The Māori are the indigenous Polynesian people of New Zealand. Māori originated with settlers from eastern Polynesia, who arrived in New Zealand in several waves of canoe voyages some time between 1250 and 1300. Over several centuries in isolation, the Polynesian settlers developed a unique culture, with their own language, a rich mythology, distinctive crafts and performing arts. Early Māori formed tribal groups based on organisation. Horticulture flourished using plants; the arrival of Europeans to New Zealand, starting in the 17th century, brought enormous changes to the Māori way of life. Māori people adopted many aspects of Western society and culture. Initial relations between Māori and Europeans were amicable, with the signing of the Treaty of Waitangi in 1840, the two cultures coexisted as part of a new British colony. Rising tensions over disputed land sales led to conflict in the 1860s. Social upheaval, decades of conflict and epidemics of introduced disease took a devastating toll on the Māori population, which fell dramatically.
By the start of the 20th century, the Māori population had begun to recover, efforts have been made to increase their standing in wider New Zealand society and achieve social justice. Traditional Māori culture has thereby enjoyed a significant revival, further bolstered by a Māori protest movement that emerged in the 1960s. In the 2013 census, there were 600,000 people in New Zealand identifying as Māori, making up 15 percent of the national population, they are the second-largest ethnic group in New Zealand, after European New Zealanders. In addition, more than 140,000 Māori live in Australia; the Māori language is spoken to some extent by about a fifth of all Māori, representing 3 per cent of the total population. Māori are active in all spheres of New Zealand culture and society, with independent representation in areas such as media and sport. Disproportionate numbers of Māori face significant economic and social obstacles, have lower life expectancies and incomes compared with other New Zealand ethnic groups.
They suffer higher levels of crime, health problems, educational under-achievement. A number of socioeconomic initiatives have been instigated with the aim of "closing the gap" between Māori and other New Zealanders. Political and economic redress for historical grievances is ongoing. In the Māori language, the word māori means "normal", "natural" or "ordinary". In legends and oral traditions, the word distinguished ordinary mortal human beings—tāngata māori—from deities and spirits. Wai māori denotes "fresh water", as opposed to salt water. There are cognate words in most Polynesian languages, all deriving from Proto-Polynesian *maqoli, which has the reconstructed meaning "true, genuine"; the spelling of "Māori" with or without the macron is inconsistent in general-interest English-language media in New Zealand, although some newspapers and websites have adopted the standard Māori-language spelling. Early visitors from Europe to New Zealand referred to the indigenous inhabitants as "New Zealanders" or as "natives".
The Māori used the term Māori to describe themselves in a pan-tribal sense. Māori people use the term tangata whenua to identify in a way that expresses their relationship with a particular area of land; the term can refer to the Māori people as a whole in relation to New Zealand as a whole. The Māori Purposes Act of 1947 required the use of the term "Māori" rather than "Native" in official usage; the Department of Native Affairs was renamed as the Department of Māori Affairs. Before 1974, the government required documented ancestry to determine the legal definition of "a Māori person". For example, bloodlines or percentage of Māori ancestry was used to determine whether a person should enroll on the general electoral roll or the separate Māori roll. In 1947, the authorities determined that a man, five-eighths Māori had improperly voted in the general parliamentary electorate of Raglan; the Māori Affairs Amendment Act 1974 changed the definition, allowing individuals to self-identify as to their cultural identity.
In matters involving financial benefits provided by the government to people of Māori ethnicity—scholarships, for example, or Waitangi Tribunal settlements—authorities require some documentation of ancestry or continuing cultural connection but no minimum "blood" requirement exists as determined by the government. The most current reliable evidence indicates that the initial settlement of New Zealand occurred around 1280 CE, at the end of the medieval warm period. Previous dating of some kiore bones at 50–150 has now been shown to have been unreliable. Māori oral history describes the arrival of ancestors from Hawaiki, in large ocean-going waka. Migration accounts vary among tribes, whose members may identify with several waka in their genealogies. In the last few decades, mitochondrial-DNA research has allowed an estimate to be made of the number of women in the founding population—between 50 and 100. Evidence fro
World War I
World War I known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. Contemporaneously described as "the war to end all wars", it led to the mobilisation of more than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, making it one of the largest wars in history, it is one of the deadliest conflicts in history, with an estimated nine million combatants and seven million civilian deaths as a direct result of the war, while resulting genocides and the 1918 influenza pandemic caused another 50 to 100 million deaths worldwide. On 28 June 1914, Gavrilo Princip, a Bosnian Serb Yugoslav nationalist, assassinated the Austro-Hungarian heir Archduke Franz Ferdinand in Sarajevo, leading to the July Crisis. In response, on 23 July Austria-Hungary issued an ultimatum to Serbia. Serbia's reply failed to satisfy the Austrians, the two moved to a war footing. A network of interlocking alliances enlarged the crisis from a bilateral issue in the Balkans to one involving most of Europe.
