The Keweenaw Waterway is a natural artificial waterway which cuts across the Keweenaw Peninsula of Michigan. Parts of the waterway are variously known as the Keweenaw Waterway, Portage Canal, Portage Lake Canal, Portage River, Lily Pond, Torch Lake, Portage Lake; the waterway connects to Lake Superior at its north and south entries, with sections known as Portage Lake and Torch Lake in between. The primary tributary to Portage Lake is the Sturgeon River; the waterway was dredged in the 1860s, extending a small river used by natives for transportation and fishing. The effort was a joint venture between several mining corporations. Legislation for construction of the canal was passed in 1861; this legislation created Lake Superior Canal Co.. The company began construction of the canal in September 1868; the canal continues on to Lake Superior. The expanded canal allowed freighters to haul copper from the rich copper mines of the Keweenaw Peninsula out through Lake Superior to larger cities, it enabled supply boats and freighters to reach the cities of Houghton and Hancock, which supplied goods to most of Michigan's copper region.
The expanded canal and shipping lane has a depth of 25 feet, deeper in some locations. As the waterway connects Lake Superior to itself, there are no locks needed; the local mines' stamp mills dumped large quantities of stamp sand into the waterway, causing significant environmental damage near the sand dumps. Stamp mills on the waterway included the Old Atlantic, old Quincy, old Franklin, the Isle Royale mills; the area north of the waterway is known locally as Copper Island, because the waterway separates the northern part of the Keweenaw Peninsula from the mainland. The only land route across the waterway is US 41/M-26 across the Portage Lake Lift Bridge; the Keweenaw Waterway is part of the Keweenaw Water Trail, a designated loop route around and through the Keweenaw Peninsula for canoes and sea kayaks. It was established in 1995 and has been designated “A Superior Sports Port” by National Geographic Adventure Magazine, it is said the trail "exemplifies the Keweenaw Peninsula in the most literal sense."
The Lake Superior coast line is craggy and varied, claimed to be comparable to Isle Royale, but without the ferry. Uninhabited wilderness, occasional nature preserves and parks, are interspersed with sheltered harbors that offer weary paddlers the option for a warm bed, hot meal and shower at a local inn. An average paddler can cover the route in six to eight days, but extra days should be planned "to compensate for being wind-bound." The circumnavigation of the Copper Island is on its way to becoming "Michigan’s top paddling destination." Shorter trips are possible. List of lakes in Michigan Inland Waterway NOAA nautical chart of the Keweenaw Waterway Historic maps of the waterway
Michigan State Trunkline Highway System
The State Trunkline Highway System consists of all the state highways in Michigan, including those designated as Interstate, United States Numbered, or State Trunkline highways. In their abbreviated format, these classifications are applied to highway numbers with an I-, US, or M- prefix, respectively; the system is maintained by the Michigan Department of Transportation and comprises 9,669 miles of trunklines in all 83 counties of the state on both the Upper and Lower peninsulas, which are linked by the Mackinac Bridge. Components of the system range in scale from 10-lane urban freeways with local-express lanes to two-lane rural undivided highways to a non-motorized highway on Mackinac Island where cars are forbidden; the longest highway is nearly 400 miles long. Some roads are unsigned highways, lacking signage to indicate their maintenance by MDOT. Predecessors to today's modern highways include the foot trails used by Native Americans in the time before European settlement. Shortly after the creation of the Michigan Territory in 1805, the new government established the first road districts.
The federal government aided in the construction of roads to connect population centers in the territory. At the time, road construction was under the control of the county governments; the state government was involved in roads until prohibited by a new constitution in 1850. Private companies charged tolls. Local township roads were financed and constructed through a statute labor system that required landowners to make improvements in lieu of taxes. Countywide coordination of road planning and maintenance was enacted in the late 19th century. In the early 20th century, the constitutional prohibition on state involvement in roads was removed; the Michigan State Highway Department was created in 1905, the department paid counties and townships to improve roads to state standards. On May 13, 1913, the State Reward Trunk Line Highways Act was passed, creating the State Trunkline Highway System; the MSHD assigned internal highway numbers to roads in the system, in 1919, the numbers were signposted along the roads and marked on maps.
