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MLA Handbook

The MLA Handbook the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers is a publication of the United States-based Modern Language Association. According to the organization, their MLA style "has been adopted for classroom instruction and used worldwide by scholars, journal publishers, academic and commercial presses"; the MLA Handbook began as an abridged student version of the MLA Style Manual. Both are academic style guides that have been used in the United States and other countries, providing guidelines for writing and documentation of research in the humanities, such as English studies. Released in April 2016, the eighth edition of the MLA Handbook is addressed to secondary-school and undergraduate college and university teachers and students. MLA announced in April 2016 MLA Handbook will henceforth be "the authoritative source for MLA style", that the 2008 third edition of the MLA Style Manual would be the final edition of the larger work; the announcement stated that the organization "is in the process of developing additional publications to address the professional needs of scholars."

The MLA Handbook grew out of the initial MLA Style Sheet of 1951, a 28-page "more or less official" standard. The first five editions, published between 1977 and 1999 were titled the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers and Dissertations; the title changed to the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers in 2003. The seventh edition's main changes from the sixth edition were "no longer recogniz a default medium and instead call for listing the medium of publication in every entry in the list of works cited", recommending against listing URLs, preferring italics over underline. Additionally, the seventh edition included a website with the full text of the book. Online additions allowed for citation of e-books and tweets; the eighth edition's main changes from the seventh edition are "shift our focus from a prescriptive list of formats to an overarching purpose of source documentation". Released in spring 2016, it changes the structure of the works cited list, most directly by adding abbreviations for volumes and issues, not abbreviating words like "editor" or "translator", using URLs in most instances, not favoring the medium of publication.

The table below identifies the year of publication of each edition of the MLA Handbook. The MLA Style Manual, titled the MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing in its second and third edition, was an academic style guide by the United States-based Modern Language Association of America first published in 1985. MLA announced in April 2016 that the publication would be discontinued: the third edition would be the last and was to be "taken out of print"; the announcement said that what began as an abridged version for students, the MLA Handbook, was to be thenceforth "the authoritative source for MLA style", that the organization was "in the process of developing additional publications to address the professional needs of scholars". MLA documentation style is used in scholarship throughout the humanities in English studies, modern languages and literatures, comparative literature, literary criticism, media studies, cultural studies, related disciplines; the MLA Style Manual was one of two books on MLA documentation style published by the MLA.

While the MLA Handbook is aimed at secondary and post-secondary students and their teachers, the intended audience of the Manual consisted of graduate students, academic scholars, professional writers, editors. Both the MLA Handbook and the MLA Style Manual were preceded by a slim booklet titled the MLA Style Sheet, first published in 1951 and revised in 1970; the Style Sheet was allowed to go out of print after the commercial success of the Handbook, creating the need for the Manual as a companion to the Handbook. The MLA Style Manual was to go out of print in 2016; as of April 2017, the organization said it would be "developing additional publications to address the professional needs of scholars". Comparison of reference management software Parenthetical referencing Achtert, Walter S. and Joseph Gibaldi. The MLA Style Manual. New York: Modern Language Association, 1985. Print. Modern Language Association of America; the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers. New York: MLA, 1977. 7th ed. New York MLA, 2009.

ISBN 1-60329-024-9. ISBN 978-1-60329-024-1. ISBN 1-60329-025-7. ISBN 978-1-60329-025-8. Print. MLA. MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing. 3rd ed. New York: MLA, 2008. ISBN 978-0-87352-297-7. ISBN 978-0-87352-298-4. Print. "What Is MLA Style?" Modern Language Association, 2011. Web. 31 Jan. 2011. The MLA Style Center—dedicated website MLA Style Guide, Eighth Edition, IRSC Libraries MLA Formatting and Style Guide, Purdue OWL MLA Style Manual, First Edition, 1985 MLA Style Manual, Second Edition, 1998 Guide to academic style guides, from College of St. Rose

Australian mining law

Australian mining law governs the exploration and extraction of minerals and petroleum in Australia. It differs from the mining laws of other common law countries, the most important differences arising from the policy decision that the Crown should own all minerals; the first Australian mining laws were enacted in 1851. Before that, ownership of minerals and petroleum passed to those who were granted title to land by the colonial governors according to common law concepts, except the right to "Royal Mines" which remained vested in the Crown by virtue of Royal prerogative. From 1855, colonial parliaments legislated for ownership of minerals to be retained by the Crown in future grants of freehold title. Thus, the situation developed where throughout Australia, the crown in right of the State owns nearly all the minerals. In relation to minerals situated within state boundaries, first sight, the power to legislate for minerals remains with the states. However, despite the fact that the Constitution of Australia does not list minerals as an area over which the Federal Parliament has jurisdiction, a number of the Commonwealth Parliament's powers encompass matters relevant to mining operations and any legislation of the Commonwealth based upon these powers will override any inconsistent State legislation.

