The Luttrell Psalter is an illuminated psalter commissioned by Sir Geoffrey Luttrell, lord of the manor of Irnham in Lincolnshire and illustrated on parchment circa 1320–1340 in England by anonymous scribes and artists. Along with the psalms, the Luttrell Psalter contains a calendar, the Mass and an antiphon for the dead; the pages vary in their degree of illumination, but many are richly covered with both decorated text and marginal pictures of saints and Bible stories, scenes of rural life. It is considered one of the richest sources for visual depictions of everyday rural life in medieval England though the last folio is now lost; the Psalter was acquired by the British Museum in 1929 for £31,500 from Mary Angela Noyes, wife of the poet Alfred Noyes, with the assistance of an interest-free loan from the American millionaire and art collector J. P. Morgan, it is now in the collection of the British Library in London, since the separation of the Library from the British Museum. The Luttrell Psalter was created in England sometime between 1320 and 1345, having been commissioned by Sir Geoffrey Luttrell, lord of the manor of Irnham in Lincolnshire.
The date of its completion has not been established with certainty. Eric Millar writes that the manuscript was made around 1335–40, before the death of Luttrell's wife, Agnes Sutton, because the illustrations show characteristics of the "late'decadence' of the Late East Anglian style". Lucy Sandler prefers to date the creation around 1325–30 because the styles are similar to the other manuscripts of that time. Michelle Brown believes it was made and planned much around 1330–45. Luttrell, a wealthy land owner, felt his death was coming and wanted to account for all his actions, as is stated in the colophon of the psalter; the purpose of the manuscript was to help with the provisions for his will, in which Luttrell requested twenty chaplains to recite masses for a five-year period after his death and clerks to recite the Psalms, other activities for stated levels of monetary remuneration. The creation of the Luttrell Psalter might be connected either to the papal dispensation of 1331 which allowed the Luttrell-Sutton marriage or to the coming of age in 1334 of Andrew Luttrell, Sir Geoffrey's son.
Such indications are present in the illustrations in the manuscript. The psalter contains a portrait of Luttrell, at the end of Psalm 109 armed and mounted on a war-horse, with an extravagant display of the Luttrell arms; the image is believed to have served to emphasise his knightly status during a marriage union of a family member. To assert his role as patron of the work, the line Dominus Galfridus Louterell me fieri fecit appears above the portrait; the manuscript contains images of beggars and street performers and grotesques, all symbolizing the chaos and anarchy, present in mediaeval society and feared by Sir Geoffrey Luttrell and his contemporaries. The Luttrell Psalter was composed by one scribe and at least five different artists, all of them with different styles; the first Luttrell artist is referred to as "the decorator". He used a linear style of drawing rather than a two-dimensional approach; the second Luttrell artist, "the Colourist" drew images that were more sculptural and modelled by light and shade.
He took more notice of human posture in his drawings. The third Luttrell artist, "the Illustrator", favoured a two-dimensional style; the fourth Luttrell artist, "the Luttrell Master", was skilled in rural themes and outlandish grotesques. He drew the depictions of the Luttrell family, he shows great skill at producing effects of texture. His technique is similar to the style used in most of the East Anglian manuscripts of the period; the manuscript came to public notice in 1794, when miniatures of Sir Geoffrey Luttrell, his wife and daughter-in-law were reproduced along with a summary of the book. The following is from Dorset Natural History and Archaeological Society Magazine 1906: "The Louterell Psalter, a national relic of priceless value which, while the property of the Weld family, is on loan at the British Museum, from which it had been got down for the occasion; the pictorial embellishment of the Psalter shows that the illuminators were artists of vivid perception, strong imaginative faculty, ingenuity and a keen sense of humour, were in touch with the full-bodied homely, racy English life of the period - husbandry, the chase, the use of arms, devotion and industrial occupations.
The Psalter contains the Canticles, Te Deum, Athanasian Creed, Litany of the Saints, Office of the Dead, preceded by a calendar. It is supposed to have been done for Sir Godfrey Louterell, of Irnham, born in 1276 and died 1345. On page 202, at the end of Psalm cviii; the last of the Psalms sung at Matins, is the inscription in the same hand as the text: "Dominus Galfirdus Louterell me fieri fecit."" The Luttrell Psalter measures 350 x 245 mm. It comprises 309 high-quality vellum leaves with flyleaves of paper. Most of the pages are decorated in red paint with details in gold and blind; the illustrations are tooled into the paper. The manuscript has eight cords, it has a modern binding of dark brown Morocco leather. The scribes used ruling as a method of an expensive method; the scripts are large. Each frame of the manuscript has about f
Housing in New Zealand is based traditionally on the quarter-acre block, detached suburban home, but many historical exceptions and alternative modern trends exist. New Zealand has followed international designs. From the time of organised European colonization in the mid-19th century there has been a general chronological development in the types of homes built in New Zealand, examples of each generation are still occupied; some of the first divisions of land in 1847 were into 10 acre and 50 acre sections. Since that time the trend towards subdivision. While there has been some opposition to townhouse style development, New Zealand cities are becoming more dense. From the 1910s blocks of flats were built in New Zealand's cities; this was given government support from the 1930s when the Labour government built flats in the inner city to replaces slum districts. Many old office blocks and church buildings have been converted to apartments in New Zealand's major centres. There are a range houses and similar structures that are used on a temporary basis as holiday accommodation.
