The raspberry is the edible fruit of a multitude of plant species in the genus Rubus of the rose family, most of which are in the subgenus Idaeobatus. Raspberries are perennial with woody stems. Raspberry derives its name from raspise, "a sweet rose-colored wine", from the Anglo-Latin vinum raspeys, or from raspoie, meaning "thicket", of Germanic origin; the name may have been influenced by its appearance as having a rough surface related to Old English rasp or "rough berry". Examples of raspberry species in Rubus subgenus Idaeobatus include: Rubus crataegifolius Rubus gunnianus Rubus idaeus Rubus leucodermis Rubus occidentalis Rubus parvifolius Rubus phoenicolasius Rubus rosifolius Rubus strigosus Rubus ellipticus Several species of Rubus called raspberries, are classified in other subgenera, including: Rubus deliciosus Rubus odoratus Rubus nivalis Rubus arcticus Rubus sieboldii Various kinds of raspberries can be cultivated from hardiness zones 3 to 9. Raspberries are traditionally planted in the winter as dormant canes, although planting of tender, plug plants produced by tissue culture has become much more common.
A specialized production system called "long cane production" involves growing canes for a year in a northern climate such as Scotland or Oregon or Washington, where the chilling requirement for proper bud break is attained, or attained earlier than the ultimate place of planting. These canes are dug and all, to be replanted in warmer climates such as Spain, where they flower and produce a early season crop. Plants are planted 2-6 per m in fertile, well drained soil. All cultivars of raspberries have perennial roots but, many do not have perennial shoots. In fact, most raspberries have shoots; the flowers can be a major nectar source for other pollinators. Raspberries can be locally invasive, they propagate using basal shoots, extended underground shoots that develop roots and individual plants. They can sucker new canes some distance from the main plant. For this reason, raspberries spread well, can take over gardens if left unchecked. Raspberries are propagated using cuttings, will root in moist soil conditions.
The fruit is harvested when it comes off the receptacle and has turned a deep color. This is when the fruits are sweetest. High tunnel bramble production offers the opportunity to bridge gaps in availability during late fall and late spring. Furthermore, high tunnels allow less hardy floricane-fruiting raspberries to overwinter in climates where they wouldn't otherwise survive. In the tunnel plants are established at close spacing prior to tunnel construction. Raspberries are an important commercial fruit crop grown in all temperate regions of the world. Many of the most important modern commercial red raspberry cultivars derive from hybrids between R. idaeus and R. strigosus. Some botanists consider the Eurasian and American red raspberries to belong to a single, circumboreal species, Rubus idaeus, with the European plants classified as either R. idaeus subsp. Idaeus or R. idaeus var. idaeus, the native North American red raspberries classified as either R. idaeus subsp. Strigosus, or R. idaeus var. strigosus.
Recent breeding has resulted in cultivars that are thornless and more upright, not needing staking. The black raspberry, Rubus occidentalis, is cultivated, providing both fresh and frozen fruit, as well as jams and other products, all with that species' distinctive flavor. Purple raspberries have been produced by horticultural hybridization of red and black raspberries, have been found in the wild in a few places where the American red and the black raspberries both grow naturally. Commercial production of purple-fruited raspberries is rare. Blue raspberry is a local name used in Prince Edward County, Canada for the cultivar'Columbian', a hybrid of R. strigosus and R. occidentalis. Fruits from such plants are called yellow raspberries. Most pale-fruited raspberries commercially sold in the eastern United States are derivatives of red raspberries. Yellow-fruited variants of the black raspberry are sometimes grown in home gardens. Red raspberries have been crossed with various species in other subgenera of the genus Rubus, resulting in a number of hybrids, the first of, the loganberry.
Notable hybrids include boysenberry, tayberry. Hybridization between the familiar cultivated red raspberries and a few Asiatic species of Rubus has been achieved. Numerous raspberry cultivars have been selected. Two types of raspberry are available for domestic cultivation.