As to Commonwealth jurisdiction over the Territories, the constitutional limitations regarding mining operations conducted within the States have no application in the Northern Territory, or other Australian territories. Each of the States and Territories has its own legislation regulating the exploration for and production of onshore minerals; the Commonwealth has no onshore mining legislation, applicable in the States or Territories. As to offshore minerals, the Commonwealth has sovereignty in respect of the territorial sea, sovereign rights in respect of both the continental shelf and the exclusive economic zone for the purpose of exploitation of their natural resources. Thus, the sovereignty over minerals of the States and the Northern Territory extends only to the low-water mark and it is the Commonwealth, entitled under international law to exercise sovereignty over minerals under the territorial sea, within the exclusive economic zone and on the continental shelf. However, following an agreement negotiated between the Commonwealth Government and the States in 1979, the Commonwealth conferred power on the States and the Northern Territory to make laws for matters including mining operations in respect of the coastal waters and granted them proprietary rights to the seabed.

In addition, the Corporations Act 2001 and the Australian Stock Exchange Listing Rules contain special provisions governing the conduct and reporting requirements of mining companies. According to the maxim "to whomsoever the soil belongs, he owns to the sky and to the depths", there is a presumption that a land owner owns all minerals on or beneath the surface of that land; the presumption is subject to the exception of the Royal metals. As early as the sixteenth century, the common law has held that all gold and silver, whether situated on public or private land, has been owned by the Crown; this Royal prerogative has been applied in Australia, by both common law and legislation. However, the principle of the owner of land owning the minerals within it has been abolished by statute in Australia; the general rule is. This has been implemented by statute. Now, all new grants of freehold titles in Australia have provided that all minerals were reserved to the Crown. In respect of titles granted prior to the legislation, the owner of the land retained ownership of the minerals.

That owner may grant a profit à prendre to take minerals. Crown ownership of minerals has been made universal in Victoria and South Australia by legislative expropriation of all minerals. In Tasmania and New South Wales, this approach of legislative expropriation has been applied on a selective basis; the Crown, pursuant to statute, may grant various leases or licences to enter onto land and take minerals. State ownership of minerals has had the important result that governments, rather than private landholders, determine the legal regimes governing mineral exploration and production. Large mining operations are to be regulated by a ratified agreement, sometimes called a "state agreement", an "agreement act", a "franchise agreement", a "government agreement" or a "special agreement act"; the basis of such an agreement is that the State contracts with the miner in the form of a written agreement, ratified by a statute of that State or Territory Parliament. This ratification ensures that the provisions of the negotiated agreement have legislative effect and override any inconsistent provisions under the general mining legislation or any other statutes of that State or Territory.

Ratified agreements have been used throughout Australia to establish large, export-oriented mining projects since the 1950s. They have been most extensively used in West Australia, where a high proportion of large mining projects continue to operate under such arrangements. Energy law Michael W. Hunt, Mining Law in Western Australia, Third edition. Anne M. Fitzgerald, Mining Agreements: Negotiated Frameworks in the Australian Minerals Sector; this book can be downloaded from QUT's ePrints repository at It is publ

Martian Moons Exploration

The Martian Moons Exploration is a robotic space probe set for launch in 2024 to bring back the first samples from Mars' largest moon Phobos. Developed by the Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency and announced on 9 June 2015, MMX will land and collect samples from Phobos once or twice, along with conducting Deimos flyby observations and monitoring Mars' climate; the mission aims to provide key information to help determine whether the Martian moons are captured asteroids or the result of a larger body hitting Mars. The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency and other Japanese government officials approved the MMX project to proceed into development on 19 February 2020, according to a post on JAXA's website; the spacecraft will enter orbit around Mars transfer to Phobos, land once or twice and gather sand-like regolith particles using a simple pneumatic system. The lander mission aims to retrieve a minimum 10 g of samples; the spacecraft will take off from Phobos and make several flybys of the smaller moon Deimos before sending the Sample Return Capsule back to Earth, arriving in July 2029.

