Bolt action is a type of firearm action where the handling of cartridges into and out of the weapon's barrel chamber is operated by manually manipulating the bolt directly via a handle, most placed on the right-hand side of the weapon. When the handle is operated, the bolt is unlocked from the receiver and pulled back to open the breech, allowing the spent cartridge case to be extracted and ejected, the firing pin within the bolt is cocked and engages the sear upon the bolt being pushed back a new cartridge is loaded into the chamber, the breech is closed tight by the bolt locking against the receiver. Bolt-action firearms are most rifles, but there are some bolt-action variants of shotguns and a few handguns as well. Examples of this system date as far back as the early 19th century, notably in the Dreyse needle gun. From the late 19th century, all the way through both World Wars, the bolt-action rifle was the standard infantry firearm for most of the world's military forces. In modern military and law enforcement use, the bolt action has been replaced by semi-automatic and selective-fire firearms, though the bolt-action design remains popular in dedicated sniper rifles due to inherently more rugged design, are still popular for civilian hunting and target shooting.
Compared to other manually operated firearm actions such as lever-action and pump-action, bolt action offers an excellent balance of strength, ruggedness and accuracy, all with lightweight and much lower cost than self-loading firearms. Bolt-action firearms can be disassembled and re-assembled for maintenance and repair much faster, owing to their having fewer moving parts; the major disadvantage is a lower rate of fire than other types of manual repeating firearms, a far lower practical rate of fire than semi-automatic weapons, though this is not a important factor in many types of hunting, target shooting and other precision-based shooting applications. The first bolt-action rifle was produced in 1824 by Johann Nikolaus von Dreyse, following work on breechloading rifles that dated to the 18th century. Von Dreyse would perfect his Nadelgewehr by 1836, it was adopted by the Prussian Army in 1841. However, it was not the first bolt-action weapon to see combat, for it was not fielded until 1864.
The United States purchased 900 Greene rifles in 1857, which saw service at the Battle of Antietam in 1862, during the American Civil War. During the American Civil War, the bolt-action Palmer carbine was patented in 1863, by 1865, 1000 were purchased for use as cavalry weapons; the French Army adopted its first bolt-action rifle, the Chassepot rifle, in 1866 and followed with the metallic-cartridge bolt-action Gras rifle in 1874. European armies continued to develop bolt-action rifles through the latter half of the nineteenth century, first adopting tubular magazines as on the Kropatschek rifle and the Lebel rifle, a magazine system pioneered by the Winchester rifle of 1866; the first bolt-action repeating rifle was the Vetterli rifle of 1867 and the first bolt-action repeating rifle to use centerfire cartridges was the weapon designed by the Viennese gunsmith Ferdinand Fruwirth in 1871. The military turned to bolt-action rifles using a box magazine. World War I marked the height of the bolt-action rifle's use, with all of the nations in that war fielding troops armed with various bolt-action designs.
During the buildup prior to World War II, the military bolt-action rifle began to be superseded by semi-automatic rifles and fully-automatic rifles, though bolt-action rifles remained the primary weapon of most of the combatants for the duration of the war. The bolt action is still common today among sniper rifles, as the design has potential for superior accuracy, lesser weight, the ability to control loading over the faster rate of fire that alternatives allow. There are, many semi-automatic sniper rifle designs in the designated marksman role. Today, bolt-action rifles are chiefly used as hunting rifles; these rifles can be used to hunt anything from vermin to deer and to large game big game caught on a safari, as they are adequate to deliver a single lethal shot from a safe distance. Bolt-action shotguns are considered a rarity among modern firearms but were a used action for.410 entry-level shotguns, as well as for low-cost 12 gauge shotguns. The M26 Modular Accessory Shotgun System is the most advanced and recent example of a bolt-action shotgun, albeit one designed to be attached to an M16 rifle or M4 carbine using an underbarrel mount.