Fruit preserves are preparations of fruits and sugar stored in glass jam jars. Many varieties of fruit preserves are made globally, including sweet fruit preserves, such as those made from strawberry or apricot, savory preserves, such as those made from tomatoes or squash; the ingredients used and how they are prepared determine the type of preserves. In English, the word, in plural form, "preserves" is used to describe all types of jellies; the term preserves is interchangeable with jams. Other names include: chutney, conserve, fruit butter, fruit curd, fruit spread and marmalade; some cookbooks define preserves as cooked and gelled whole fruit, which includes a significant portion of the fruit. In the English speaking world, the two terms are more differentiated and, when this is not the case, the more usual generic term is'jam'; the singular preserve or conserve is used as a collective noun for high fruit content jam for marketing purposes. Additionally, the name of the type of fruit preserves will vary depending on the regional variant of English being used.
A chutney is a relish of Indian origin made of fruit and herbs. Although intended to be eaten soon after production, modern chutneys are made to be sold, so require preservatives – sugar and vinegar – to ensure they have a suitable shelf life. Mango chutney, for example, is mangoes reduced with sugar. While confit, the past participle of the French verb confire, "to preserve", is most applied to preservation of meats, it is used for fruits or vegetables seasoned and cooked with honey or sugar till jam-like. Savory confits, such as ones made with garlic or fennel, may call for a savory oil, such as virgin olive oil, as the preserving agent. Konfyt is a type of jam eaten in Southern Africa, it is made by boiling selected fruit or fruits and sugar, optionally adding a small quantity of ginger to enhance the flavour. The origins of the jam is obscure but it is theorized that it came from the French; the word is based on the French term confiture via the Dutch confijt. A conserve, or whole fruit jam, is a preserve made of fruit stewed in sugar.
Traditional whole fruit preserves are popular in Eastern Europe where they are called varenye, the Baltic region where they're known by a native name in each of the countries, as well as in many regions of Western and Southern Asia, where they are referred to as murabba. The making of conserves can be trickier than making a standard jam; this process can be achieved by spreading the dry sugar over raw fruit in layers, leaving for several hours to steep into the fruit just heating the resulting mixture only to bring to the setting point. As a result of this minimal cooking, some fruits are not suitable for making into conserves, because they require cooking for longer periods to avoid issues such as tough skins. Currants and gooseberries, a number of plums are among these fruits; because of this shorter cooking period, not as much pectin will be released from the fruit, as such, conserves will sometimes be softer set than some jams. An alternative definition holds that conserves are preserves made from a mixture of fruits or vegetables.
Conserves may include dried fruit or nuts. Fruit butter, in this context, refers to a process where the whole fruit is forced through a sieve or blended after the heating process. "Fruit butters are made from larger fruits, such as apples, peaches or grapes. Cook until softened and run through a sieve to give a smooth consistency. After sieving, cook the pulp... add sugar and cook as as possible with constant stirring.… The finished product should mound up when dropped from a spoon, but should not cut like jelly. Neither should there be any free liquid."—Berolzheimer R et al. Fruit curd is a dessert topping and spread made with lemon, orange, or raspberry; the basic ingredients are beaten egg yolks, fruit juice and zest which are cooked together until thick and allowed to cool, forming a soft, intensely flavored spread. Some recipes include egg whites or butter. Although the FDA has Requirements for Specific Standardized Fruit Butters, Jellies and Related Products, there is no specification of the meaning of the term Fruit spread.
Although some assert it refers to a jam or preserve with no added sugar, there are many fruit spreads by leading manufacturers that do contain added sugar. This can be verified by searching the listings under fruit spread on common web sites, such as those of Amazon or Walmart, or to look at the ingredient list and nutritional information on specific fruit spread products. Jam contains both the juice and flesh of a fruit or vegetable, although one cookbook defines it as a cooked and jelled puree; the term "jam" refers to a product made of whole fruit cut into pieces or crushed heated with water and sugar to activate its pectin before being put into containers: "Jams are made from pulp and juice of one fruit, rather than a com
Ladurée is a French luxury bakery and sweets maker house created in 1862. It is one of the world's best-known premier sellers of the double-decker macaron, 15,000 of which are sold every day; the Pâtisserie E. Ladurée company is a société par actions simplifiée and has its head office in Marcq-en-Barœul, France. Louis-Ernest Ladurée, a miller, was a prolific writer and produced works in every literary form including plays, novels, essays and scientific works, more than 20,000 letters and more than 2,000 books and pamphlets, he was an outspoken supporter of social reform, despite strict censorship laws and harsh penalties for those who broke them. As a satirical polemicist, he made use of his works to criticize intolerance, religious dogma and the French institutions of his day, he founded the bakery on the Rue Royale, Paris in 1862. During the Paris Commune uprising of 1871 the bakery was burnt down. A pastry shop was built at the same location and Jules Chéret was entrusted with the interior decoration.