The US Highway System was created in 1926, highways in Michigan were renumbered to account for the new designations. Legislation in the 1930s consolidated control of the state trunklines in the state highway department. During the 1940s, the first freeways were built in Michigan. With the introduction of the Interstate Highway system in the 1950s, the state aborted an effort to build the Michigan Turnpike, a tolled freeway in the southeast corner of the LP. Construction on Michigan's Interstates started in the latter part of that decade and continued until 1992. During that period, several freeways were canceled in the 1960s and 1970s, while others were delayed or modified over environmental and political concerns. Since 1992, few additional freeways have been built, in the early years of the 21st century, projects are underway to bypass cities with new highways; the letter M in the state highway numbers is an integral part of the designation and included on the diamond-shaped reassurance markers posted alongside the highways.
The state's highways are referred to using an M-n syntax as opposed to Route n or Highway n, which are common elsewhere. This usage dates from 1919, when Michigan's state trunklines were first signed along the roadways, continues to this day in official and unofficial contexts. Michigan is one of only two states following the other one being Kansas. Although M-n outside of Michigan could conceivably refer to other state, local, or national highways, local usage in those areas does not mimic the Michigan usage in most cases. In countries like the United Kingdom, M refers to motorways, analogous to freeways in the United States, whereas M-numbered designations in Michigan indicate state trunklines in general and may exist on any type of highway. M-numbered trunklines are designated along a variety of roads, including eight-lane freeways in urban areas, four-lane rural freeways and expressways, principal arterial highways, two-lane highways in remote rural areas; the system includes M-185 on Mackinac Island, a non-motorized road restricted to bicycles, horse-drawn carriages and pedestrians.
The highest numbers used for highway designations include M-553 in the UP and Interstate 696 running along the northern Detroit suburbs. The lowest numbers in use are M-1 along Woodward Avenue in the Detroit area and US Highway 2 across the UP. Most M-numbered trunkline designations are in the low 200s or under, but some have been designated in the low 300s. MDOT has not assigned a designation outside the Interstate System in the 400s at this time. No discernible pattern exists in Michigan's numbering system, although most of the M-numbered routes lower than 15 are located in or around the major cities of Detroit and Grand Rapids. Unlike some other states, there are no formal rules prohibiting the usage of the same route number under different systems. Motorists using Michigan's highways may encounter I-75 and M-75, as well as both US 8 and M-8. Many of the state's US Highways were assigned numbers duplicating those of state trunklines when the US Highway System was created in 1926; the introduction of the Interstate Highway System in the late 1950s further complicated the situation, as each mainline Interstate designation has an unrelated M-n trunkline counterpart elsewhere in the state.
Many former US Highways in Michigan have left a
Eagle River, Michigan
Eagle River is an unincorporated community and census-designated place in the U. S. is the county seat of Keweenaw County. Its population was 71 as of the 2010 census, it is by far the least-populated county seat in the state of Michigan. The community is on M-26 on the north side of the Keweenaw Peninsula, which projects northwards into Lake Superior, it is about 27 miles northeast of Houghton and is situated in the northwest corner of Houghton Township on the mouth of the Eagle River at 47°24′50″N 88°17′45″W. The ZIP code is 49950. Eagle River was a boom town of the copper mining era in the Keweenaw. Copper was discovered in 1845 at the Cliff Range nearby, the so-called "Cliff Lode"; the land of the Eagle River community had been leased by the Keweenaw Copper Company in 1843. It was platted by the Phoenix Company and sold as individual lots; the first postmaster was named on October 24, 1845. It was part of Houghton County until Keweenaw County was organized in 1861; the profitability of the area's copper mines had begun to decline by around 1870.
