Lynching in the United States

Lynching is the practice of murder by a group of people by extrajudicial action. Lynchings in the United States rose in number after the American Civil War in the late 19th century, following the emancipation of slaves. Most lynchings were of African-American men in the Southern United States, but women and non-blacks were lynched, not always in the South. White lynchings of blacks occurred in the Midwestern United States and the border states during the 20th-century Great Migration of blacks out of the Southern United States; the purpose was to intimidate blacks through racial terrorism. According to Ida B. Wells and Tuskegee University, most lynching victims were accused of murder or attempted murder. Rape or attempted rape was the second most common accusation. Sociologist Arthur F. Raper investigated one hundred lynchings during the 1930s and estimated that one-third of the victims were falsely accused. On a per capita basis, lynchings were common in California and the Old West of Latinos, although they represented less than 10% of the national total.

Native Americans, Asian Americans, Italian-Americans were frequently lynched. Other ethnicities, including Finnish-Americans and German-Americans were lynched occasionally. According to the Tuskegee Institute, 4,743 people were lynched between 1882 and 1968 in the United States, including 3,446 African Americans and 1,297 whites. More than 73 percent of lynchings in the post-Civil War period occurred in the Southern states. According to the Equal Justice Initiative, 4,084 African-Americans were lynched between 1877 and 1950 in the South; the stereotype of a lynching is a hanging because hangings are what crowds of people saw and are easy to photograph. Some hangings were professionally photographed and sold as postcards, which were popular souvenirs in some parts of the U. S. "Although most people think only of hanging, lynching means much more." Victims were killed in a variety of other ways: shot burned alive, forced to jump off a bridge, dragged behind cars, the like. Sometimes they were tortured as well.

Lynchings were not fatal. A "mock" lynching, putting the rope around the neck of someone suspected of concealing information, might be used to compel "confessions". Lynchings were most frequent from 1890 to the 1920s, with a peak in 1892. Lynchings were large mob actions, attended by hundreds or thousands of watchers; as in the case of Ell Parsons, they were sometimes announced in advance in newspapers and in one instance with a special train. However, in the 20th century lynchings became more secretive, were conducted by smaller groups of people. According to Michael Pfeifer, the prevalence of lynching in postbellum America reflects a lack of confidence in the "due process" judicial system, he links the decline in lynching in the early twentieth century with "the advent of the modern death penalty": "legislators renovated the death penalty...out of direct concern for the alternative of mob violence". He cites "the modern, racialized excesses of urban police forces in the twentieth century and after" as having characteristics of lynching.

On April 26, 2018, in Montgomery, The National Memorial for Peace and Justice opened. Founded by the Equal Justice Initiative of that city, it is the first large memorial to document lynchings of African Americans in the United States. After the Reconstruction era, most of the South was politically dominated by white men. Lynchings were used to intimidate blacks by racial terrorism; the rate of lynchings in the South has been associated with economic strains, although the causal nature of this link is unclear. Low cotton prices and economic stress are associated with higher frequencies of lynching; the Fourteenth Amendment to the U. S. Constitution declared that all born in the United States were citizens, the Fifteenth that all citizens could vote, regardless "of race, color, or previous condition of servitude." These were regarded as self-destructive mistakes by many white Southerners. Some blamed freedmen for their own wartime hardships, post-war economic problems, loss of social and political privilege.

During Reconstruction and white people working in the South for civil rights, were attacked and sometimes lynched. Black voting was suppressed by violence as well as by poll taxes and literacy tests. Whites regained control of state legislatures in 1876, a national compromise resulted in the removal of federal troops from the South in 1877. In decades, violence continued around elections until blacks were disfranchised by the states from 1885 to 1908 through constitutional changes and laws that created barriers to voter registration across the South. Whites enacted Jim Crow laws to enforce blacks' second-class status. During this period that spanned the late 19th and early 20th centuries, lynchings reached a peak in the South. Georgia led the nation in the number of lynchings from 1900 to 1931 with 302 incidents, according to The Tuskegee Institute. However, Florida led the nation in lynchings per capita from 1900 to 1930. Lynchings peaked in many areas when it was time for landowners to settle accounts with sharecroppers.