By July 1914, the great powers of Europe were divided into two coalitions: the Triple Entente—consisting of France and Britain—and the Triple Alliance of Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy. Russia felt it necessary to back Serbia and, after Austria-Hungary shelled the Serbian capital of Belgrade on the 28th, partial mobilisation was approved. General Russian mobilisation was announced on the evening of 30 July; when Russia failed to comply, Germany declared war on 1 August in support of Austria-Hungary, with Austria-Hungary following suit on 6th. German strategy for a war on two fronts against France and Russia was to concentrate the bulk of its army in the West to defeat France within four weeks shift forces to the East before Russia could mobilise. On 2 August, Germany demanded free passage through Belgium, an essential element in achieving a quick victory over France; when this was refused, German forces invaded Belgium on 3 August and declared war on France the same day. On 12 August and France declared war on Austria-Hungary.
In November 1914, the Ottoman Empire entered the war on the side of the Alliance, opening fronts in the Caucasus and the Sinai Peninsula. The war was fought in and drew upon each power's colonial empire as well, spreading the conflict to Africa and across the globe; the Entente and its allies would become known as the Allied Powers, while the grouping of Austria-Hungary and their allies would become known as the Central Powers. The German advance into France was halted at the Battle of the Marne and by the end of 1914, the Western Front settled into a battle of attrition, marked by a long series of trench lines that changed little until 1917. In 1915, Italy opened a front in the Alps. Bulgaria joined the Central Powers in 1915 and Greece joined the Allies in 1917, expanding the war in the Balkans; the United States remained neutral, although by doing nothing to prevent the Allies from procuring American supplies whilst the Allied blockade prevented the Germans from doing the same the U. S. became an important supplier of war material to the Allies.
After the sinking of American merchant ships by German submarines, the revelation that the Germans were trying to incite Mexico to make war on the United States, the U. S. declared war on Germany on 6 April 1917. Trained American forces would not begin arriving at the front in large numbers until mid-1918, but the American Expeditionary Force would reach some two million troops. Though Serbia was defeated in 1915, Romania joined the Allied Powers in 1916 only to be defeated in 1917, none of the great powers were knocked out of the war until 1918; the 1917 February Revolution in Russia replaced the Tsarist autocracy with the Provisional Government, but continuing discontent at the cost of the war led to the October Revolution, the creation of the Soviet Socialist Republic, the signing of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk by the new government in March 1918, ending Russia's involvement in the war. This allowed the transfer of large numbers of German troops from the East to the Western Front, resulting in the German March 1918 Offensive.
This offensive was successful, but the Allies rallied and drove the Germans back in their Hundred Days Offensive. Bulgaria was the first Central Power to sign an armistice—the Armistice of Salonica on 29 September 1918. On 30 October, the Ottoman Empire capitulated. On 4 November, the Austro-Hungarian empire agreed to the Armistice of Villa Giusti after being decisively defeated by Italy in the Battle of Vittorio Veneto. With its allies defeated, revolution at home, the military no longer willing to fight, Kaiser Wilhelm abdicated on 9 November and Germany signed an armistice on 11 November 1918. World War I was a significant turning point in the political, cultural and social climate of the world; the war and its immediate aftermath sparked numerous uprisings. The Big Four (Britain, the United States, It
Wellington Harbour is the large natural harbour on the southern tip of New Zealand's North Island. New Zealand's capital city, Wellington, is located on its western side; the harbour, the sea area bounded by a line between Pencarrow Head to Petone foreshore, was named Port Nicholson, until it assumed its current name in 1984. In the Māori language the harbour is known as Te Whanganui-a-Tara the great harbour of Tara. Another Māori name for Wellington, Pōneke, is said to be a transliteration of Port Nick. Wellington Harbour is an arm of Cook Strait, covering some 76 km², with a two-km wide entrance at its southern end between Pencarrow Head and Palmer Head on the tip of Miramar Peninsula, it has a width of 9.25 kilometres. The harbour has an entrance over 1.6 kilometres wide from shore to shore and as it is surrounded by hills over 300 meters high, it provides sheltered anchorage in a region where wind velocities may exceed 160 k.p.h. The depth of water over the great bulk of the harbour exceeds 10 fathoms.