In the North Island holiday homes are traditional called baches, while in the South Island they are known as cribs. These are purpose built houses or huts, but can be designed as permint home that have since changed their usage pattern. Baches are typical next to a coast or a lake, but can be used as a base for hunting or fishing in local rivers, they are well known for a rustic and mismatched internal design and furniture. However, large expensive holiday homes are less called baches. There a large range of government hiking and hunting Huts in New Zealand, but staying in them for more than three days at a time is discouraged. Tents, camper-vans and caravans are common, however New Zealand lacks the large trailer parks of some similar countries. A new movement to build tiny homes Many New Zealanders live permanently in structures which were not designed to be homes and are counted as homeless by the government. Homelessness is a difficult statistic to measure and in New Zealand is not recorded with same accuracy as other statistics.
In 2013 it was estimated by the census that 1% of people in New Zealand live in "severe housing deprivation". This number has increased from previous years. In May 2018 the government allocated $100 million to address homelessness over the next four years. In 1990 the average new homes was 125 square metres, by 2017. In 1966 the New Zealand Encyclopedia recognized seven basic designs of New Zealand houses. At first Māori used the building methods, developed in tropical Polynesia, altered to fit the more nomadic lifestyle. By the 15th Century Classical Māori communities slept in rectangular sleeping houses; the wharepuni were made of timber, tree ferns and bark, they had a thatched roof and earth floors. These building had a front porch, an adaptation to New Zealand's climate and is not found in tropical Polynesia. In the southern South Island were aquaculture was not possible a semi nomadic way of life led to seasonal camps that could be repaired on the groups return; the effect of European housing methods led to a mix of designs with Maori adopting windows and high roofs.
Houses from this period are divided into villas. The first houses built in New Zealand were cottages. Villas were the more expensively built equivalent; the typical villa has the kitchen to the rear of the house and separate from the dining room, as food preparation was meant to occur out of sight. The 20th century started with big Edwardian houses and neo-Georgian architecture From the late 1910s the Californian bungalow became more popular; the design has a lower pitched roof and ceiling height than the typical New Zealand villa and was therefore easier to heat. This coincided with the popularity of the Hollywood film industry, which incorporated American clothes, furniture and houses; as a response to American influence and nostalgia for Britain a style of houses were built which conspicuously emulated older English styles. Spanish mission style from the late 1920s with grand triple arches and twisted Baroque columns. Modernism of the 1930 was designed to be functional with a flat roof. State housing had a big influence on the way homes were built in New Zealand from the 1940s to the late 1960s.
In the early 21st Century New Zealanders built in variety of styles that borrowed from a variety of previous influences. In some conspicuous locations in area of natural beauty it is required by local councils to blend the house design with the surrounding environment. Houses can be built to retain it overnight. With increased affluence and environmental concerns a small but growing number of houses are built with semi processed natural materials and traditional building methods. Glass fibre, polystyrene and paper are all used for insulation in New Zealand. Home insulation in New Zealand can be subsidised by the government; some local councils are restricting the kind of wood and coal burners that can be used in order to improve air quality. In 2017 about 80% of New Zealanders where on water purification distribution systems that supplied more than 100 people. Of these 96% met the bacteriological standards for water quality, while 81% met all the relevant standards; the remaining 20% of New Zealanders typical live In rural areas where rain and bores are used as water sources.
Large properties can store their sewage on site. Grey water can be reused for purposes other than drinking; this recycling is require
The St. John's Red Storm men's soccer team represents St. John's University in New York City, New York in all in NCAA Division I soccer competitions, they compete in the Big East Conference and have experienced consistent success in both conference and national competitions. From 1992–2013, the Red Storm went to the NCAA Division I Men's Soccer Tournament in 20 of 22 seasons, with four appearances in the College Cup semifinals and two appearances in the final, winning the national championship in 1996; the team posted 27 consecutive seasons with a win percentage of.500 or better from 1987–2013 before suffering three consecutive losing seasons from 2014–16. In conference play, the St. John's men's soccer team has won six conference regular season championships and nine conference tournament championships, they are coached by Dave Masur who will be in his 24th season leading the Red Storm in 2014. References: Official website