The decommissioned Eagle River Lighthouse is on the west bank of the river on a sand bluff overlooking Lake Superior, although the view is obscured by condominiums. The Eagle River Timber Bridge is a wooden arch bridge that carries highway M-26 over the Eagle River, it opened in 1990 as a replacement for the historic Lake Shore Drive Bridge that runs parallel to it. Eagle River is home to the Holy Transfiguration Skete, a Byzantine Catholic monastery and community, known for producing jams and other foodstuffs from berries collected in the nearby forests. Holy Transfiguration is one of only a few Byzantine Catholic monasteries in the United States. US 41 M-26
The Keweenaw Peninsula is the northernmost part of Michigan's Upper Peninsula. It was the site of the first copper boom in the United States; as of the 2000 census, its population was 43,200. Its major industries are now logging and tourism, as well as jobs related to Michigan Technological University and Finlandia University; the ancient lava flows of the Keweenaw Peninsula were produced during the Mesoproterozoic Era as a part of the Midcontinent Rift between 1.096 and 1.087 billion years ago. This volcanic activity produced the only strata on Earth where large-scale economically recoverable 97 percent pure native copper is found. Much of the native copper found in the Keweenaw comes in either the form of cavity fillings on lava flow surfaces, which has a lacy consistency, or as "float" copper, found as a solid mass. Copper ore may occur within breccia as void or interclast fillings; the conglomerate layers occur as interbedded units within the volcanic pile. The Keweenaw Peninsula and Isle Royale, formed by the Midcontinent Rift System, are the only sites in the United States with evidence of prehistoric aboriginal mining of copper.
Artifacts made from this copper by these ancient Indians were traded as far south as present-day Alabama. These areas are the unique location where chlorastrolite, the state gem of Michigan, can be found; the northern end of the peninsula is sometimes referred to as Copper Island, although this term is becoming less common. It is separated from the rest of the peninsula by the Keweenaw Waterway, a natural waterway, dredged and expanded in the 1860s across the peninsula between the cities of Houghton on the south side and Hancock on the north. A Keweenaw Water Trail has been established around Copper Island; the Water Trail stretches 125 miles and can be paddled in five to ten days, depending on weather and water conditions. The Keweenaw Fault runs lengthwise through both Keweenaw and neighboring Houghton counties; this ancient geological slip has given rise to cliffs. U. S. Highway 41 and Brockway Mountain Drive, north of Calumet, were constructed along the cliff line. Lake Superior controls the climate of the Keweenaw Peninsula, keeping winters milder than those in surrounding areas.
Spring is cool and brief, transitioning into a summer with highs near 70 °F. Fall begins with winter beginning in mid-November; the peninsula receives copious amounts of lake-effect snow from Lake Superior. Official records are maintained close to the base of the peninsula in Hancock, where the annual snowfall average is about 220 inches. Farther north, in a community called Delaware, an unofficial average of about 240 inches is maintained. At Delaware, the record snowfall for one season was 390 inches in 1979. Averages over 250 inches occur in the higher elevations closer to the tip of the peninsula. Beginning as early as seven thousand years ago and peaking around 3000 B. C. Native Americans dug copper from the southern shore of Lake Superior; this development was possible in large part because, in this region, large deposits of copper were accessible in surface rock and from shallow diggings. Native copper could be found as wiry masses. Copper as a resource for functional tooling achieved popularity around 3000 B.
C. during the Middle Archaic Stage. The focus of copper working seems to have shifted from functional tools to ornamental objects by the Late Archaic Stage c. 1200 B. C. Native Americans would build a fire to heat the rock around and over a copper mass and, after heating, pour on cold water to crack the rock; the copper was pounded out, using rock hammers and stone chisels. The Keweenaw's rich deposits of copper were extracted on an industrial scale beginning around the middle of the 19th century; the industry grew through the latter part of the century and employed thousands of people well into the 20th century. Hard rock mining in the region ceased in 1967 though copper sulfide deposits continued for some time after in Ontonagon; this vigorous industry created a need for educated mining professionals and directly led in 1885 to the founding of the Michigan Mining School in Houghton. Although MTU discontinued its undergraduate mining engineering program in 2006, the university continues to offer engineering degrees in a variety of other disciplines.
Running concurrently with the mining boom in the Keweenaw was the white pine lumber boom. Trees were cut for timbers for mine shafts, to heat the communities around the large copper mines, to help build a growing nation. Much of the logging at the time was done in winter due to the ease of operability with the snow. Due to the logging practices at that time, the forest of the Keweenaw looks much different today from 100 years ago. US 41 terminates in the northern Keweenaw at the Michigan State Park housing Fort Wilkins. US 41 was the so-called "Military Trail" that started in Chicago in the 1900s and ended in the Keweenaw wilderness; the restored fort has numerous exhibits. For detailed information on the region's mineralogical history, see the virtual tour of the peninsula written by the Mineralogical Society of America, found in "External links" on this page. Information on the geological formations of the region are detailed. From 1964 to 1971, the University of Michigan cooperated with NASA and the U.