The harbour is of seismic origin, a major earthquake fault lies along its western shore. At the northern end of the harbour lies the narrow triangular plain of the Hutt River, which follows the line of the earthquake fault to the north-east; the city of Lower Hutt is located on this plain. The central city suburbs spread around the hills overlooking the west and south-west of Wellington Harbour and its two large bays: Lambton Harbour and Evans Bay. Lambton Harbour is surrounded by the reclaimed land of Wellington's central business district and contains the majority of the city's port facilities. Evans Bay is an inlet between Mt Victoria and the Miramar Peninsula that serves as a flight path to low-lying Wellington Airport. Another smaller but popular bay, for its beaches and Cafes is Oriental Bay. To the east of the harbour lie several small bays, most of which are populated by small coastal communities; the largest of these suburban settlements is Eastbourne, directly to the east of the northern tip of the Miramar Peninsula.
Three small islands are located in the harbour. To the south, close to Eastbourne, is Makaro / Ward Island Further north, close to the centre of the harbour, is the larger Matiu / Somes Island, to the north of, the tiny Mokopuna Island The entrance to the harbour can be quite dangerous since Cook Strait to the south is notoriously rough. Close to the harbour's entrance lies Barrett Reef, its rocks breaking the water's surface at low tide, it was here in 1968 that the inter-island passenger ferry Wahine grounded during a storm, with the loss of 51 lives. Wellington Harbour and its waterfront have gone by many names; the earliest known name for Wellington city, derived from Maori legend, is Te Upoko o te Ika a Maui or "the head of Maui's fish". Te Whanganui a Tara is another name Maori gave the area – a name said to come from Whatonga's son Tara, whom his father sent down from the Mahia Peninsula to explore southern lands for their people to settle, it means "the great harbour of Tara". Port Nicholson received its name from Captain James Herd, who sailed into the Harbour of Tara in 1826 and left it with its first European name, calling it after Sydney's Harbourmaster Captain John Nicholson.
Colonel William Wakefield named Lambton Harbour in 1839 in honour of the Earl of Durham, who had the family name of "Lambton". To increase the amount of usable flat land for Wellington city, the reclamation of Wellington Harbour started in the 1850s. Wellington Harbour is a significant port serving the lower North Island, with the Regional Council-owned company Centreport recording around 14,000 commercial shipping movements each year. Wellington Harbour, the region's third largest container port, is located in Wellington City proper and there is a tanker terminal at Seaview, in Lower Hutt. Wellington harbour ferries first began operating at the end of the 19th century and regular crossings from central Wellington to Days Bay continue today; the harbour is used by inter-island ferries, linking Wellington to Picton. A project to develop a walking and cycling route around the harbour, the Great Harbour Way, is gathering momentum. Basin Reserve CentrePort Wellington Positively Wellington Waterfront Greater Wellington Regional Council
New Zealand Railways Department
The New Zealand Railways Department, NZR or NZGR and known as the "Railways", was a government department charged with owning and maintaining New Zealand's railway infrastructure and operating the railway system. The Department was created in 1880 and was corporatised on 1 April 1982 into the New Zealand Railways Corporation. Railway construction and operation took place under the auspices of the former provincial governments and some private railways, before all of the provincial operations came under the central Public Works Department; the role of operating the rail network was subsequently separated from that of the network's construction. From 1895 to 1993 there was the Minister of Railways, he was also the Minister of Public Works. Apart from two experiments with independent boards, NZR remained under direct ministerial control for most of its history. New Zealand's railways were constructed by provincial governments and private firms; the largest provincial operation was the Canterbury Provincial Railways, which opened the first public railway at Ferrymead on 1 December 1863.
