. "The General's Garden, a twelfth-century military work". British Museum Quarterly. 26: 35–37. Doi:10.2307/4422768. ISSN 0007-151X. Kepping, Ksenia. ""The General's Garden" in the Mi-nia Translation". Последние статьи и документы. Omega Publishers. Pp. 12–23. ISBN 5-7373-0259-8

Anderston/City/Yorkhill (ward)

Anderston/City/Yorkhill is one of the 23 wards of Glasgow City Council. Created as Anderston/City in 2007, it returned four council members, using the single transferable vote system; the same criteria applied in 2012. For the 2017 Glasgow City Council election, the boundaries were changed, the ward decreased in size and was renamed Anderston/City/Yorkhill, still returning four councillors; the ward covers Glasgow city centre and the Merchant City which contain many office and retail premises but some residential buildings, includes the more populated areas of Cowcaddens and Townhead north of the city centre, along with the campuses of both the University of Strathclyde and Glasgow Caledonian University, with the M8 motorway being the northern boundary and High Street the eastern. The River Clyde forms the southern border of the ward, which stretches west through Anderston, Finnieston and Yorkhill to the River Kelvin; the Kelvingrove residential area to the north of Finnieston lies within the ward, but Kelvingrove Park and the Park District which were originally included in 2007 were reassigned to Hillhead ward in 2017.

At that time the small Ladywell neighbourhood and the grounds of Glasgow Royal Infirmary were reassigned to a new Dennistoun ward.'Yorkhill' was added to the name to better reflect the distribution of population, with most of the ward's residents living in areas west of Anderston. The ethnic makeup of the Anderston/City/Yorkhill ward using the 2011 census population statistics was: 75.9% White Scottish / British / Irish / Other 18.1% Asian 2.8% Black 3% Mixed / Other Ethnic Group