Mossberg 12 gauge bolt-action shotguns were popular in Australia after the 1997 changes to firearms laws, but the shotguns themselves were awkward to operate and only had a three-round magazine, thus offering no practical and real advantages over a conventional double-barrel shotgun. Some pistols utilize a bolt action, although this is uncommon, such examples are specialized target handguns. Most of th
Rimfire ammunition refers to a type of metallic firearm cartridges. It is called rimfire because the firing pin of a gun strikes and crushes the base's rim to ignite the primer. Invented in 1845, by Louis-Nicolas Flobert, the first rimfire metallic cartridge was the.22 BB Cap cartridge, which consisted of a percussion cap with a bullet attached to the top. While many other different cartridge priming methods have been tried since the 19th century, only rimfire technology and centerfire technology survive today; the rimfire.22 Long Rifle cartridge, introduced in 1887, is by far the most common ammunition in the world today in terms of units sold. It is called rimfire ammunition because the firing pin of a gun strikes and crushes the base's rim to ignite the primer; the rim of the rimfire cartridge is an extended and widened percussion cap which contains the priming compound, while the cartridge case contains the propellant powder and the projectile. Rimfire cartridges are limited to low pressures because they require a thin case so that the firing pin can crush the rim and ignite the primer.
Rimfire cartridges of.44 caliber up to.56 caliber were once common when black powder was used as a propellant. However, modern rimfire cartridges use smokeless powder which generates much higher pressures and tend to be of.22 caliber or smaller. The low pressures necessitated by the rimfire design mean that rimfire firearms can be light and inexpensive, which has helped lead to the continuing popularity of these small-caliber cartridges. Rimfire cartridges are typically inexpensive because of the inherent cost-efficiency to manufacture the cartridges in large lots. Frenchman Louis-Nicolas Flobert invented the first rimfire metallic cartridge in 1845; the 6mm Flobert cartridge consisted of a percussion cap with a bullet attached to the top. These cartridges do not contain any powder, the only propellant substance contained in the cartridge is the percussion cap. In Europe, the.22 BB Cap and the more powerful.22 CB Cap are both called 6mm Flobert and are considered the same cartridge. These cartridges have a low muzzle velocity of around 700 ft/s to 800 ft/s.
Flobert made what he called "parlor guns" for this cartridge, as these rifles and pistols were designed for target shooting in homes with a dedicated shooting parlor or shooting gallery. 6mm Flobert Parlor pistols came into fashion in the mid-19th century. The next rimfire cartridge was the.22 Short, developed for Smith & Wesson's first revolver, in 1857. This led to the.22 Long in 1871, with the same bullet weight as the short but with a longer case and 5 grains of black powder. This was followed by the.22 Extra Long in 1880, with a case longer than the.22 Long and a heavier bullet. American firearms manufacturer J. Stevens Arms & Tool Company introduced the.22 Long Rifle cartridge in 1887. It combined the casing of the.22 Long with the 40-grain bullet of the.22 Extra Long, giving it a longer overall length, a higher muzzle velocity and superior performance as a hunting and target round, rendering both the.22 Long and.22 Extra Long cartridges obsolete. The.22 LR uses a heeled bullet, which means that the bullet is the same diameter as the case, has a narrower "heel" portion that fits in the case.
It is one of the few cartridges that are accepted by a large variety of handguns. Larger rimfire calibers were used during the American Civil War in the Henry repeating rifle, the Spencer repeating rifle, the Ballard Rifle and the Frank Wesson carbine. While larger rimfire calibers were made, such as the.30 rimfire.32 rimfire.38 rimfire.41 Short, the.44 Henry, the.56-56 Spencer, up to the.58 Miller, the larger calibers were replaced by centerfire versions, today the.22 caliber rimfires are all that survive of these early rimfire cartridges. The early 21st century has seen a revival in.17 caliber rimfire cartridges. New and popular, the 17 HMR is based on a.22 WMR casing with a smaller formed neck which accepts a.17 bullet. The advantages of the 17 HMR over.22 WMR and other rimfire cartridges are its much flatter trajectory and its frangible hollow point bullets. The.17 HM2 is based on the.22 Long Rifle and offers similar performance advantages over its parent cartridge, at a higher cost. While.17 HM2 sells for about four times the cost of.22 Long Rifle ammunition, it is still cheaper than most centerfire ammunition and somewhat cheaper than the.17 HMR.
