M1 Garand

The M1 Garand is a.30-06 caliber semi-automatic rifle, the standard U. S. service rifle during World War II and the Korean War and saw limited service during the Vietnam War. Most M1 rifles were issued to U. S. forces, though many hundreds of thousands were provided as foreign aid to American allies. The Garand is still used by military honor guards, it is widely used by civilians for hunting, target shooting, as a military collectible. The M1 rifle was named after John Garand, it was the first standard-issue semi-automatic military rifle. By most accounts the M1 rifle performed well. General George S. Patton called it "the greatest battle implement devised"; the M1 replaced the bolt action M1903 Springfield as the standard U. S. service rifle in 1936, was itself replaced by the selective fire M14 rifle in March 26, 1958. Although the name "Garand" is pronounced, the preferred pronunciation is, according to experts and people who knew John Garand, the weapon's designer. Referred to as the "Garand" or "M1 Garand" by civilians, its official designation when it was the issue rifle in the U.

S. Army and the U. S. Marine Corps was "U. S. Rifle, Caliber.30, M1" or just "M1" and Garand was not mentioned. French Canadian-born Garand went to work at the United States Army's Springfield Armory and began working on a.30 caliber primer actuated blowback Model 1919 prototype. In 1924, twenty-four rifles, identified as "M1922s", were built at Springfield. At Fort Benning during 1925, they were tested against models by Berthier, Hatcher-Bang and Pedersen, the latter two being delayed blowback types; this led to a further trial of an improved "M1924" Garand against the Thompson producing an inconclusive report. As a result, the Ordnance Board ordered a.30-06 Garand variant. In March 1927, the cavalry board reported trials among the Thompson, 03 Springfield had not led to a clear winner; this led to a gas-operated.276 model. In early 1928, both the infantry and cavalry boards ran trials with the.276 Pedersen T1 rifle, calling it "highly promising". On 13 August 1928, a semiautomatic rifle board carried out joint Army and Marine Corps trials between the.30 Thompson, both cavalry and infantry versions of the T1 Pedersen, "M1924" Garand, and.256 Bang, on 21 September, the board reported no clear winner.

The.30 Garand, was dropped in favor of the.276. Further tests by the SRB in July 1929, which included rifle designs by Browning, Colt–Browning, Holek, Rheinmetall, an incomplete one by White, led to a recommendation that work on the.30 gas-operated Garand be resumed, a T1E1 was ordered 14 November 1929. Twenty gas-operated.276 T3E2 Garands were made and competed with T1 Pedersen rifles in early 1931. The.276 Garand was the clear winner of these trials. The.30 caliber Garand was tested, in the form of a single T1E1, but was withdrawn with a cracked bolt on 9 October 1931. A 4 January 1932 meeting recommended adoption of the.276 caliber and production of 125 T3E2s. Meanwhile, Garand redesigned his improved T1E2 rifle was retested; the day after the successful conclusion of this test, Army Chief of Staff General Douglas MacArthur disapproved any caliber change, in part because there were extensive existing stocks of.30 M1 ball ammunition. On 25 February 1932, Adjutant General John B. Shuman, speaking for the Secretary of War, ordered work on the rifles and ammunition in.276 caliber cease and and all resources be directed toward identification and correction of deficiencies in the Garand.30 caliber.

On 3 August 1933, the T1E2 became the "semi-automatic rifle, caliber 30, M1". In May 1934, 75 M1s went to field trials. Numerous problems were reported, forcing the rifle to be modified, yet again, before it could be recommended for service and cleared for procurement on 7 November 1935 standardized 9 January 1936; the first production model was proof-fired, function-fired, fired for accuracy on July 21, 1937. Production difficulties delayed deliveries to the Army until September 1937. Machine production began at Springfield Armory that month at a rate of ten rifles per day, reached an output of 100 per day within two years. Despite going into production status, design issues were not at an end; the barrel, gas cylinder, front sight assembly were redesigned and entered production in early 1940. Existing "gas-trap" rifles were recalled and retrofitted, mirroring problems with the earlier M1903 Springfield rifle that had to be recalled and reworked three years into production and foreshadowing rework of the M16 rifle at a similar point in its development.

