Lycopene is a bright red carotenoid hydrocarbon found in tomatoes and other red fruits and vegetables, such as red carrots, watermelons and papayas, but it is not present in strawberries or cherries. Although lycopene is chemically a carotene, it has no vitamin A activity. Foods that are not red may contain lycopene, such as asparagus and parsley. In plants and other photosynthetic organisms, lycopene is an intermediate in the biosynthesis of many carotenoids, including beta-carotene, responsible for yellow, orange, or red pigmentation and photoprotection. Like all carotenoids, lycopene is a tetraterpene, it is insoluble in water. Eleven conjugated double bonds give lycopene its deep red color. Owing to the strong color, lycopene is useful as a food coloring and is approved for use in the USA, Australia and New Zealand and the European Union. Lycopene is a symmetrical tetraterpene assembled from eight isoprene units, it is a member of the carotenoid family of compounds, because it consists of carbon and hydrogen, is a carotene.
Isolation procedures for lycopene were first reported in 1910, the structure of the molecule was determined by 1931. In its natural, all-trans form, the molecule is long and straight, constrained by its system of 11 conjugated double bonds; each extension in this conjugated system reduces the energy required for electrons to transition to higher energy states, allowing the molecule to absorb visible light of progressively longer wavelengths. Lycopene absorbs all but the longest wavelengths of visible light, so it appears red. Plants and photosynthetic bacteria produce all-trans lycopene; when exposed to light or heat, lycopene can undergo isomerization to any of a number of cis-isomers, which have a bent rather than linear shape. Different isomers were shown to have different stabilities due to their molecular energy. In human blood, various cis-isomers constitute more than 60% of the total lycopene concentration, but the biological effects of individual isomers have not been investigated. Carotenoids like lycopene are found in photosynthetic pigment-protein complexes in plants, photosynthetic bacteria and algae.
They are responsible for the bright orange–red colors of fruits and vegetables, perform various functions in photosynthesis, protect photosynthetic organisms from excessive light damage. Lycopene is a key intermediate in the biosynthesis of carotenoids, such as beta-carotene, xanthophylls. Dispersed lycopene molecules can be encapsulated into carbon nanotubes enhancing their optical properties. Efficient energy transfer occurs between the encapsulated dye and nanotube — light is absorbed by the dye and without significant loss is transferred to the nanotube. Encapsulation increases chemical and thermal stability of lycopene molecules; the unconditioned biosynthesis of lycopene in eukaryotic plants and in prokaryotic cyanobacteria is similar, as are the enzymes involved. Synthesis begins with mevalonic acid, converted into dimethylallyl pyrophosphate; this is condensed with three molecules of isopentenyl pyrophosphate, to give the 20-carbon geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate. Two molecules of this product are condensed in a tail-to-tail configuration to give the 40-carbon phytoene, the first committed step in carotenoid biosynthesis.
Through several desaturation steps, phytoene is converted into lycopene. The two terminal isoprene groups of lycopene can be cyclized to produce beta-carotene, which can be transformed into a wide variety of xanthophylls. Lycopene is the pigment in tomato sauces, it is insoluble in plain water. Because of its non-polarity, lycopene in food preparations will stain any sufficiently porous material, including most plastics. To remove this staining, the plastics may be soaked in a solution containing a small amount of chlorine bleach; the bleach oxidizes the lycopene, thus allowing the now-polarized metabolite to dissolve. Absorption of lycopene requires that it be fat to form micelles. Intestinal absorption of lycopene is enhanced by cooking. Lycopene dietary supplements may be more efficiently absorbed than lycopene from food. Lycopene is not an essential nutrient for humans, but is found in the diet from dishes prepared from tomatoes; the median and 99th percentile of dietary lycopene intake have been estimated to be 5.2 and 123 mg/d, respectively.
Fruits and vegetables that are high in lycopene include autumn olive, tomatoes, pink grapefruit, pink guava, seabuckthorn and rosehip. Ketchup is a common dietary source of lycopene. Although gac has the highest content of lycopene of any known fruit or vegetable and tomato-based sauces and ketchup account for more than 85% of the dietary intake of lycopene for most people; the lycopene content of tomatoes depends on variety and increases. Unlike other fruits and vegetables, where nutritional content such as vitamin C is diminished upon cooking, processing of tomatoes increases the concentration of bioavailable lycopene. Lycopene in tomato paste is up to four times more bioavailable than in fresh tomatoes. Processed tomato products such as pasteurized tomato juice, soup and ketchup contain a higher concentration of bioavailab
Gang Wars is a 1989 2D beat'em up arcade game developed by Alpha Denshi and published by SNK. The setting takes place in New York City, following martial artists Mike and Jackie, who heard an evil gang led by the antagonist, are terrorizing the city. Jaguar kidnapped a young woman named Cynthia. Mike and Jackie must fight through parts of New York City to return peace to New York City, defeat Jaguar to save Cynthia. In Gang Wars, up to two players can control two different characters with different fighting styles; the movements are composed of two attack types, as jumping to fight against enemies or overcome obstacles. Players have access to a repertoire of techniques by pushing these buttons individually or in combination; the characters can pick up weapons for hitting, throwing projectiles and firearms. At the end of each stage the players can customise the characters' three fighting statistics depending on the number of points they have. Higher end stage scores grant more customisation points.
Ninja Combat Ninja Commando Gang Wars at Arcade Database Gang Wars at the Killer List of Videogames Gang Wars at arcade-history
Hancock's Resolution is a historic two-storey gambrel-roofed stone farm house with shed-roofed dormers and interior end chimneys located on a 15-acre farm at 2795 Bayside Beach Road in Pasadena, Anne Arundel County, United States. In 1785 Stephen Hancock, Jr. built the original stone section as the main house for what was a 410-acre farm. Additions to the house were built in 1855 and in about 1900. Stone and frame outbuildings remain, including a one-storey gable-roofed stone dairy. Hancock's Resolution remained in Hancock family ownership until the deaths in the 1960s of Mary Hancock and her brother, Henry Hancock, who left the property to Anne Arundel County to be preserved. Hancock's Resolution underwent a thorough restoration in 2000 and is now open to the public as a house museum. On October 10, 1975, Hancock's Resolution was added to the National Register of Historic Places. Included in the designation were the additions and the Hancock family graveyard. Hancock's Resolution, Anne Arundel County, including photo from 2002, at Maryland Historical Trust Hancock's Resolution house museum website Hancock Family Descendants site for Hancock's Resolution Find A Grave listing for Hancocks Resolution Family Cemetery