click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Lymphatic system

The lymphatic system, or lymphoid system, is an organ system in vertebrates, part of the circulatory system and the immune system. It is made up of a large network of lymphatic vessels, lymphatic or lymphoid organs, lymphoid tissues; the vessels carry. Unlike the circulatory system, the lymphatic system is not a closed system; the human circulatory system processes an average of 20 litres of blood per day through capillary filtration, which removes plasma from the blood. 17 litres of the filtered plasma is reabsorbed directly into the blood vessels, while the remaining three litres remain in the interstitial fluid. One of the main functions of the lymphatic system is to provide an accessory return route to the blood for the surplus three litres; the other main function is that of immune defense. Lymph is similar to blood plasma, in that it contains waste products and cellular debris, together with bacteria and proteins; the cells of the lymph are lymphocytes. Associated lymphoid organs are composed of lymphoid tissue, are the sites either of lymphocyte production or of lymphocyte activation.

These include the lymph nodes, the spleen, the thymus, the tonsils. Lymphocytes are generated in the bone marrow; the lymphoid organs contain other types of cells such as stromal cells for support. Lymphoid tissue is associated with mucosas such as mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue. Fluid from circulating blood leaks into the tissues of the body by capillary action, carrying nutrients to the cells; the fluid bathes the tissues as interstitial fluid, collecting waste products and damaged cells, drains as lymph into the lymphatic capillaries and lymphatic vessels. These vessels carry the lymph throughout the body, passing through numerous lymph nodes which filter out unwanted materials such as bacteria and damaged cells. Lymph passes into much larger lymph vessels known as lymph ducts; the right lymphatic duct drains the right side of the region and the much larger left lymphatic duct, known as the thoracic duct, drains the left side of the body. The ducts empty into the subclavian veins to return to the blood circulation.

Lymph is moved through the system by muscle contractions. In some vertebrates, a lymph heart is present; the lymphatic system was first described in the 17th century independently by Olaus Rudbeck and Thomas Bartholin. The lymphatic system consists of a conducting network of lymphatic vessels, lymphoid organs, lymphoid tissues, the circulating lymph; the primary lymphoid organs generate lymphocytes from immature progenitor cells. The thymus and the bone marrow constitute the primary lymphoid organs involved in the production and early clonal selection of lymphocyte tissues. Bone marrow is responsible for both the creation of T cells and the production and maturation of B cells, which are important cell types of the immune system. From the bone marrow, B cells join the circulatory system and travel to secondary lymphoid organs in search of pathogens. T cells, on the other hand, travel from the bone marrow to the thymus, where they develop further and mature. Mature T cells join B cells in search of pathogens.

The other 95 % of T cells begin a process of a form of programmed cell death. The thymus increases in size from birth in response to postnatal antigen stimulation, it is most active during pre-adolescent periods. At puberty, by the early teens, the thymus begins to atrophy and regress, with adipose tissue replacing the thymic stroma. However, residual T lymphopoiesis continues throughout adult life; the loss or lack of the thymus results in severe immunodeficiency and subsequent high susceptibility to infection. In most species, the thymus consists of lobules divided by septa. T cells mature from thymocytes and undergo a selection process in the thymic cortex before entering the medulla to interact with epithelial cells; the thymus provides an inductive environment for the development of T cells from hematopoietic progenitor cells. In addition, thymic stromal cells allow for the selection of a functional and self-tolerant T cell repertoire. Therefore, one of the most important roles of the thymus is the induction of central tolerance.

The secondary lymphoid organs, which include lymph nodes and the spleen, maintain mature naive lymphocytes and initiate an adaptive immune response. The peripheral lymphoid organs are the sites of lymphocyte activation by antigens. Activation leads to clonal affinity maturation. Mature lymphocytes recirculate between the blood and the peripheral lymphoid organs until they encounter their specific antigen; the main functions of the spleen are: to produce immune cells to fight antigens to remove particulate matter and aged blood cells red blood cells to produce blood cells during fetal life. The spleen synthesizes antibodies in its white pulp and removes antibody-coated bacteria and antibody-coated blood cells by way of blood and lymph node circulation. A study published in 2009 using mice found that the spleen contains, in its reserve, half of the body's monocytes within the red pulp; these monocytes, upon moving to injured tissue, turn into dendritic cells and macrophages while promoting tissue healing.

