Lydia was an Iron Age kingdom of western Asia Minor located east of ancient Ionia in the modern western Turkish provinces of Uşak, Manisa and inland İzmir. Its population spoke an Anatolian language known as Lydian, its capital was Sardis. The Kingdom of Lydia existed from about 1200 BC to 546 BC. At its greatest extent, during the 7th century BC, it covered all of western Anatolia. In 546 BC, it became a province of the Achaemenid Persian Empire, known as the satrapy of Lydia or Sparda in Old Persian. In 133 BC, it became part of the Roman province of Asia. Coins are said to have been invented in Lydia around the 7th century BC; the endonym Śfard survives in bilingual and trilingual stone-carved notices of the Achaemenid Empire: the satrapy of Sparda, Aramaic Saparda, Babylonian Sapardu, Elamitic Išbarda, Hebrew סְפָרַד. These in the Greek tradition are associated with Sardis, the capital city of King Gyges, constructed during the 7th century BC. Lydia is called Kisitan in The Flower of the History of the East by Hayton of Corycus, corrupted to Quesiton in The Travels of Sir John Mandeville.
The region of the Lydian kingdom was during the 15th-14th centuries part of the Arzawa kingdom. However, the Lydian language is not categorized as part of the Luwic subgroup, unlike the other nearby Anatolian languages Luwian and Lycian. An Etruscan/Lydian association has long been a subject of conjecture; the Greek historian Herodotus stated that the Etruscans came from Lydia, repeated in Virgil's epic poem the Aeneid, Etruscan-like language was found on the Lemnos stele from the Aegean Sea island of Lemnos. However, the decipherment of Lydian and its classification as an Anatolian language mean that Etruscan and Lydian were not part of the same language family. Furthermore, a mitochondrial DNA study suggests that the Etruscans were an indigenous population, showing that Etruscans appear to fall close to a Neolithic population from Central Europe and to other Tuscan populations suggesting that the Etruscan civilization developed locally from the Villanovan culture, with the most separation time between Tuscany and Western Anatolia falling around 7,600 years ago, with a 95% credible interval between 5,000 and 10,000.
The boundaries of historical Lydia varied across the centuries. It was bounded first by Mysia, Caria and coastal Ionia; the military power of Alyattes and Croesus expanded Lydia, with its capital at Sardis, controlled all Asia Minor west of the River Halys, except Lycia. After the Persian conquest the River Maeander was regarded as its southern boundary, during imperial Roman times Lydia comprised the country between Mysia and Caria on the one side and Phrygia and the Aegean Sea on the other; the Lydian language was an Indo-European language in the Anatolian language family, related to Luwian and Hittite. Due to its fragmentary attestation, the meanings of many words are unknown but much of the grammar has been determined. Similar to other Anatolian languages, it featured extensive use of prefixes and grammatical particles to chain clauses together. Lydian had undergone extensive syncope, leading to numerous consonant clusters atypical of Indo-European languages. Lydian became extinct during the 1st century BC.
Lydia developed after the decline of the Hittite Empire in the 12th century BC. In Hittite times, the name for the region had been Arzawa. According to Greek source, the original name of the Lydian kingdom was Maionia, or Maeonia: Homer refers to the inhabitants of Lydia as Maiones. Homer describes their capital not as Hyde. Herodotus adds that the "Meiones" were renamed Lydians after their king Lydus, son of Atys, during the mythical epoch that preceded the Heracleid dynasty; this etiological eponym served to account for the Greek ethnic name Lydoi. The Hebrew term for Lydians, Lûḏîm, as found in the Book of Jeremiah, has been considered, beginning with Flavius Josephus, to be derived from Lud son of Shem. During Biblical times, the Lydian warriors were famous archers; some Maeones still existed during historical times in the upland interior along the River Hermus, where a town named Maeonia existed, according to Pliny the Elder and Hierocles. Lydian mythology is unknown, their literature and rituals have been lost due to the absence of any monuments or archaeological finds with extensive inscriptions.
For the Greeks, Tantalus was a primordial ruler of mythic Lydia, Niobe his proud daughter. In Greek myth, Lydia had adopted the double-axe symbol, that appears in the Mycenaean civilization, the labrys. Omphale, daughter of the river Iardanos, was a ruler of Lydia, whom Heracles was required to serve for a time, his adventures in Lydia are the adventures of a Greek hero
Zorzor is the second largest city in Lofa County, Liberia. Located far from Liberia's capital of Monrovia, it is a local trade center for agricultural products such as rice, pineapples, palm oil, palm kernels. Zorzor's major ethnic groups include the Loma peoples; the town contains an American Lutheran church hospital, a leper colony, a handicrafts workshop. The Zozor Rural Teacher Training institute is located in the nearby town of Fisebu. Without motorised transport, Zorzor is seven days' walk away from Monrovia; the city's first hospital was the aforementioned Lutheran facility, constructed in 1924. Zorzor's population as of the latest census was 4,752; the Lutheran hospital mentioned above catered to the health needs of the local community. Mr. Augustine Aiyadurai from Schieffelin Institute of health - Research & Leprosy center, India was working as an administrator when he contracted a fatal illness and died on 3 August 2014. List of reduplicated place names
Diego da Silva Reis is a Brazilian footballer who plays as a forward for Lega Pro Prima Divisione club Prato. Born in Itapemirim, Espírito Santo, Reis started his career with Rio de Janeiro club Campo Grande. In 2000, he left for Italian team Bologna along with Diego Oliveira and Claiton dos Santos moved to Chievo along with Diego Oliveira. In 2005–06 season he left for Serie C2 side Bellaria – Igea Marina. In the next season he left for Serie C1 club Cremonese. In January 2007, Reis was loaned back for Prato; the loan was extended in summer 2007 and Reis became a regular starter of the team that season. In June 2008 Prato signed him in co-ownership deal. In 2008–09 season he scored 5 league goals and in June 2009 Prato bought him outright by winning an auction between the two clubs. Football.it Profile Prato Profile