During The Vogel Era of the late 1860s to the 1870s, railway construction by central government expanded from just 80 kilometres in 1869 to 1,900 kilometres in 1880. Following the abolition of the provinces in 1877, the Public Works Department took over the various provincial railways. However, since the Public Works Department was charged with constructing new railway lines the day to day railway operations were transferred into a new government department on the recommendation of a parliamentary select committee. At the time 1,828 kilometres of railway lines were open for traffic, 546 km in the North Island and 1,283 km in the South Island consisting of the 630 km Main South Line from the port of Lyttelton to Bluff; the Railways Department was formed in 1880 during the premiership of Sir John Hall. That year, the private Port Chalmers Railway Company Limited was acquired by the department and new workshops at Addington opened; the first few years of NZR were marked by the Long Depression, which led to great financial constraint on the department.
As a result, the central government passed legislation to allow for the construction of more private railways. A Royal Commission, ordered by Hall, had removed plans for a railway line on the west coast of the North Island from Foxton to Wellington. Instead, in August 1881 the Railways Construction and Land Act was passed, allowing joint-stock companies to build and run private railways, as long as they were built to the government's standard rail gauge of 1,067 mm and connected with the government railway lines; the Act had the effect of authorising the Wellington and Manawatu Railway Company to build the Wellington-Manawatu Line. In 1877 the first American locomotives were purchased; the most important construction project for NZR at this time was the central section of the North Island Main Trunk. Starting from Te Awamutu on 15 April 1885, the section—including the famous Raurimu Spiral—was not completed for another 23 years; the economy improved and in 1895 the Liberal Government of Premier Richard Seddon appointed Alfred Cadman as the first Minister of Railways.
The Minister appointed a General Manager for the railways, keeping the operation under tight political control. Apart from four periods of government-appointed commissions, this system remained in place until the department was corporatised in 1982. In 1895, patronage had reached 3.9M passengers per annum and 2.048M tonnes. NZR produced its first New Zealand-built steam locomotive in 1889. Along with opening new lines, NZR began acquiring a number of the private railways which had built railway lines around the country, it acquired the Waimea Plains Railway Company in 1886. At the same time, a protracted legal battle began with the New Zealand Midland Railway Company, only resolved in 1898; the completed Midland line was not handed over to NZR until 1900. By that time, 3,200 km of railway lines were open for traffic; the acquisition in 1908 of the Wellington and Manawatu Railway Company and its railway line marked the completion of the North Island Main Trunk from Wellington to Auckland. A new locomotive class, the X class, was introduced in 1909 for traffic on the line.
The X class was the most powerful locomotive at the time. Gold rushes led to the construction of the Thames Branch, opening in 1898. In 1906 the Dunedin railway station was completed, architect George Troup. A. L. Beattie became Chief Mechanical Officer in April 1900. Beattie designed the famous A class, the Q class, many other locomotive classes. NZR's first bus operation began on 1 October 1907, between Culverden on the Waiau Branch and Waiau Ferry in Canterbury. By the 1920s NZR was noticing a considerable downturn in rail passenger traffic on many lines due to increasing ownership of private cars, from 1923 it began to co-ordinate rail passenger services with private bus services; the New Zealand Railways Road Services branch was formed to operate bus services. By 1912, patronage had reached 13.4M passengers per annum and 5.9M tonnes of freight. The outbreak of World War I in 1914 had a significant impact on the Railways Department; that year the Aa class appeared, the following year the first AB class locomotives were introduced.
This class went on to become the mos
George Lyttelton, 4th Baron Lyttelton
George William Lyttelton, 4th Baron Lyttelton, was a British aristocrat and Conservative politician from the Lyttelton family. He was chairman of the Canterbury Association, which encouraged British settlers to move to New Zealand. Lyttelton was the eldest son of William Lyttelton, 3rd Baron Lyttelton, Lady Sarah Spencer, daughter of George John Spencer, 2nd Earl Spencer, he was educated at Cambridge. He succeeded his father as fourth Baron Lyttelton in 1837 and took his seat in the House of Lords on his 21st birthday a year later; the Lyttelton seat is Hagley Hall in Worcestershire. In January 1846 he was appointed Under-Secretary of State for War and the Colonies in the Conservative government of Sir Robert Peel, a post he held until the government fell in June of the same year. Lyttelton was Lord Lieutenant of Worcestershire from 1839 to 1876 and the first President of Birmingham and Midland Institute in 1854. Moreover, he founded the region of New Zealand with Anglican colonists; the port of Canterbury bears his name.