There is no count of recorded lynchings that claims to be precise, the numbers vary depending on the sources, the years considered, the definition used to


Gaidher / Gaidhar known as Gajdhar is a word of Gujarati and Rajasthani language. The word Gaidher derives its origin from Garh; the word Gadh in north Indian languages like Hindi, Rajasthani, Marathi means a fort, like Chittorgarh, Mehrangadh. The persons who were expert and had skilled knowledge to plan and build a fort were called Gaidher or Gajdhar. Gaidhar means chief architect. Gaidhar also means a construction foreman or a Master Mason. Forts were built at strategic locations on a hill-top, to guard the kingdoms. Gaidhar were looked upon with respect. Gaidhar were appointed by kings, upon their skills and loyalty. Gaidhar were persons of high integrity as they used to make the blue-print of fort and whole forts were erected under his supervision and guidance; the kings used to trust them and they had the power and authority to hire manual laborers and skilled masons for such construction works. For example, members from Mestri and Suthar communities, who were master-builders, were appointed as Gaidher in Cutch.

In Madhya Pradesh, Gajdhar was a title awarded to the city architects and held an important place in the royal court and were looked upon with respect. Sometimes upon requirement another, two or three Gaidhers were appointed with his consultation by king and they used to work under head Gaidher as their assistants, Something like Assistant Engineer; this is one of the occupational surnames found in persons of India or Indian origin. In India or persons of Indian origin you can find many people using Gajdhar as a surname; the persons using this surname are found in people of Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh and Gujarat

Katy Tang

Katy Tang is a former American elected official in San Francisco, California. She served as a member of the San Francisco Board of Supervisors representing Supervisorial District 4. District 4 includes the neighborhoods of Central Sunset, Outer Sunset, Outer Parkside, Pine Lake Park. Tang was born in New York to immigrant parents from Taiwan, she grew up in the Sunset District, attended Lowell High School, graduated from University of California, Davis with a double B. A. in 3 years. She is a graduate of the University of San Francisco School of Law. Tang was appointed to the Board of Supervisors in February 2013 and elected in two subsequent elections in November 2013 and November 2014. On November 18, 2014, the Board of Supervisors elected Tang to be the Interim President of the Board of Supervisors until the Board selected a President after the appointment of a new Supervisor for District 3 to replace outgoing Assembly member-elect David Chiu, she was succeeded by London Breed after an election on January 8, 2015.

· HOME-SF — Local version of the State Density Bonus Law, which provides incentives for creation of low and middle-income housing units citywide. Passed in 2017, with subsequent changes in 2018. · Lactation in the Workplace / Family Friendly Ordinance — Strongest lactation in the workplace policy in the country when passed in 2017. Requires employers to have lactation policy, provide employees breaks & location for lactation, creation of lactation spaces in new buildings, sets minimum standards for lactation accommodations. Led to creation and passage of SB 937, sponsored by State Senator Scott Wiener in 2018 for same standards to apply across the state. · Zero Emission Vehicles — Mandated that half of city government light-duty vehicle fleet parked on city property to be zero emission vehicles by 2022. Co-sponsored ordinance with Mayor Ed Lee to require new construction to install electric vehicle charging infrastructure. · Food Service Waste Reduction — Legislation prohibits usage and sale of plastic straws in San Francisco, requires that food service ware accessories be provided only upon request or at self-service stations, requires that large events with over 100 people on City property provide at least 10% reusable beverage cups.

· Accessory Dwelling Unit Program Reform — Amendment to City's existing ADU program to make permitting process more streamlined and for residents to add more housing units in an affordable manner. · Flexible Retail — Created new "Flexible Retail" use under the San Francisco Planning Code to allow for multi-use retail and co-location of businesses to better support local businesses and prevent vacancies. Flexible Retail is permitted within Supervisorial Districts 1, 4, 5, 10, 11. · Arts Funding — Initiative ordinance approved by voters at November 2018 election to ensure stable arts funding and investments citywide. On Tuesday June 12th, 2018 Katy Tang announced that she would not run for reelection for another term on the San Francisco Board of Supervisors and was succeeded by Gordon Mar. History of Chinese Americans in San Francisco Official website