Production of the Garand increased in 1940 despite these difficulties, reaching 600 a day by 10 January 1941, the Army was equipped by the end of 1941. Following the outbreak of World War II in Europe, Winchester was awarded an "educational" production contract for 65,000 rifles, with deliveries beginning in 1943; the M1 Garand was made in large numbers during World War II. They were used by every branch of the United States military; the rifle performed well. General George S. Patton called it "the greatest battle implement devised." The impact of faster-firing infantry small arms in general soon stimulated both Allied and Axis forces to increase their issue of semi- and automatic firearms in production, as well as to develop new types of infantry firearms. Many M1s were repaired or reb

Rozhdestvenskiy (crater)

Rozhdestvenskiy is a large lunar impact crater, located on the far side of the Moon, within one crater diameter of the north pole. It lies sandwiched between the craters Hermite along the eastern rim, Plaskett which intrudes into the west-southwestern rim. Just on the opposite side of the pole is the crater Peary; this formation is a large crater of the form called a walled plain. The outer rim is eroded and rugged, with a somewhat polygonal outline; the young crater Rozhdestvenskiy K overlies the southern rim. To the northwest is a short chain of craters that forms a valley penetrating the rim; the interior floor of the crater is level with a central peak formation located to the west of the midpoint. Just to the west of this peak is a pair of small craters on the floor. There is a small crater to the south of the midpoint, the surface is marked by many tiny craterlets. By convention these features are identified on lunar maps by placing the letter on the side of the crater midpoint, closest to Rozhdestvenskiy.

LAC-1 area - Map of northern lunar pole Wood, Chuck. "North of the Pole". Lunar Photo of the Day. Archived from the original on October 21, 2007. Retrieved 2007-10-18


Proibidão, which translates to "strongly prohibited", is a subgenre of funk carioca music originating from the favelas of Rio de Janeiro where it began in the early 1990s as a parallel phenomenon to the growth of drug gangs in the many slums of the city. The drug gangs sponsored DJs and baile funks in the favelas they controlled to spread respect and love for their gang as well as hate to the other gangs; the music that resulted is proibidão. Proibidão is characterized as a raw mix of Miami bass structures; the explicit lyrics promote the gang the MC is affiliated with, drug use, violence. Like gang members, MCs who speak ill Each drug gang sponsors their own baile funk at their own favela, which results in a unique sound that distinguishes each MC, by extension, each gang; the territorial nature of the gangs has made proibidão an localized form of funk in Rio de Janeiro. Moreover, in Brazil, it is against the law to promote crime in song lyrics which makes most proibidão songs illegal to perform or broadcast through radio.

These two factors allow proibidão to be heard beyond the live performances in favela. One powerful gang, the Comando Vermelho has given poor youths free girls and entertainment at their dances, hoping to engrain a positive image of drug-dealing and gang membership to Rio youths. In Red Command released CDs, their gang sign, a CV, sits across the label, representing the community and the gang instead of the artists; the Red Command's influence was best shown in 1990, when William Santos de Souza and Duda, the "Kings of Rio rap" at the time, released a track entitled, "Rap do Borel" shouting out to a gang-controlled favela in Rio. No gang better represents Proibidão than the Commando Vermelho. Other gangs have renowned songs. For example, the gang Amigos dos Amigos is known for "A. D. A do Chuck". Another Funk emcee, MC Colibri, was successful with erotic funk, but he has already made music for the Terceiro Comando Puro Proibidão has some important implications for the acquisition of social space in Rio.

For the gangs and drug lords, it represents a form of musical expression that corresponds to territorial dominance. In effect, when these gangs host their particular bailes, they assert their authority over rival gangs and state law enforcement. Since Proibidão elicits the criminal lifestyle and habitual drug use which characterize its performers, police attempt to stop the bailes and the correlative spread of Proibidão. Thus, when myriad bailes do subsist each week, despite the efforts of state programs like D. R. E to stop them, it is a palpable win for the gangs. In addition to just hosting these bailes, the gangs recruit urban youth and advertise their daily struggle, which makes the favela bailes a crucial social space in which gangs can conduct business