The chubby cherubs dressed as pastry cooks, painted by him on the ceiling, form the company's emblem. The interior of the premises were painted in the same celadon colour as the façade. Ladurée's rise to fame came in 1930 when his grandson, Pierre Desfontaines, had the original idea of the double-decker, sticking two macaron shells together with a creamy ganache as filling. Queen Catherine de' Medici had brought the macaron to France from Italy in the 16th century, the recipe for the biscuit had hardly varied over the years, but the amounts of the ingredients used and the appearance of the end product were up to the individual bakers. Desfontaines opened a tearoom at the pastry shop. In those days ladies were not admitted to cafés; this was a big success with ladies, who enjoyed meeting in the freedom of the tearoom rather than their homes. Pierre Herme was responsible for the rise of Ladurée. "In one year Ladurée went from a little bakery in the eighth district of Paris to a big brand name. When I arrived, there was not a lot of organization.
I brought the savoir-faire to the company. When I arrived, they didn't have a logo."- Pierre Herme. In 1993, the Groupe Holder took over the firm Ladurée; the Holder family owns the PAUL bakery chain in France. Following the takeover, the company began an expansion drive to turn Ladurée from the single rue Royale bakery into a chain, setting up pastry shops and tea rooms on the Champs-Élysées and in Le Printemps Haussmann in 1997, followed by Ladurée Bonaparte in 2002; the International development of Ladurée started in 2005 with England. In 1997, two shops open in Paris, the first on the Champs-Elysées Avenue decorated by jacques Garcia, the second in the Bonaparte street decorated by Roxane Rodriguez. A shop opens in 2006 in London decorated by Roxane Rodriguez; the takeaways of the shops of Bonaparte street and of Harrod’s will be the model of many shops. Ladurée stores are now present in Australia, Canada, Belgium, Hong Kong, Italy, Kuwait, Monaco, Panama, Portugal, Romania, Saudi Arabia, South Korea, Switzerland, Taiwan,Thailand, Turkey, UAE, UK, the USA.
In 2012, Ladurée will release a collection of makeup inspired by the colors of their macarons. It will be available in Japan in February 2012, in Europe from November 2012. In February 2014, Marie-Hélène de Taillac, a jewelry designer, collaborated with Ladurée to create sets of fashion macaron; the box containing the macarons "depicts de Taillac's "Rainbow" necklace, featuring gold sequins and the piece's multicolored briolette gemstone". The item sells for USD$24. Ladurée will have Marie-Hélène de Taillac-inspired window installations in its stores of Tokyo and New York City. Ladurée made the pastries for the film Marie Antoinette, directed by Sofia Coppola, they can be seen in The CW's hit teen drama Gossip Girl as Blair Waldorf's favorite pastries. Ladurée collaborate with fashion designers: in 2009 with Christian Louboutin the same year with Marni. In 2011, Ladurée was chosen to conceive macarons for Albert II, Prince of Monaco and Charlene Wittstock's wedding; the Court of Appeal in Paris granted "moral" copyright to the creator of certain Ladurée stores' elaborate interior design.