The spleen is a center of activity of the mononuclear phagocyte system and can be considered analogous to a large lymph node, as its absence causes a predisposition to certain infections. Like the thymus, the spleen has only efferent lymph

Politics vs. Literature

"Politics vs. Literature: An Examination of Gulliver's Travels" is a critical essay published in 1946 by the English author George Orwell; the essay is a review of Gulliver's Travels with a discussion of its author Jonathan Swift. The essay first appeared in Polemic No 5 in September 1946. Within the essay, Orwell refers to receiving a copy of Gulliver's Travels on his eighth birthday and claims to have read it not less than half a dozen times since, he refers to it as "a rancorous as well as a pessimistic book", going on to add that "it descends into political partisanship of a narrow kind." Orwell admits that while it might seem that his object in writing the essay was to "refute" Swift and "belittle" him, adding that he is against Swift in a political and moral sense, he states that Swift is "one of the writers I admire with least reserve". Orwell declares that Gulliver's Travels is an attack on humanity, the aim being to "humiliate Man by reminding him that he is weak and ridiculous, above all that he stinks".

He notes that Swift's political affiliations were perversely reactionary and were driven by personal disappointment. Orwell finds fault with Swift's critical attitude to pure science and discovery. There appear to be moments when Swift loses hold of the satire and introduces some constructive political thought - in identifying the dangers of totalitarianism. Swift, claims Orwell, had much in common with Tolstoy in intolerance. A third criticism is Swift's constant harping on disease and deformity - and Orwell introduces his view of these as particular horrors of childhood, he concludes that Swift is a diseased writer, riven with disgust and pessimism. Although against Swift in a moral and political sense, he admires Gulliver's Travels highly. Arguing that enjoyment can overwhelm disapproval, he rejects the argument that a book cannot be good if it expresses a palpably false view of life and concludes that in spite of its author, Gulliver's Travels is a great work of art; this and the other three essays by Orwell published in Polemic are considered by Bernard Crick as Orwell's finest essays.

But Swift's greatest contribution to political thought, in the narrower sense of the words, is his attack in Part III, on what would now be called totalitarianism. He has an extraordinary clear prevision of the spy-haunted'police State', with its endless heresy hunts and treason trials, all designed to neutralize popular discontent by changing it into war hysteria. We are right to think of Swift as a rebel and iconoclast, but except in certain secondary matters, such as his insistence that women should receive the same education as men, he cannot be labelled'left', he is a Tory anarchist, despising authority while disbelieving in liberty, preserving the aristocratic outlook while seeing that the existing aristocracy is degenerate and contemptible. He best books of any one age have always been written from several different viewpoints, some of them palpably more false than others. In so far as a writer is a propagandist, the most one can ask of him is that he shall genuinely believe in what he is saying, that it shall not be something blazingly silly.

To-day, for example, one can imagine a good book being written by a Catholic, a Communist, a Fascist, pacifist, an anarchist by an old-style Liberal or an ordinary Conservative: one cannot imagine a good book being written by a spiritualist, a Buchmanite or a member of the Ku-Klux-Klan. The views that a writer holds must be compatible with sanity, in the medical sense, with the power of continuous thought: beyond that what we ask of him is talent, another name for conviction. Swift did not possess ordinary wisdom, but he did possess a terrible intensity of vision, capable of picking out a single hidden truth and magnifying it and distorting it; the durability of Gulliver's Travels goes to show that, if the force of belief is behind it, a world-view which only just passes the test of sanity is sufficient to produce a great work of art. Bibliography of George Orwell Politics vs. Literature: An Examination of Gulliver's Travels at Faded Page Text of Essay from Gutenberg Gulliver's Travels at Project Gutenberg

Mount Agassiz (California)