He was president of the British Chess Association at the time of the Staunton–Morphy controversy in 1858. He was appointed a Knight Commander of the Order of St Michael and St George in the 1869 Birthday Honours. Lord Lyttelton married, firstly in 1839, Mary Glynne, daughter of Sir Stephen Glynne, 8th Baronet, sister-in-law of William Ewart Gladstone, they had eight sons and four daughters: The Honorable Meriel Sarah Lyttelton married John Gilbert Talbot and was the mother of Meriel Talbot. The Honorable Lucy Caroline Lyttelton, married Lord Frederick Cavendish and the Lucy Cavendish College at Cambridge is named after her. Charles Lyttelton, 8th Viscount Cobham succeeded his father; the Honorable Rev Albert Victor Lyttelton, Headmaster of St Andrew's School, Bloemfontein. The Honorable Neville Gerald Lyttelton, became a General in the British Army; the Honorable George William Spencer Lyttelton, was a British civil servant and private secretary to Gladstone. The Honorable Lavinia Lyttelton, married Right Rev Edward Stuart Talbot and is the great-great-grandmother of adventurer Bear Grylls.
The Honorable May Lyttelton, whom Arthur Balfour had hoped to marry. Balfour remained a bachelor thereafter; the Honorable Arthur Temple Lyttelton, became an Anglican Bishop The Honorable Robert Henry Lyttelton, cricketer. The Honorable Edward Lyttelton, became headmaster of Eton College The Honorable Alfred Lyttelton and politician. After Mary's death in 1857 Lyttelton married, Sybella Harriet Clive, daughter of George Clive MP, in 1869, they had three daughters: The Honorable Sarah Kathleen Lyttelton. They had children; the Honorable Sybil Lyttelton. They had one son: Sir Lionel George Arthur Cust The Honorable Hester Margaret Lyttelton, they had six children: Patrick Alington Giles Alington Kathleen Alington Elizabeth Hester Alington Joan Argentine Alington Lavinia Alington In 1876 Lyttelton committed suicide at the age of 59 by throwing himself down the stairs in a London house. He was succeeded by his eldest son Charles, who also inherited the viscounty of Cobham. Lady Lyttelton died in 1900.
Kidd, Williamson, David. Debrett's Baronetage. New York: St Martin's Press, 1990, Leigh Rayment's Peerage Pages George Lyttelton profile, CricketArchive.com. Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by Lord Lyttelton
An oil depot is an industrial facility for the storage of oil and/or petrochemical products and from which these products are transported to end users or further storage facilities. An oil depot has tankage, either above ground or below ground, gantries for the discharge of products into road tankers or other vehicles or pipelines. Oil depots are situated close to oil refineries or in locations where marine tankers containing products can discharge their cargo; some depots are attached to pipelines from which they draw their supplies and depots can be fed by rail, by barge and by road tanker. Most oil depots have road tankers operating from their grounds and these vehicles transport products to petrol stations or other users. An oil depot is a comparatively unsophisticated facility in that there is no processing or other transformation on site; the products which reach the depot are in their final form suitable for delivery to customers. In some cases additives may be injected into products in tanks, but there is no manufacturing plant on site.
Modern depots comprise the same types of tankage and gantries as those in the past and although there is a greater degree of automation on site, there have been few significant changes in depot operational activities over time. One of the key imperatives is Health and Environment and the operators of a depot must ensure that products are safely stored and handled. There must be no leakages which could damage the water table. Fire protection is a primary consideration for the more flammable products such as petrol and Aviation Fuel; the ownership of oil depots falls into three main categories: Single oil company ownership. When one company owns and operates a depot on its own behalf. Joint or consortium ownership, where two or more companies own a depot together and share its operating costs. Independent ownership, where a depot is owned not by an oil company but by a separate business which charges oil companies a fee to store and handle products; the Royal Vopak from the Netherlands is the largest independent terminal operator with 80 terminals in 30 countries.