The mission architecture uses three modules: propulsion module, exploration module and the return module. With the mass of Deimos and Phobos being too small to capture a satellite, it is not possible to orbit the Martian moons in the usual sense. However, orbits of a special kind, referred to as quasi-satellite orbits, can be sufficiently stable to allow many months of operations in the vicinity of the moon; the mission leader is Yasuhiro Kawakatsu.. NASA, ESA, CNES are participating in the project, will provide scientific instruments; the U. S. will contribute a neutron and gamma-ray spectrometer called MEGANE, France the Near IR Spectrometer. France is contributing expertise in flight dynamics to plan the mission's orbiting and landing manoeuvres. Development and testing of key components, including the sampler, is ongoing; as of 2020, MMX is scheduled to be launched in September 2024, will return to Earth five years later. The scientific payload consists on international contributions, they will be powered by solar arrays.

Gamma rays and Neutrons Spectrometer - developed by NASA Wide Angle Multiband Camera Near-Infrared Spectrometer - developed by CNES, France. Optical Radiometer composed of Chromatic Imagers Telescopic Nadir Imager for Geomorphology Light Detection and Ranging Circum-Martian Dust Monitor Mass Spectrum Analyzer Additionally, the Gravity GradioMeter, Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscope, Mission Survival Module were proposed as additional instruments. Following a study by the French CNES space agency, it was decided that the spacecraft will deliver a small rover provided by CNES and the German Aerospace Center; the rover will be equipped with cameras, a radiometer, a Raman spectrometer for in-situ surface exploration of the Martian moon. For sample collection, the mission opted to use an air gun to puff pressurised gas, pushing about 10 grams of soil into the sample container; the spacecraft will take off from Phobos and make several flybys of the smaller moon Deimos before sending the Sample Return Capsule back to Earth, arriving in July 2029.

List of missions to Mars – Wikimedia list article Nozomi – A failed Mars orbiterProposed missions to Mars' moonsFobos Grunt Phobos And Deimos & Mars Environment Phobos Surveyor – A proposed Phobos orbiter Phobos program – 1988 Soviet missions to Mars Phootprint – A proposes sample-return mission to Phobos

Memoria Vetusta III: Saturnian Poetry

Memoria Vetusta III - Saturnian Poetry is the eleventh studio album by French black metal band Blut Aus Nord. It was released on October 2014 through Debemur Morti Productions; this is the last album of the'Memoria Vetusta' trilogy. The album cover was painted by Kristian "Necrolord" Wåhlin, famous for his work with black metal bands such as Emperor and Bathory, the layout was provided by Dehn Sora, it is the first full-length album by Blut Aus Nord to feature Thorns on drums. In addition to positive reviews by critics, the album was listed by Rolling Stone as the 13th best metal album of 2014; the album has been well received by critics. AllMusic's Thom Jurek gave it 4/5 and wrote that "Memoria Vetusta III: Saturnian Poetry is not only a worthy extension in this series, but the finest volume in it, it proves. That said, it may be that it takes a visionary act like Blut Aus Nord to bring it out."Pitchfork's Andy O'Connor praised the album, noting in particular the contribution of drummer Thorns, writing that "he delivers a more than capable performance", that "Poetry wouldn’t have made sense with Vindsval’s electronic drum programming from the 777 series—those records were more industrial, whereas this record is more recognizably black metal, a cold, mechanical drum machine wouldn't work.

There needed to be something with some blood behind it here, something more "natural." He needed a human touch if his music is otherworldly."Writing for MetalSucks, Kim Kelly named it her album of the year for 2014, adding that "Vindsval’s return and conclusion of the Memoria Vetusta trilogy couldn’t have come at a better time, serves as a master class in crafting icy, bombastic melodic black metal. You need this in your life… trust me." Spin named it as the 3rd best metal album of 2014, writing that "Its seven songs take the listener on a glistening odyssey up to the absolute pinnacle of epic, melodic black metal and leaves you there, wondering where it will take you next." Track listing adapted from AllMusic. Blut Aus NordVindsval – vocals, guitar Thorns – drumsAdditionalKristian "Necrolord" Wåhlin – artwork DehnSora – layout