S. Navy to run the Keweenaw Rocket launch site. A par
U.S. Route 45 in Michigan
US Highway 45 is a part of the United States Numbered Highway System that runs from Mobile, Alabama, to the Upper Peninsula of the state of Michigan. The highway forms a part of the state trunkline highway system, maintained by the Michigan Department of Transportation, it enters the state from Wisconsin south of Watersmeet, ending at an intersection with Ontonagon Street in Ontonagon. In between, the roadway crosses the UP running for 54 3⁄4 miles through the Ottawa National Forest and parallel to the Ontonagon River; the highway dates back to the 1930s in Michigan. At the time it was extended into the state, it replaced sections of M-26 and M-35. An eight-mile segment was reconstructed in the late 1950s, an alignment change in the 1970s moved the routing of US 45 near Rockland before it was reversed soon afterwards. A segment of roadway that carried US 45 is the site of the Paulding Light, a local phenomenon whose origins were scientifically described in 2010. US 45 crosses from Wisconsin to Michigan near Land O' Lakes, east of the Sylvania Wilderness area of the Ottawa National Forest.
The highway angles northeast from the state line before curving around to the north toward Watersmeet, where it intersects US 2. Watersmeet is home to the northern section of the Lac Vieux Desert Indian Reservation. Continuing north across the Gogebic–Ontonagon county line, US 45 crosses the boundary between the Central and Eastern time zones. In southern Ontonagon County, the highway runs west of the Bond Falls Flowage near Paulding. North of here, the trunkline enters Bruce Crossing and intersects M-28. After leaving town, US 45 runs northward parallel to the Middle Branch of the Ontonagon River, the highway crosses the river near a roadside park south of Rockland. East of Rockland, US 45 meets the southern terminus of M-26. US 45 enters the south side of Ontonagon on Rockland Road near the Holy Family Cemetery; the roadway turns due north. South of downtown, the highway crosses an intersection that serves as the joint termini of M-38 and M-64. M-64 ends at the intersection. M-38 comes into town from the east and ends at the same intersection.
US 45 continues north on Rockland Road and turns northwest on River Street along the eastern river bank through downtown. The northern terminus of US 45 is about 1,000 feet from Lake Superior. US 45 debuted in Michigan by 1935 on maps of the time; the highway terminated in Des Plaines, until it was extended northward to Michigan. US 45 replaced M-26 between the state line north toward Rockland, as well as M-35 between Rockland and Ontonagon; the Michigan State Highway Department rebuilt an eight-mile section of the highway in the Military Hills area of eastern Ontonagon County starting in 1957. As part of the project, tons of waste copper rock were hauled into the area to provide a base for the reconstructed roadway, quite steep through the hills and muddy during rains; the project included a new bridge over the Ontonagon River that opened in late 1959. Along with this bridge, the last eight miles of US 45 in the country were paved, connecting the Gulf of Mexico and Lake Superior with a hard-surfaced road.
A rerouting in late 1971 moved the US 45 designation along M-26 between Greenland. From Greenland, US 45 followed Ontonagon–Greenland Road to Ontonagon. In late 1973, MDOT reversed the rerouting—US 45 was restored to its previous routing on Rockland Road between Rockland and Ontonagon and M-26 was re-extended south from Greenland to Rockland. In 2010, students from Michigan Technological University solved the mystery of the Paulding Light, a local phenomenon attributed to paranormal activity; the phenomenon is viewable from a section of Robbins Pond Road, the former routing of US 45 in the Paulding area. According to area folklore, indicated on signs in the viewing area, the light is from the ghost of a railroad brakeman. Other explanations say; the students' investigation showed that the light comes from headlights of cars on US 45 in the Paulding area. Michigan Highways portal US 45 at Michigan Highways
Calumet is a village in Calumet Township, Houghton County, in the U. S. state of Michigan's Upper Peninsula, once at the center of the mining industry of the Upper Peninsula. Known as Red Jacket, the village includes the Calumet Downtown Historic District, listed on the National Register of Historic Places; the village may itself be included within the Calumet Historic District, a larger area, NRHP-listed and, a National Historic Landmark District. It is bordered on the north by Calumet Township, on the south by the unincorporated towns of New Town and Blue Jacket, on the east by Blue Jacket and Calumet Township, on the west by Yellow Jacket and Calumet Township; the population was 726 at the 2010 census. Calumet's nickname is Copper Town U. S. A. What is now Calumet was settled in 1864 under the name of "Red Jacket", named for a Native American Chief of the Seneca tribe; until 1895 the name "Calumet" was used by the nearby town of Michigan. Red Jacket grew due to the copper mines in the area, it was incorporated as a town in 1867.