In all cases the owners may provide "hospitality" or "pick up rights" at the facility to other companies. Most airports have their own dedicated oil depots where aviation fuel is stored prior to being discharged into aircraft fuel tanks. Fuel is transported from the depot by road tanker or via a hydrant system; the world's third largest oil consumer had national reserves of 113 days of oil demand under the government's storage and 85 days held by the private sector at the end of December 2010. In this respect, the total oil stored in Japan in December stood at 587.4 million barrels. Japan requires the private sector to hold 70 days as oil reserves, but is making the period shorter by three days to 67 days; as such it will allow oil companies to release 8.9 million barrels of crude oil from mandatory stockpiles. Oil production plant Oil-storage trade
Banks Peninsula is a peninsula of volcanic origin on the east coast of the South Island of New Zealand. It has an area of 1,150 square kilometres and encompasses two large harbours and many smaller bays and coves; the South Island's largest city, Christchurch, is north of the peninsula. Three successive phases of Māori settlement took place on the peninsula, still known to Māori as Te Pataka o Rakaihautu. Rakaihautu brought the Waitaha to the South Island in the waka Uruao, thus Banks Peninsula was named Te Pataka o Rakaihautu in recognition of his deeds and the abundance of mahinga kai found on the peninsula. Waitaha settled there first, followed by Kāti Māmoe, Ngāi Tahu took over in the 17th century; the crew of Captain James Cook became the first Europeans to sight the peninsula on 17 February 1770, during Cook's first circumnavigation of New Zealand. Cook described the land as "of a circular figure... of a broken uneven surface and more the appearance of barrenness than fertility." Deceived by the outline of higher land behind the peninsula, Cook mistook it for an island and named it "Banks Island" in honour of Endeavour's botanist, Joseph Banks.
Distracted by a phantom sighting of land to the southeast, Cook ordered Endeavour away to the south without exploring more closely. By the 1830s, Banks Peninsula had become a European whaling centre – to the detriment of the Māori, who succumbed in large numbers to disease and intertribal warfare exacerbated by the use of muskets. Two significant events in the assumption of British sovereignty over New Zealand occurred at Akaroa. First, in 1830 the Māori settlement at Takapuneke became the scene of a notorious incident; the captain of the British brig Elizabeth, John Stewart, helped North Island Ngāti Toa chief, Te Rauparaha, to capture the local Ngāi Tahu chief, Te Maiharanui. The settlement of Takapuneke was sacked. In 1838 Captain Langlois, a French whaler, decided that Akaroa would make a good settlement to service whaling ships and "purchased" the peninsula in a dubious land deal with the local Māori, he returned to France, floated the Nanto-Bordelaise company, set sail for New Zealand with a group of French and German families aboard the ship Comte de Paris, with the intention of forming a French colony on a French South Island of New Zealand.
However, by the time Langlois and his colonists arrived at Banks Peninsula in August 1840, many Māori had signed the Treaty of Waitangi and New Zealand's first British Governor, William Hobson, had declared British sovereignty over the whole of New Zealand. On hearing of the French plan for colonisation, Hobson dispatched HMS Britomart from the Bay of Islands to Akaroa with police magistrates on board. While Langlois and his colonists sheltered from unfavourable winds at Pigeon Bay on the other side of the peninsula, the British raised their flag at Greens Point between Akaroa and Takapuneke and courts of law convened to assert British sovereignty over the South Island. From the 1850s, Lyttelton and Christchurch outgrew Akaroa, which has developed into a holiday resort and retained many French influences as well as many of its nineteenth-century buildings. Historic harbour defence works dating from 1874 onwards survive at Ripapa Island in Lyttelton Harbour, at Godley Head. In 2011, the Christchurch earthquakes of Feb and June had their epicentres in the Port Hills affecting communities.
Banks Peninsula forms the most prominent volcanic feature of the South Island, similar to — but more than twice as large as — the older Dunedin volcano 350 kilometres to the southwest. Geologically, the peninsula comprises the eroded remnants of two large composite shield volcanoes, the smaller Mt Herbert Volcanic Group; these formed due to intraplate volcanism between eleven and eight million years ago on a continental crust. The peninsula formed as offshore islands, with the volcanoes reaching to about 1,500 m above sea level. Two dominant craters formed Akaroa Harbours; the Canterbury Plains formed from the erosion of the Southern Alps and from the alluvial fans created by large braided rivers. These plains reach their widest point. A layer of loess, a rather unstable fine silt deposited by the foehn winds which bluster across the plains, covers the northern and western flanks of the peninsula; the portion of crater rim lying between Lyttelton Harbour and Christchurch city forms the Port Hills.
Estimates suggest. However, Māori and European settlers successively denuded the forest cover and less than 2% remains today, although some reforestation has started. European settlers have planted many English trees, notably walnut. Hinewai Reserve, a private nature reserve, has been established on the peninsula to allow for native forest to regenerate on land, once farmed. Several sites off the coast of the peninsula serve for mariculture cultivation of mussels. A large Marine Mammal Sanctuary restricting set-net fishing, surrounds much of the peninsula; this has the principal aim of the conser