Mount Agassiz, at 13,899 feet, is one of the twenty highest peaks of California. It is the easiest to climb of the major Palisades summits; this peak is not to be confused with the 9967ft peak by the same name in Desolation Wilderness in the California Sierra. Agassiz is near Bishop Pass, it stands on the boundary between Kings Canyon National Park and Inyo National Forest, Fresno and Inyo counties. In 1879, Lilbourne Winchell named it Agassiz Needle for Harvard University professor of zoology and geology Louis Agassiz; the USGS recognized it by its current name. The peak is named after Swiss-American scientist Louis Agassiz; the name Agassiz Needle was applied to another nearby peak in 1879 Mount Winchell, but at some point the name moved to the current peak. There are three major routes to Agassiz's summit; the easiest is the west slope, both for its non-technical ascent and proximity to the Bishop Pass Trail. From South Lake, the trail climbs to Bishop Pass, the summit route begins there. An attempt to ascend from the west via a chute can lead off route, to areas requiring more technical mountaineering skills and equipment.

Another class 2 scrambling route is the southeast face by way of the south ridge, from Agassiz Col. A more technical route is the northeast face, which requires class 4 climbing. Norman Clyde established it by following a couloir and arête from Fifth Lake. Mountain peaks of California Palisades of the Sierra Nevada "Mount Agassiz". SummitPost.org. Retrieved 2007-08-18

Cape Muzon

Cape Muzon is a cape located in the Alexander Archipelago of the U. S. state of Alaska. It is the southernmost point of Dall Island and the headland marking the northwestern extremity of the Dixon Entrance; the boundary line separating Alaska from Canada runs close to Cape Muzon, although according to the Alaska Boundary Treaty Cape Muzon is defined as the western end of the so-called A-B Line, part of the Canada–United States border. The name comes from Jacinto Caamaño, who named it Cabo de Muñoz in 1792. George Vancouver adopted Caamaño's place names and transposed two letters, making Muzon. In 1787 George Dixon called it Cape Pitt, it has been known by other names such as Cape Irving, Kaigani and Kygane. Its native name was published in Russian as Mys Kaygany by Captain Tebenkov in 1852. List of areas disputed by Canada and the United States Alaska boundary dispute

Jos van der Meer

Jos W. M. van der Meer is emeritus professor and former chairman at the department of internal medicine of the Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre in Nijmegen, Netherlands. He is a member of the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences, of which he was vice president and chairman of the division of natural sciences, he is a member of Academia Europaea. Between 2014 and 2016 he was president of European Academies Science Advisory Council, he performs research on chronic fatigue syndrome and Hyper-IgD syndrome. He is active in graphic art and makes cartoons, for example for the Dutch science journal Mediator. In 1984, van der Meer published the first paper about hyper-immunoglobulinemia D, the new "periodic fever" syndrome he had discovered; this was the start of his research on interleukin-1 and his collaboration with Dr. Charles A. Dinarello, to find out whether this was an IL-1 disease. In the early 1990s together with his former PhD student Joost PH Drenth, he collected data on HIDS patients in the Netherlands and abroad and characterised the inflammatory response in HIDS.

In 1999, Drenth and van der Meer could establish – together with the group of Dr. Marc Delpech in Paris – that the syndrome was due to mutations of the gene encoding for mevalonate kinase, an enzyme in the cholesterol synthesis pathway. Independently – and at the same time – the group of Professor Ronald Wanders found this genetic defect. Together with Anna Simon and Joost Drenth he established that HIDS should be considered an auto-inflammatory syndrome; some 5 years ago, his group discovered that recombinant interleukin-1 receptor antagonist is effective as a treatment for HIDS. This finding not only provides patients with an effective therapy, but provides further proof that HIDS is an interleukin-1 disease. Since 1987, van der Meer worked on the role of cytokines in health and inflammatory disease; the work was continued in Nijmegen. In the years to follow, Bart-Jan Kullberg, Mihai Netea and Leo AB Joosten joined the group. Major findings of the group are: Interleukin-1 stimulates host defence against infection through interference with lethal cytokinaemia Hyperlipoproteinaemia defends the host against Gram-negative bacterial infection, but not against fungal infection.