Ricardo Varela

Ricardo José Silva Varela is a Portuguese swimmer from Clube Naval Setubalense. He has practised swimming since he was three years old, has been a professional swimmer for about 11 years. Varela started to swim, until the age of 8 in Vila do Conde. Since he represents the CNS, becoming national champion, record holder and be a part of the National Team, his best stroke is breaststroke, in the distances of 50,100 and 200 meters, right now is a senior. He's trained by Pedro Vale. Twice South Portugal Champion Best swimmer at Vale do Tejo Cup Gold Medal at TAP Meeting Internacional Three gold medals and one silver medal at the Region Championships Six Region relay titles National Champion and Silver medal at the National Championship Silver Medal at Estoril Meeting Internacional Five Gold medals and two Silver medals at the Region Championships One Gold, one Silver medal, two bronze medals at the National Championships Gold Medal at TAP Meeting Internacional Bronze Medal in relay in the National Championships Three Gold medals and two Silver Medals in relay at the Region Championships In the National Team twice: Multinations Youth and European Youth Olympic Festival Bronze medal at Multinations Youth Silver Medal at Estoril Meeting Internacional Gold Medal at TAP Meeting Internacional Three gold medals and silver medal at the National Championships Two gold medals at the Region Championships Two gold medal and two silver medals in relay at the National Championships Gold Medal in relay at the Region Championships Three bronze medals at the Junior National Championships Three Gold Medals at the Junior National Championships Gold Medal at Multinations Junior Tenth place and tenth second place at the European Junior Championships Two Silver Medals and one bronze Medal at the Summer National Championships Second best team at the National Clubs Championship Fourth best performance at 100 meters breaststroke in the 25 meter's pool Bronze Medal at the Winter National Championships Two silver medals at Loulé International Meeting One Silver Medal and two bronze Medals at the Summer National Championships National Champion and bronze medal at the Short Course Portuguese National Championships Seventh and Twelfth place at the 11th Luxembourg EuroMeet Two Silver Medals at the 3rd Póvoa de Varzim Internacional Meeting Eleven place at the Spanish Open Championships South Portugal Championships: Two Gold Medals Region Championships: Ten Gold Medals, Three Silver Medals National Championships: Nine Gold Medals, Nine Silver Medals, Ten Bronze Medals Best swimmer at Vale do Tejo Cup in 2003 Three Consecutive Gold Titles at TAP International Meeting Six times in the National Team Bronze Medal at Multinations Youth Gold Medal and Silver Medal in the Multinations Junior Tenth place and tenth second place at the European Junior Championships Mutinations Youth Meet - Madeira, Madeira European Youth Olympic Festival - Lignano Sabbiadoro, Italy Multinations Junior Meet - Genève Swiss European Junior Championships - Antwerpen, Belgium 11th Luxembourg Euro-Meet - Luxembourg, Luxembourg Spanish Open Championships - Málaga, Spain World Cup - 10 km Setúbal Open Water - 2,6 km Sesimbra Open Water - 1,5 km Sines Open Water - 1,5 km Castelo de Bode Open Water - 10 km College Coração de Jesus - Póvoa de Varzim - Areias Primary School - Setúbal - Aranguês School - Setúbal - Sebastião da Gama High School - Universidade Técnica de Lisboa - Instituto Superior Técnico - Mechanical Engineering Course Instituto Politécnico de Setúbal - Escola Superior de Tecnologia - Mechanical Engineering Course Clube Naval Setubalense Federação Portuguesa de Natação Blog Beba Água

Russell Higgins

Russell Allan Higgins is a former senior Australian public servant and policymaker. Higgins was appointed Secretary of the Department of Industry and Tourism on 27 January 1997. After the department was abolished in 1998, Higgins was appointed Secretary of the new Department of Industry and Resources. In 2006, Higgins was appointed to the Prime Ministerial Task Group on Emissions Trading. Higgins was appointed Chair of the Board of the Global CCS Institute in June 2009. In June 2013, Higgins was appointed to the board of Leighton Holdings, he resigned from the board in May 2014. In 2001, Higgins was awarded the Centenary Medal in recognition of his outstanding service to government. Higgins was made an Officer of the Order of Australia in January 2006 for service to the community through the development and implementation of a broad range of government policies including financial management and accountability, microeconomic reform, science and innovation strategies