The copper mines were rich. In addition to copper mining and smelting, the region supported the dairy industry and truck farming. Many immigrants settled there in the late 19th century. By 1900, Red Jacket had a population of 4,668, Calumet Township, which contained Red Jacket and nearby mining towns, had a population of 25,991. However, in 1913, Red Jacket suffered from the Copper Country Strike of 1913-1914, the population began to decline. In the same year, the town was the site of the Italian Hall Disaster. Striking miners and their families were gathered on Christmas Eve for a party in Italian Hall, when the cry of "fire" precipitated a stampede that crushed or suffocated seventy-three victims, the majority of them children; the identity of the person who started the stampede has never been determined. Folk singer Woody Guthrie's song, "1913 Massacre", is based on this event. Loss of wartime demand caused the copper price to drop following World War I. With the decreased demand for copper, thousands left Red Jacket in the 1920s, many moving to Detroit, Michigan where the automobile industry was booming.
During the Great Depression all mines were shut down. As a result, many miners and their families left to find work. In 1950, the population of Calumet was 1,256 people. Small-time mining continued in the area during World War II until it was shut down by a labor strike in 1968; the Calumet Historic District is another area of interest, listed like the Calumet Downtown Historic District on the National Register of Historic Places. In 1984, Calumet's name was borrowed by Hollywood. Calumet was moved from Michigan to Colorado, where it was invaded by Soviet paratroopers in the film Red Dawn. One of the film's producers grew up on the Keweenaw Peninsula. Hunk Anderson, head football coach of Notre Dame and Chicago Bears George Brunet, baseball pitcher, attended high school in Calumet Ben Johnson, ice hockey player. Calumet is at an elevation of 1,209 feet above sea level. Parts of the Keweenaw National Historical Park are located inside the village limits; the village of Calumet now sits on over 2,000 miles of underground mine shafts and stopes, empty for many decades.
Houghton County Memorial Airport serves Houghton County and the surrounding communities. One of the biggest parts of the food culture of not only Calumet, but the entire Copper Country is the pasty; this was a main part of copper miners' diets. A pasty is a mixture of meat, rutabaga and onions wrapped in a crust made of flour and lard. Traditionally Cornish, they have sparked local events such as the Pasty Fest, where there are eating contests, events, a tug of war event where the losers take a dive into an inflatable pool filled with ketchup; the Calumet Theatre is a theater and opera house, constructed in 1900. In 1898, the copper mining industry was booming, the town had an enormous surplus in its treasury; the town council decided to spend some of the surplus on a theater. The theater hosted a large number of famous actors and opera singers. With the close of the mines, the theater became a movie theater and fell into general disrepair for many years. In 1975, the town began a large project to repair and restore the theater, now used for many local and touring productions.
The theatre was added to the National Register of Historic Places on August 5, 1971. The Theatre is home to The Red Jacket Jamboree, an old-time radio variety show heard on Public Radio Stations; every two years there is an all school reunion, for graduates of Calumet High School. Many activities occur at this time, including parade. Debuting in 2005, The Great Deer Chase Mountain Bike Race takes place every August in Calumet; the Race is held at Swedetown Trails. Pasty Fest is a one day event that takes place e
Hancock is a city in Houghton County, United States and is located on Copper Island, part of the Keweenaw Peninsula, on the Keweenaw Waterway directly opposite Houghton, Michigan. The population was 4,634 at the 2010 census; the earliest building in what is now the City of Hancock was a log cabin erected in 1846 on the site of the Ruggles Mining Claim, halfway up atop the hillside. It was owned by Christopher Columbus Douglass, who came to live there in 1852; the Quincy Mining Company founded Hancock in the year of 1859 after purchasing the land from Douglass and building an office and mine on the site. The city was named after a signer of the Declaration of Independence. Hancock's first store was built by the Leopold brothers in 1858. Samuel W. Hill, an agent for the Quincy Mining Company, platted the Village of Hancock in 1859. On 20 August 1860, Bishop Frederic Baraga and Reverend Edward Jacker selected lots nine and ten of block eight in the village for the purpose of constructing a church.