Some.22 caliber rimfire cartridges are loaded with # 12 shot. This "snake shot" is only marginally effective in close ranges, is used for shooting snakes, rats or other small animals, it is useful for shooting birds inside storage buildings as it will not penetrate walls or ceilings. At a distance of about 10 feet, about the maximum effective range, the pattern is about 8 inches in diameter from a standard rifle. Special smoothbore shotguns, such as the Marlin Model 25MG "Garden Gun" can produce effective patterns out to 15 or 20 yards using.22 WMR shotshells, which hold 1/8 oz. of #11 or #12 shot contained in a plastic capsule. Shotshells will not feed reliably in some
Prague Castle Guard
The Prague Castle Guard or the Castle Guard is a specific and autonomous unit of the Armed Forces of the Czech Republic directly subordinate to the Military Office of the President of the Czech Republic. Its main task is to guard and defend the seat of the President of the Czech Republic at the Prague Castle. During the period 1939 to 1945 its duties were performed by the 1st Battalion of the Government Army; as of April 2018, the Castle Guard consisted of 43 civilian employees. These were armed with the following weaponry: CZ 75 SP01 Phantom Standard Service Pistol CZ Scorpion Evo 3 A1 Personal Defense Weapon CZ 805 BREN Standard Service RifleOther weapons include: Vz. 52/57 Ceremonial Rifle CZ 750 Sniper Rifle RPG-7 rocket-propelled grenade launcher Uk vz. 59 universal machine gun Band of the Castle Guards and the Police of the Czech Republic Official website
Fusil Automatique Modèle 1917
The Fusil Automatique Modèle 1917 was a gas-operated, semi-automatic rifle that the French Army placed in service during the latter part of World War I. It was chambered in then-standard 8mm Lebel, the rimmed cartridge used in other French Army infantry weapons of the time. Altogether, the French National Armories (primarily MAS and MAT had manufactured 86,000 RSC M1917 rifles when their production run ended in late November 1918; however few have survived in functional, semi-automatic condition and those have become sought-after collectibles. The adoption of the Modèle 1917 can be traced to early attempts by the French Army to replace its Lebel rifles with a more advanced semi-automatic design in the years before the outbreak of the First World War. In 1913, a semi-automatic rifle was selected to be adopted as a replacement for the Lebels and Berthiers in the army's inventory. In 1910 the army tentatively adopted the semi-automatic long recoil operated Meunier rifle as a replacement for the Lebel rifle.
Considerable delays were experienced in the final choice for the ammunition, which ended up being a powerful rimless proprietary 7×56.95mm round. Only 1,013 Meunier rifles had been manufactured by 1916 and about 300 were sent for field trials in the trenches, they were well received but the special ammunition problem was a major handicap. The M1917 RSC was formally adopted in May 1916; the M1917 was being mass produced by April 1917, a large number had been manufactured by November 1918. It was less expensive to manufacture than the Meunier rifle since it used standard Lebel rifle components, notably: the barrel, handguard, barrel bands and trigger guard. Above all else, it was chambered for the standard 8mm Lebel ammunition, loaded on special five-round en-bloc clips; the Mle 1917 RSC was gas operated with a rotating bolt, the gas port being located underneath the barrel and near the muzzle as in the M1 Garand rifle. The Mle 1917 was distributed among French infantry during 1918; however the troops did not like it as they found it too heavy, too long and too difficult to service and to maintain in the trenches.
The weak point of this rifle was the size of the gas port located under the front end of the barrel. Because of its small internal diameter the gas port tended to foul up with repeated firings thus leading to weaker and weaker bolt returns in prolonged use. Hence the gas port required frequent cleaning out which could be performed after removing the large brass screw under the front end of the barrel. Furthermore, the special magazine for the Mle 1917 was not strong. Version 1 was the original design and includes a bolt-hold-open, manually raised to lock the bolt to the rear with a button to release the bolt forward, it did not lock the bolt to the rear when the last round in the magazine was fired. Version 2 added an upper handguard. Version 3 of the rifle removed the bolt hold open device and introduced a sliding dust cover as well as additional receiver markings; some versions were equipped with front sights drilled to accept a photoluminescent insert for low light use. Following as a substantial improvement, the Mle 1918 RSC was adopted in 1918 as a rifle planned to replace all other rifles beginning in 1919.