This came about as a consequence. By final judgment of March 3rd, 2017; the Paris Court of Appeal, ruling contradictorily. Confirm the judgment rendred on January 2016 between the parties by the Paris Supreme Court. By judgment contradictory and delivered in first instance on January 29th, the Paris Supreme Court says that the decorations of the lounge in the first floor of the pastry Ladurée Bonaparte, in Paris, of the black lounge and the lounge Opéra for the pastry Ladurée Harrods in London, of the Lounge Marie-Antoinette of the tearoom Ladurée Ginza in Tokyo are protected by copyright, said that Madam Rodriguez is the author of these decorations, condamne PASTRIES E. LADUREE COMPANIES and HACHETTE BOOK and Mister Serge GLEIZES in solidum to pay 15 000 Euros sum to Madam Roxane RODRIGUEZ for the damage resulting of violations on the right morale of author. Publication on newspaper "Le Monde" on June, 28th, 2018 The newspaper "Challenges" wrote an article on Novembre, 13th, 2017: " Ladurée poursuivi en justice par son ancienne décoratrice" by David Bensoussan.
Apart from ten stores in Paris, one in Versailles and another three locations at
Clotted cream is a thick cream made by indirectly heating full-cream cow's milk using steam or a water bath and leaving it in shallow pans to cool slowly. During this time, the cream content rises to the surface and forms "clots" or "clouts", it forms an essential part of a cream tea. Although its origin is uncertain, the cream's production is associated with dairy farms in southwest England and in particular the counties of Cornwall and Devon; the current largest commercial producer in the United Kingdom is Rodda's at Scorrier, Cornwall, which can produce up to 25 tons of clotted cream a day. In 1998 the term Cornish clotted cream became a Protected Designation of Origin by European Union directive, as long as the milk is produced in Cornwall and the minimum fat content is 55%. Clotted cream has been described as having a "nutty, cooked milk" flavour, a "rich sweet flavour" with a texture, grainy, sometimes with oily globules on the crusted surface, it is a thick cream, with a high fat content.
For comparison, the fat content of single cream is only 18 percent. According to the United Kingdom's Food Standards Agency, a 100-gram tub of clotted cream provides 586 kilocalories equivalent to a 200-gram cheeseburger. Made by farmers to reduce the amount of waste from their milk, clotted cream has become so deep-rooted in the culture of southwest Britain that it is embedded as part of the region's tourist attraction. While there is no doubt of its strong and long association with Cornwall and Devon, it is not clear of its actual antiquity, or more recent development; the Oxford Companion to Food follows traditional folklore by suggesting it may have been introduced to Cornwall by Phoenician traders in search of tin. It is similar to kaymak, a Near Eastern delicacy, made throughout the Middle East, southeast Europe, Afghanistan and Turkey. A similar clotted cream known as'urum' is made in Mongolia. Contemporary ancient food experts, noting Strabo's commentaries on Britain have proposed that the early Britons would have clotted cream to preserve its freshness.
More regional archaeologists have associated the stone fogou, or souterrains, found across Atlantic Britain and Ireland as a possible form of "cold store" for dairy production of milk and cheese in particular. Similar functions are ascribed to the linhay stone-built form used as a dairy in medieval longhouses in the same regions, it has long been disputed whether clotted cream originated in Devon or Cornwall, which county makes it the best. There is evidence that the monks of Tavistock Abbey were making clotted cream in the early 14th century. After their abbey had been ransacked by Vikings in 997 AD, the monks rebuilt it with the help of Ordulf, Earl of Devon. Local workers were drafted in to help with the repairs, the monks rewarded them with bread, clotted cream, strawberry preserves; the 1658 cookery book The Compleat Cook had a recipe for "clouted cream". In the 19th century it was regarded as better nourishment than "raw" cream because that cream was liable to go sour and be difficult to digest, causing illness.
An article from 1853 calculates that creating clotted cream will produce 25 percent more cream than regular methods. In Devon, it was so common that in the mid-19th century it was used in the formative processes of butter, instead of churning cream or milk; the butter made in this way had a longer lifespan and was free from any negative flavours added by the churning. It has long been the practice for local residents in southwest England, or those on holiday, to send small tins or tubs of clotted cream by post to friends and relations in other parts of the British Isles. In 1993, an application was made for the name Cornish clotted cream to have a Protected Designation of Origin in the European Union for cream produced by the traditional recipe in Cornwall; this was accepted in 1998. Cornish clotted cream must be made from milk produced in Cornwall and have a minimum butterfat content of 55 percent; the unique yellow, Cornish clotted cream colour is due to the high carotene levels in the grass.