It was on the northeast corner of what is now Ravine Streets. The Quincy Mining Company donated this ground, but for a reason unclear the official paperwork didn't go through for this until 2 July 1875. In the earliest days of Hancock, the village had been within the borders of what is now the Portage Charter Township, however, on 1 April 1861, the area was set off and organized into a new township called Hancock Township; the Portage Stamp Mill was founded nearby at Portage Lake in 1861. In the year 1860, the Keweenaw Waterway was dredged, widening the then-Portage River to allow more aqua transportation to Hancock, neighbouring Houghton. However, the waterway was opened to ships in 1859. On 10 March 1863, the Village of Hancock was organized and the first officers were elected in the office of William Lapp, the justice of the peace and a pioneer lawyer of the time. Hervey Coke Parke was elected as the first village president; this is considered as the founding date of Hancock. M. J. McGurrin opened the first drug store in the village in 1865.
There were a few small grocery stores where James Artman sold handmade harnesses. The population of the town may have been about four hundred people in all, the majority of whom were miners who had occupied smaller houses near the vicinity of their workplace, the mines. On Sunday, 11 April 1869, Hancock is struck by the worst fire in the community's history when a stovepipe in a local saloon where the post office is now located had exploded and engulfed the building in flames, it soon spread across the village with the help of a strong west wind. The fire ended up destroying some 150 buildings, including every store in the village and all of the business places in general, the wooden bridges that had stretched across the ravines, an additional 120 homes. At the time, Hancock had no fire department or fire equipment in the village, this short-lived fire had obliterated three-fourths of Hancock, it took two years to rebuild the village. On 1 March 1871, in response to the devastating fire of 1869, the Hancock Fire Department was organized.
In an 1883 publication the fire chief, Archibald J. Scott, stated that the fire department had 2,500 ft of hose on hand and that the water supply was ample; the Mineral Range Railroad began providing passenger and freight service between Houghton, Dollar Bay and Calumet in 1873. The Mineral Range had their yards along Portage Lake near Tezcuco Street. In 1876, the Reverend Alfred Elieser Backman arrived in Hancock and served as the Copper Country's first pastor of the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland, he found a divided community of Finnish Lutherans in which some were faithful followers of the Church of Finland, others Laestadian. Backman found the situation too unstable for his handling and was replaced by the Reverend Juho Kustaa Nikander who had arrived that same month in January 1885. By the year 1889, four pastors from the Church of Finland were serving Finnish communities in the Upper Peninsula, among them was Reverend J. K. Nikander, along with Rev. Jacob Juhonpoika Hoikka, Rev. Kaarle L. Tolonen of Ishpeming, Rev. Johan W. Eloheimo of Calumet.
The four pastors met and founded the Suomi Synod on 25 March 1890, though they had conceived the idea as early as November 1889. Suomi College was founded in September 1896 by J. K. Nikander, on 21 January 1900, Suomi College had completed their first building, "Old Main" on Quincy Street; as many as two-thousand people traveled to Hancock to see the laying of the cornerstone. Akin to a large handful of historic buildings in the city, it is made of Jacobsville Sandstone and is built in the Richardsonian Romanesque style of architecture. For eight years, who had served as the College's first President, resided in Old Main; the Houghton County Traction Company offered street car service from Houghton through Hancock to Calumet and Hubbell beginning in 1902. In fall of 1902 the Kerredge Theatre was completed by William and Ray Kerredge in response to the wildly popular Calumet Theatre. Hancock was incorporated as a city on 10 March 1903 and subsequently divided into four wards; the then-incumbent village president Archibald J. Scott was elected as the city's first mayor.
A few years in 1906, the famous Scott Hotel on East Quincy Street was completed. Prior to World War I and around the time of the tempestuous Copper Country Strike of 1913–14, the population of the city had dropped from its all-time high of 8,981 to 7,527 as many families moved away with the heads of their households to seek