Production began in November of 1918. No Mle 1918 RSC rifles are known to have been used in WWI; the Mle 1918 was shorter and lighter than the Mle 1917 RSC and corrected all of the Mle 1917 RSC drawbacks. One of the primary complaints from French soldiers regarding the Mle 1917 RSC was its excessive length at 1330mm; the Mle 1918 RSC was shortened to an overall length of 1100mm. The Mle 1918 RSC used modified Mle 1917 RSC receivers. Among the changes were: Barrel shortened from 800mm to 580mm with corresponding changes in the wooden handguards. New rear sight assembly which changes the battle sight zero which deleted the all the way forward position. Has adjustments re-calibrated for shorter sight radius. Bolt-hold-open device reintroduced, this time with a last-round-bolt-hold-open feature; this is a spring loaded latch. Additional latch on the clip cover for added security in holding the clip cover closed; this latch is actuated on the right side of the receiver. Sliding dust cover from the 3rd pattern Mle 1917.
Simplified butt plate design allowing for faster, cheaper production. New, Berthier-style stacking rod intended to alleviate the issue of the old stacking rod catching on vegetation and the like. Shortened Bayonet Numerous changes to the overall design, with particular emphasis on the gas system, which simplified production, takedown and maintenance of the rifle. Receiver modified to accept Mle 1916 Berthier clips; this is the most significant change as it allows for ammo sharing between soldiers carrying the Mle 1918 and the bolt action Berthier rifles. Despite both rifles having been developed at the same time with the backing of the French Army and Government, the design teams do not appear to have made any attempt at commonality of feeding device between the two designs; this meant that, although they shared the same 8mm Lebel cartridge, they had different 5 round charger clips which created logistical and tactical difficulties. The French Army had issued out the Ml
Remington Model 8
The Remington Model 8 is a semi-automatic rifle designed by John Browning and produced by Remington Arms. Introduced as the Remington Autoloading Rifle in 1905, the name was changed to the Remington Model 8 in 1911. On October 16, 1900, John Browning was granted U. S. Patent 659,786 for the rifle, which he sold to Remington. Outside the U. S. this rifle was made by Fabrique Nationale of Liege and marketed as the FN Browning 1900. Under an agreement between Remington and FN, the Model 8 would be sold in the US while the FN 1900 would be sold elsewhere. Despite having a larger market, the FN 1900 was sold predominantly to hunters in and around Western Europe and Canada; because of the new and yet unproven nature of the autoloading rifle, the FN model never experienced the same level of sales as the Model 8. Cameron Woodall of The Great Model 8, a website dedicated to the rifle, postulates that this was due to the difficulty convincing European hunters to spend money on an expensive rifle that few people had seen before.
Due to lackluster sales, only 4,913 Model 1900s were produced compared to the over 80,000 Model 8s produced. The Remington Model 8 rifle was the first commercially successful semiautomatic rifle offered for civilian sale in the United States, it uses a rotating bolt head. After firing, the barrel and bolt, still locked together, move rearward inside the receiver and compress two recoil springs; the bolt is held back while the barrel is returned forward by one of the springs permitting extraction and ejection. Once the barrel is returned, the bolt is returned forward by the second spring; the Remington Model 8 has a fixed 5-shot magazine and bolt hold-open device which engages after the magazine is empty. It is a take-down design, meaning that the barrel and receiver are separated with no tools, allowing for a smaller package for transport. Remington created four new calibers for the Model 8 rifle:.25 Remington.30 Remington.32 Remington and.35 Remington. These cartridges were rimless designs to allow reliable feeding from box magazines.
The Model 8 was offered in five grades of finish and was the first reliable high power semiautomatic rifle commercialized. The primary market for the Model 8 was sport hunting; the Model 8 was used as a police gun, modified to use detachable extended capacity magazines, among other changes. While thought to not have seen use in World War I, it did see service with the French Aéronautique Militaire in small numbers, it is noted as the rifle of choice of famed Texas Ranger Frank Hamer. Hamer's rifle was a customized.35 Remington Model 8 with a special-order 15-round magazine from Petmeckey's Sporting Goods store in Austin, Texas. He was shipped serial number 10045, this was just one of at least two Model 8s used in the ambush of Clyde Barrow and Bonnie Parker; the rifle was modified to accept a "police only" 20-round magazine obtained through the Peace Officers Equipment Company in St. Joseph, Missouri. In 1936, Remington dropped the Model 8 and introduced the Model 81 Woodsmaster with improvements by C.
