Maat or Maʽat refers to the ancient Egyptian concepts of truth, order, law and justice. Maat was the goddess who personified these concepts, regulated the stars and the actions of mortals and the deities who had brought order from chaos at the moment of creation, her ideological opposite was Isfet, meaning injustice, violence or to do evil. Cuneiform texts indicate that the word m3ˤt was pronounced /múʔʕa/ during the New Kingdom of Egypt, having lost the feminine ending t. Vowel assimilation of u to e produced the Coptic word ⲙⲉⲉ/ⲙⲉ "truth, justice"; the earliest surviving records indicating that Maat is the norm for nature and society, in this world and the next, were recorded during the Old Kingdom of Egypt, the earliest substantial surviving examples being found in the Pyramid Texts of Unas. When most goddesses were paired with a male aspect, her masculine counterpart was Thoth, as their attributes are similar. In other accounts, Thoth was paired off with Seshat, goddess of writing and measure, a lesser-known deity.
After her role in creation and continuously preventing the universe from returning to chaos, her primary role in ancient Egyptian religion dealt with the Weighing of the Heart that took place in the Duat. Her feather was the measure that determined whether the souls of the departed would reach the paradise of the afterlife successfully. Pharaohs are depicted with the emblems of Maat to emphasise their role in upholding the laws and righteousness. Maat represents the ethical and moral principle that every Egyptian citizen was expected to follow throughout their daily lives, they were expected to act with honor and truth in matters that involve family, the community, the nation, the environment, the gods. Maat as a principle was formed to meet the complex needs of the emergent Egyptian state that embraced diverse peoples with conflicting interests; the development of such rules sought to avert chaos and it became the basis of Egyptian law. From an early period the king would describe himself as the "Lord of Maat" who decreed with his mouth the Maat he conceived in his heart.
The significance of Maat developed to the point that it embraced all aspects of existence, including the basic equilibrium of the universe, the relationship between constituent parts, the cycle of the seasons, heavenly movements, religious observations and fair dealings and truthfulness in social interactions. The ancient Egyptians had a deep conviction of an underlying holiness and unity within the universe. Cosmic harmony was achieved by correct ritual life. Any disturbance in cosmic harmony could have consequences for the individual as well as the state. An impious king could bring about famine, blasphemy could bring blindness to an individual. In opposition to the right order expressed in the concept of Maat is the concept of Isfet: chaos and violence. In addition to the importance of the Maat, several other principles within ancient Egyptian law were essential, including an adherence to tradition as opposed to change, the importance of rhetorical skill, the significance of achieving impartiality and "righteous action".
In one Middle Kingdom text, the creator declares "I made every man like his fellow". Maat called the rich to help the less fortunate rather than exploit them, echoed in tomb declarations: "I have given bread to the hungry and clothed the naked" and "I was a husband to the widow and father to the orphan". To the Egyptian mind, Maat bound all things together in an indestructible unity: the universe, the natural world, the state, the individual were all seen as parts of the wider order generated by Maat. A passage in the Instruction of Ptahhotep presents Maat as follows: Maat is good and its worth is lasting, it has not been disturbed since the day of its creator, whereas he who transgresses its ordinances is punished. It lies as a path in front of him who knows nothing. Wrongdoing has never yet brought its venture to port, it is true that evil may gain wealth but the strength of truth is that it lasts. There is little surviving literature. Maat was the spirit in which justice was applied rather than the detailed legalistic exposition of rules.
Maat represented the normal and basic values that formed the backdrop for the application of justice that had to be carried out in the spirit of truth and fairness. From the Fifth Dynasty onwards, the vizier responsible for justice was called the Priest of Maat and in periods judges wore images of Maat. Scholars and philosophers would embody concepts from the Sebayt, a native wisdom literature; these spiritual texts dealt with common social or professional situations, how each was best to be resolved or addressed in the spirit of Maat. It was practical advice, case-based, so few specific and general rules could be derived from them. During the Greek period in Egyptian history, Greek law existed alongside Egyptian law; the Egyptian law preserved the rights of women, who were allowed to act independently of men and own substantial personal property, in time, this influenced the more restrictive conventions of the Greeks and Romans. When the Romans took control of Egypt, the Roman legal system, which existed throughout the Roman Empire, was imposed in Egypt.
Scribes held prestigious positions in ancient Egyptian society in view of their importance in the transmission of religious and commercial information. Thoth was the patron of scribes, described as the one "who reveals Maat and reckons Maat.
An ADR rose is a winner in the German ADR rose trial. No chemical pesticides have been allowed since 1997 and breeders describe the trial as among the most challenging in the world; the trial is set up by a working group that includes the Bund deutscher Baumschulen, rose breeders, eleven independent trial stations in Germany. The trial results are analyzed by the Bundessortenamt. Roses are tested over three years and criteria analyzed include disease resistance, hardiness and habit. About 50 cultivars are judged annually and more than 2000 cultivars have been tested since the award's creation in the 1950s. Roses that no longer fulfill quality standards have their certificate removed; as of November 2013, 161 cultivars are recognized. List of Award of Garden Merit roses Rose Hall of Fame "Removed ADR varieties". Allgemeine Deutsche Rosenneuheitenprüfung. 1 January 2013. Pellett, Gary. "Report on Kordes® ADR Roses in the United States, 2010". In Shanley, Pat; the Sustainable Rose Garden. Newbury Books.
ISBN 978-1-935149-16-3. Schwarz, Helmuth. "ADR Rose List 2013". Allgemeine Deutsche Rosenneuheitenprüfung. Sieber, Josef. "ADR-Chronik". Allgemeine Deutsche Rosenneuheitenprüfung. ADR - Performance Testing of New Rose Varieties in Germany
K. S. K. Ronse is a Belgian association football club from Ronse in East Flanders born in 1987 from the fusion between Assa Ronse and R. F. C. Renaisien. A. S. Renaisienne was founded in 1906 and received the matricule n° 38; the club first reached second division in 1923 but returned to third division in 1926 as only the best 7 from each league were qualified to play the united second division on the next season. Anyway, after two seasons at the third level, A. S. Renaisienne was back to second division for just one year. In 1931, the other club from the town promoted to second division joined in 1937 by A. S. both clubs remaining there until the competition was stopped due to World War II. After the war, the two clubs declined. In 1987 the fusion became inevitable; the new club kept the matricule n° 38. After a few years of struggling in lower divisions they made it back to the second in 2001. After a short intermezzo in third they again got back into the second division for two more years. Since however the club declined again.
They are playing in the second amateur division. Official website Unofficial website