Traditionally, clotted cream was created by straining fresh cow's milk, letting it stand in a shallow pan in a cool place for several hours to allow the cream to rise to the surface heating it either over hot cinders or in a water bath, before a slow cooling. The clots that formed on the top were skimmed off with a long-handled cream-skimmer, known in Devon as a reamer or raimer. By the mid-1930s, the traditional way of using milk brought straight from the dairy was becoming a rarity in Devon because using a cream separator separated the cream from the milk using centrifugal force, which produced far more clotted cream than the traditional method from the same amount of milk; as a farmer's wife in Poundsgate said, "the separator saves a whole cow!"Today, there are two distinct modern methods for making clotted cream. The "float cream method" includes scalding a floating layer of double cream in milk in shallow trays. To scald, the trays are heated using steam or hot water. After the mixture has been heated for up to an hour it is cooled for 12 hours or more, before the cream is separated and packaged.
The "scald cream method" is similar, but the milk layer is removed and a layer of cream, mechanically separated to a minimum fat level is used. This cream is heated in a similar manner, but at a lower temperature and after a set amount of time it is chilled and packaged. In th
Food coloring, or color additive, is any dye, pigment or substance that imparts color when it is added to food or drink. They come in many forms consisting of liquids, powders and pastes. Food coloring is used both in domestic cooking. Food colorants are used in a variety of non-food applications including cosmetics, home craft projects, medical devices. People associate certain colors with certain flavors, the color of food can influence the perceived flavor in anything from candy to wine. Sometimes the aim is to simulate a color, perceived by the consumer as natural, such as adding red coloring to glacé cherries, but sometimes it is for effect, like the green ketchup that Heinz launched in 1999. Color additives are used in foods for many reasons including: To make food more attractive, appealing and informative Offset color loss due to exposure to light, temperature extremes and storage conditions Correct natural variations in color Enhance colors that occur Provide color to colorless and "fun" foods Allow consumers to identify products on sight, like candy flavors or medicine dosages The addition of colorants to foods is thought to have occurred in Egyptian cities as early as 1500 BC, when candy makers added natural extracts and wine to improve the products' appearance.
During the Middle Ages, the economy in the European countries was based on agriculture, the peasants were accustomed to producing their own food locally or trading within the village communities. Under feudalism, aesthetic aspects were not considered, at least not by the vast majority of the very poor population; this situation changed with urbanization at the beginning of the Modern Age, when trade emerged—especially the import of precious spices and colors. One of the first food laws, created in Augsburg, Germany, in 1531, concerned spices or colorants and required saffron counterfeiters to be burned. With the onset of the industrial revolution, people became dependent on foods produced by others; these new urban dwellers demanded food at low cost. Analytical chemistry was still primitive and regulations few; the adulteration of foods flourished. Heavy metal and other inorganic element-containing compounds turned out to be cheap and suitable to "restore" the color of watered-down milk and other foodstuffs, some more lurid examples being: Red lead and vermillion were used to color cheese and confectionery.
Copper arsenite was used to recolor used tea leaves for resale. It caused two deaths when used to color a dessert in 1860. Sellers at the time offered more than 80 artificial coloring agents, some invented for dyeing textiles, not foods. Thus, with potted meat and sauces taken at breakfast he would consume more or less Armenian bole, red lead, or bisulphuret of mercury. At dinner with his curry or cayenne he would run the chance of a second dose of mercury. Again his tea if mixed or green, he would not escape without the administration of a little Prussian blue... Many color additives had never been tested for toxicity or other adverse effects. Historical records show that injuries deaths, resulted from tainted colorants. In 1851, about 200 people were poisoned in England, 17 of them fatally, directly as a result of eating adulterated lozenges. In 1856, the first synthetic color, was developed by Sir William Henry Perkin and by the turn of the century, unmonitored color additives had spread through Europe and the United States in all sorts of popular foods, including ketchup, mustard and wine.