C. Loomis; the Model 81 was offered in.300 Savage and the.25 Remington chambering was dropped after a limited number of 81s were chambered in this round. It was offered in Standard, Peerless and Premier grades; the Federal Bureau of Investigation acquired some Model 81 rifles chambered for.30 Remington and.35 Remington in response to the 1933 Kansas City Massacre. Production of the Model 81 ceased in 1950. History of Model 8 & Model 81
John Moses Browning was an American firearms designer who developed many varieties of military and civilian firearms and gun mechanisms – many of which are still in use around the world. He made his first firearm at age 13 in his father's gun shop, was awarded the first of his 128 firearm patents on October 7, 1879, at the age of 24, he is regarded as one of the most successful firearms designers of the 19th and 20th centuries, pioneered the development of modern automatic and semi-automatic firearms. Browning influenced nearly all categories of firearms design, he invented, or made significant improvements to, single-shot, lever-action, pump-action rifles and shotguns. Arguably, his most significant contributions were in the area of autoloading firearms, he developed the first reliable and compact autoloading pistols by inventing the telescoping bolt integrating the bolt and barrel shroud into what is known as the pistol slide. Browning's telescoping bolt design is now found on nearly every modern semi-automatic pistol, as well as several modern automatic weapons.
He developed the first gas-operated firearm, the Colt–Browning Model 1895 machine gun – a system that surpassed mechanical recoil operation to become the standard for most high-power self-loading firearm designs worldwide. He made significant contributions to automatic cannon development. Browning's most successful designs include the M1911 pistol, the water-cooled M1917, the air-cooled M1919, heavy M2 machine guns, the Browning Automatic Rifle, the Browning Auto-5 – the first semi-automatic shotgun; some of these arms are still manufactured with only minor changes in detail and cosmetics to those assembled by Browning or his licensees. His guns are some of the most copied firearms in the world, his father Jonathan Browning, among the thousands of members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints pioneers in the mass exodus from Nauvoo, Illinois to Utah, established a gunsmith shop in Ogden in 1852. As was common in the Mormon community at that time, Jonathan Browning was a polygamist, having taken three wives.
He fathered 22 children and two stepdaughters, including John Moses Browning with his wife Elizabeth Caroline Clark. John Moses worked in his father's Ogden shop from the age of seven, where he was taught basic engineering and manufacturing principles, encouraged to experiment with new concepts, he developed his first rifle, a single-shot falling block action design in 1878, in partnership with his younger brother, co-founded John Moses and Matthew Sandefur Browning Company renamed Browning Arms Company, began to produce this and other non-military firearms. By 1882, the company employed John and Matthew’s half-brothers Jonathan, William (1862-1919], George. Like his father, Browning was a member of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, served a two-year mission in Georgia beginning on March 28, 1887, he married Rachel Theresa Child on April 10, 1879 at Ogden, Weber County, Utah Territory, the couple had 10 children, two of whom died in infancy. Production examples of the Model 1885 Single Shot Rifle caught the attention of the Winchester Repeating Arms Company, who dispatched a representative to evaluate the competition.
Winchester moved production to their Connecticut factory. From 1883, Browning worked in partnership with Winchester and designed a series of rifles and shotguns, most notably the lever action Winchester Model 1887 and the Model 1897 pump shotgun, the falling-block single-shot Model 1885, the lever-action Model 1886, Model 1892, Model 1894, Model 1895 rifles as well as the long recoil operated semi-automatic Remington Model 8 rifle, many of which are still in production today in some form. Winchester manufactured several popular small arms designed by John M. Browning. For decades in the late 19th Century-early 20th Century, Browning designs and Winchester firearms were synonymous and the collaboration was successful; this came to an end when Browning proposed a new long recoil operated semi-automatic shotgun design, a prototype finished in 1898, to Winchester management, which became the Browning Auto-5 shotgun. As was the custom of the time, Browning's earlier designs had been licensed to Winchester for a single fee payment.