Toll-like receptor 2 stimulation predisposes for IL-10 production and induction of T regulatory lymphocytes Bartonella lipopolysaccharide is a non-toxic, complete blocker of Toll-like receptor 4 The fungal pathogen Candida albicans exhibits a series of molecular patterns that are recognised by different pattern recognition receptors. The macrophage mannose receptor induces IL-17 in response to Candida albicans The processing of IL-1beta is not dependent on caspase-1. Contrary to the current dogma, it is clear that caspase-1 is present in monocytes and exsudate macrophages During the migration of humans out of Africa, evolutionary pressure has led to profound changes in the occurrence of TLR4 polymorphisms Deficiency of dectin-1 leads to increased susceptibility to mucocutaneous fungal infection Reactive oxygen species enhance the production of IL-1beta. Together with Mihai Netea he introduced a new paradigm, the concept of trained immunity, in which monocytes and macrophages undergo epigenetic reprogramming leading to enhanced effector function of these cells.

As a clinician confronted with patients with chronic fatigue syndrome, van der Meer was intrigued by their suffering. Since 1989 together with Gijs Bleijenberg and Jochem MD Galama, he performed research trying to understand CFS. Major findings are: There is no evidence for a role of persistent infection In a television interview since Lo et al. he has admitted that the positive study was earthshaking. There are important perpetuating psychological factors, which can be addressed with cognitive behaviour therapy Successful CBT means recovery CFS seems to be a central disorder of bodily perception Fluoxetine, nutritional supplements and Ondansetron are not effective in CFS There is a loss of grey matter in the brain of CFS patients and this is at least reversible with successful CBT. Concerned about the increasing antimicrobial resistance in the world, he was one of the founders of the Dutch working group on antibiotic policy, SWAB, which receives long-term support from the Ministry of Health in the Netherlands.

At the European level, he was a co-founder and first chairman of the ESGAP. Since 1990, van der Meer is involved with biomedical research development and capacity building in Indonesia. In 2004, together with Andre JAM van der Ven, he took the initiative to establish PRIOR, a virtual collaborative centre in which research groups in Jakarta and Bandung in Indonesia, KCMC Moshi, Nijmegen, Maastricht, RIVM Bilthoven, Wageningen work together in the combat of poverty-related infections. 1983: WRO Goslings award for Infectious diseases 1988: Bronze medal of Leiden University Medical Centre 1994: Marie Curie Award of the European Association

Innsbruck, ich muss dich lassen

"Innsbruck, ich muss dich lassen" is a German Renaissance song. It was first published as a choral movement by the Franco-Flemish composer Heinrich Isaac; the lyricist is unknown. There has been doubt whether the melody was in fact written by Heinrich Isaac or copied from earlier tunes; the melody was used in a Lutheran chorale, "O Welt, ich muß dich lassen". The song exists in two different four-part settings by Heinrich Isaac: a Diskantlied with the melody in the soprano part, a Tenorlied with the cantus firmus in the tenor part; the hymn "In allen meinen Taten" by Paul Fleming was written for the same melody. Johann Sebastian Bach used it in several cantatas in the chorale cantata In allen meinen Taten, BWV 97; the song is famously associated with the city of Innsbruck in Tyrol. The lyrics express sorrow at having to leave a post at court, as the singer is forced to abandon his love and to depart to a foreign country, he commends her to God's protection. Though Heinrich Isaac indeed spent some time in Innsbruck, the text was not written by him.

The stanzaic form consists of six iambic trimeters with an unusual A–A–B–C–C–B rhyme scheme. Music of Innsbruck Notes Sources "Chorale Melodies used in Bach's Vocal Works:'O Welt, ich muß dich lassen / Nun ruhen alle Wälder'". Bach Cantatas Website bach-cantatas.com. Retrieved 7 November 2006. "Heinrich Isaac". Poets & Composers: Short Biographies. Bach-cantatas.com. Retrieved 7 November 2006. Media related to Innsbruck, ich muss dich lassen at Wikimedia Commons Innsbruck, ich muss dich lassen: Free scores at the Choral Public Domain Library Innsbruck, ich muss dich lassen: Scores at the International Music Score Library Project Innsbruck, ich muss dich lassen on YouTube, Die Singphoniker digital facsimile of the original edition, Georg. Ein Aussbund Schoener Teutscher Liedlein: Zu Singen, Vnd Auff Allerley Instrument Zugebrauchen, Sonderlich Ausserlesen. Nürmberg: Berg & Neuber, 1552. You need to page each voice separately to the following pages: Stimme D p. 41, Stimme A p. 43, Stimme T p. 53, Stimme B p. 41