These were dubbed'coal-tar' colors because the starting materials were obtained from bituminous coal. Many synthesized dyes were easier and less costly to produce and were superior in coloring properties when compared to derived alternatives; some synthetic food colorants are diazo dyes. Diazo dyes are prepared by coupling of a diazonium compound with a second aromatic hydrocarbons; the resulting compounds contain conjugated systems that efficiently absorb light in the visible parts of the spectrum, i.e. they are colored. The attractiveness of the synthetic dyes is that their color and other attributes can be engineered by the design of the specific dyestuff; the color of the dyes can be controlled by selecting the number of azo-groups and various substituents. Yellow shades are achieved by using acetoacetanilide. Red colors are azo compounds; the pair indigo and indigo carmine exhibit the same blue color, but the former is soluble in lipids, the latter is water-soluble because it has been fitted with sulfonate functional groups.
Concerns over food safety led to numerous regulations throughout the world. German food regulations released in 1882 stipulated the exclusion of dangerous minerals such as arsenic, chromium, lead and zinc, which were used as ingredients in colorants. In contrast to today, these first laws followed the principle of a negative listing. In the United States, the Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906 reduced the permitted list of synthetic colors from 700 down to seven; the seven dyes approved were Ponceau 3R, erythrosine, indigotine (F
A sandwich cookie known as a sandwich biscuit, is a type of cookie consisting of two cookies between, a filling. Many types of fillings are used, such as cream, buttercream, cream cheese, peanut butter, lemon curd or ice cream. Bourbon biscuit, thin rectangular dark chocolate–flavoured biscuits with a chocolate buttercream filling Custard cream, custard-flavoured centre between flat biscuits E. L. Fudge Cookies, butter-flavored shortbread cookies with a fudge creme filling Hydrox, creme-filled chocolate sandwich cookie manufactured by Leaf Brands Ice cream sandwich, frozen dessert consisting of ice cream between two wafers, cookies, or other similar biscuit Chipwich, ice cream sandwich made of ice cream between two chocolate chip cookies and rolled in chocolate chips Jammie Dodgers, shortbread with a raspberry or strawberry flavoured jam filling Macaron, sweet meringue-based confection Maple leaf cream cookies, maple leaf-shaped cookies with maple cream filling Milano, thin layer of chocolate sandwiched between two biscuit cookies Monte Carlo, sweet biscuits sandwiching a creamy filling Moon Pie, marshmallow sandwiched between two graham cracker cookies and dipped in a flavored coating Nutter Butter, peanut-shaped cookies with a peanut butter filling Nutty Bars, wafers with peanut butter and covered in chocolate Oreo, a line of sandwich cookies—most notably a creme-filled chocolate sandwich cookie modeled after Hydrox—manufactured by Mondelez International Prince de LU, biscuits with chocolate cream Wafer, a crisp sweet thin and dry biscuit Wagon Wheels, biscuits with marshmallow filling, covered in a chocolate Whoopie pie, mound-shaped pieces of cake with a sweet, creamy filling Ice cream sandwich Cookie § Classification Dirt cake List of cookies Media related to Sandwich cookie at Wikimedia Commons
Nancy is the capital of the north-eastern French department of Meurthe-et-Moselle, the capital of the Duchy of Lorraine, the French province of the same name. The metropolitan area of Nancy had a population of 434,565 inhabitants at the 2011 census, making it the 20th largest urban area in France; the population of the city of Nancy proper was 104,321 in 2014. The motto of the city is Non inultus premor, Latin for "I'm not touched with impunity"—a reference to the thistle, a symbol of Lorraine. Place Stanislas, a large square built between March 1752 and November 1755 by Stanislaus I of Poland to link the medieval old town of Nancy and the new town built under Charles III in the 17th century, is a UNESCO World Heritage Site, the first place in France and in the top four in the world; the earliest signs of human settlement in the area date to 800 BC. Early settlers were attracted by mined iron ore and a ford in the Meurthe River. A small fortified town named Nanciacum was built by Gérard, Duke of Lorraine around 1050.