With this new product, Browning introduced in his negotiations a continuous royalty fee based upon unit sales, rather than a single front-end fee payment. If the new shotgun became successful, Browning stood to make more fee income over the prior license fee arrangements. Winchester management was displeased with the bold change in their relationship, rejected Browning's offer. Remington Arms was approached, however the president of Remington died of a heart attack as Browning waited to offer them the gun; this forced Browning to look overseas to produce the shotgun. However. Having successfully negotiated firearm licenses with Fabrique Nationale de Herstal of Belgium, Browning took the new shotgun design to FN; the Browning Auto-5 was continuously manufactured as a popular shotgun throughout the 20th century. In response, Winchester shifted reliance away from John Browning designs when it adopted a shotgun design of Thomas Crossley Johns
A gun barrel is a crucial part of gun-type ranged weapons such as small firearms, artillery pieces and air guns. It is the straight shooting tube made of rigid high-strength metal, through which a contained rapid expansion of high-pressure gas is introduced behind a projectile in order to propel it out of the front end at a high velocity; the hollow interior of the barrel is called the bore. The measurement of the diameter of the bore is called the caliber. Caliber is measured in inches or millimetres; the first firearms were made at a time when metallurgy was not advanced enough to cast tubes capable of withstanding the explosive forces of early cannons, so the pipe needed to be braced periodically along its length for reinforcement, producing an appearance somewhat reminiscent of storage barrels being stacked together, hence the English name. Gun barrels are metal. However, the early Chinese, the inventors of gunpowder, used bamboo, which has a strong tubular stalk and is cheaper to obtain and process, as the first barrels in gunpowder projectile weapons such as the fire lances.
The Chinese were the first to master cast-iron cannon barrels, used the technology to make the earliest infantry firearms — the hand cannons. Early European guns were made of wrought iron with several strengthening bands of the metal wrapped around circular wrought iron rings and welded into a hollow cylinder. Bronze and brass were favoured by gunsmiths because of their ease of casting and their resistance to the corrosive effects of the combustion of gunpowder or salt water when used on naval vessels. Early firearms were muzzle-loading, with the gunpowder and the shot loaded from the front end of the barrel, were capable of only a low rate of fire due to the cumbersome loading process; the later-invented breech-loading designs provided a higher rate of fire, but early breechloaders lacked an effective way of sealing the escaping gases that leaked from the back end of the barrel, reducing the available muzzle velocity. During the 19th century, effective breechblocks were invented that sealed a breechloader against the escape of propellant gases.
Early cannon barrels were thick for their caliber. This was because manufacturing defects such as air bubbles trapped in the metal were common back in the days, played key factors in many gun explosions. A gun barrel must be able to hold in the expanding gas produced by the propellants to ensure that optimum muzzle velocity is attained by the projectile as it is being pushed out. If the barrel material cannot cope with the pressure within the bore, the barrel itself might suffer catastrophic failure and explode, which will not only destroy the gun but present a life-threatening danger to people nearby. Modern small arms barrels are made of carbon steel or stainless steel materials known and tested to withstand the pressures involved. Artillery pieces are made by various techniques providing reliably sufficient strength. In firearms terminology, fluting refers to the removal of material from a cylindrical surface creating rounded grooves, for the purpose of reducing weight; this is most done to the exterior surface of a rifle barrel, though it may be applied to the cylinder of a revolver or the bolt of a bolt-action rifle.
Most flutings on rifle barrels and revolver cylinders are straight, though helical flutings can be seen on rifle bolts and also rifle barrels. While the main purpose of fluting is just to reduce weight and improve portability, when adequately done it can retain the structural strength and rigidity and increase the overall specific strength. Fluting will increase the surface-to-volume ratio and make the barrel more efficient to cool after firing, though the reduced material mass means the barrel will heat up during firing; the chamber is the cavity at the back end of a breech-loading gun's barrel where the cartridge is inserted in position ready to be fired. In most firearms, the chamber is an integral part of the barrel made by reaming the rear bore of a barrel blank, with a single chamber within a single barrel. In revolvers, the chamber is a component of the gun's cylinder and separate from the barrel, with a single cylinder having multiple chambers that are rotated in turns into alignment with the barrel in anticipation of being fired.
Structurally, the chamber consists of the body and neck, the contour of which correspond to the casing shape of the cartridge it is designed to hold. The rear opening of the chamber is the breech of the whole barrel, sealed tight from behind by the bolt, making the front direction the path of least resistance during firing; when the cartridge's primer is struck by the firing pin, the propellant is ignited and deflagrates, generating high-pressure gas expansion within the cartridge case. However, the chamber restrains the cartridge case from moving, allowing the bullet to separate cleanly from the casing and be propelled forward along the barrel to exit out of the front end as a projectile; the act of chambering a gun refers to the process of loading a cartridge into the gun's chamber, either manually as in single loading, or via operating the weapon's own action as in pump action, lever action, bolt action or self-loading actions. In the case of an air gun, a pellet itself has no casing to be retained and will be inserted into the chamber (often called "seating