Nancy was burned in 1218 at the end of the War of Succession of Champagne, conquered by Emperor Frederick II. It was rebuilt in stone over the next few centuries as it grew in importance as the capital of the Duchy of Lorraine. Duke Charles the Bold of Burgundy, was defeated and killed in the Battle of Nancy in 1477. Following the failure of both Emperor Joseph I and Emperor Charles VI to produce a son and heir, the Pragmatic Sanction of 1713 left the throne to the latter's next child; this turned out to be Maria Theresa of Austria. In 1736 Emperor Charles arranged her marriage to Duke François of Lorraine, who reluctantly agreed to exchange his ancestral lands for the Grand Duchy of Tuscany; the exiled Polish king Stanislaus Leszczyński, father-in-law of the French king Louis XV, was given the vacant duchy of Lorraine. Under his nominal rule, Nancy experienced growth and a flowering of Baroque culture and architecture. Stanislaus oversaw the construction of Place Stanislaus, a major square and development connecting the old medieval with a newer part of the city.
After Stanislaus' death in 1766, the duchy of Lorraine returned to the status of a regular French province. Nancy lost its position as a residential capital city with patronage; as unrest surfaced within the French armed forces during the French Revolution, a full-scale mutiny, known as the Nancy affair, took place in Nancy in the latter part of summer 1790. A few units loyal to the government shot or imprisoned the mutineers. In 1871, Nancy remained French; the flow of refugees reaching Nancy doubled its population in three decades. Artistic, academic and industrial excellence flourished, establishing what is still the Capital of Lorraine's trademark to this day. Nancy and other areas of France were occupied by German forces from 1940. During the Lorraine Campaign of World War II, Nancy was liberated from Nazi Germany by the U. S. Third Army in September 1944, at the Battle of Nancy. In 1988, Pope John Paul II visited Nancy. In 2005, French President Jacques Chirac, German Chancellor Gerhard Schröder, Polish President Aleksander Kwaśniewski inaugurated the renovated Place Stanislas.
It is recognized as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Nancy is situated on the left bank of the river Meurthe, about 10 km upstream from its confluence with the Moselle; the Marne–Rhine Canal runs through the city, parallel to the Meurthe. Nancy is surrounded by hills that are about 150 m higher than the city center, situated at 200 m above mean sea level; the area of Nancy proper is small: 15 km2. Its built-up area is continuous with those of its adjacent suburbs; the neighboring communes of Nancy are: Jarville-la-Malgrange, Malzéville, Maxéville, Saint-Max, Vandœuvre-lès-Nancy and Villers-lès-Nancy. The oldest part of Nancy is the quarter Vieille Ville – Léopold, which contains the 14th century Porte de la Craffe, the Palace of the Dukes of Lorraine, the Porte Désilles and the 19th century St-Epvre basilica. Adjacent to its south is the quarter Charles III – Centre Ville, the 16th–18th century "new town"; this quarter contains the famous Place Stanislas, the Nancy Cathedral, the Opéra national de Lorraine and the main railway station.
The population of the city proper experienced a small decrease in population from 2009 to 2014, placing it behind Metz as the second largest city in the Lorraine. However, the urban area of Metz experienced population decline from 1990 to 2010 while the urban area of Nancy grew over the same period, becoming the largest urban area in Lorraine and second largest in the "Grand Est" region of northeastern France. Within the Nancy metropolitan area in recent years, the city population declined at the same time as a small increase in the population of its urban area. Nancy has an oceanic climate, although a bit more extreme than most of the larger French cities. By the standards of France it is a "continental" climate with a certain degree of maritimy; the temperatures have a distinct variation of the temperate zone, both during the day and between seasons but without being different. Winters are dry in freezing climates. Summers are not warm enough. Mists are frequent in autumn and the winds are light and not too violent.
Precipitation tends to be less abundant than in the west of the country. Sunshine hours are identical to Paris and the snowy days are the same as Stra