Noodle soup refers to a variety of soups with noodles and other ingredients served in a light broth. Noodle soup is common dish across Southeast Asia. Various types of noodles are used, such as wheat noodles and egg noodles. There are myriad noodle soup dishes originating in China, many of these are eaten in, or adapted in various Asian countries. Ban mian – style, flat-shaped egg noodles in soup. Chongqing noodles Cold noodle – Shanghai style, flat noodle stirred with peanut butter sauce, soy sauce and vinegar, served cold. Crossing the bridge noodles – served as a bowl of chicken stock with uncooked rice noodles, raw eggs, vegetables and flowers on the side that get added and cooked when one is ready to eat. Stock stays warm because of a layer of oil on top of the bowl. Typical cuisine of Kunming, Yunnan Province. Lanzhou Beef Noodle – called Lanzhou Lāmiàn or Lanzhou Beef Noodle soup; this noodles soup made of stewed or red braised beef soup, beef broth and Chinese noodles. As well as a series of rules and standards for doing it.
Spring Noodle Soup White noodle in soup is one of the most simple Chinese snack. This typical noodles with soup is one of the traditional noodles with soup, vegetables, it is simple in ingredients。 Wonton noodles – a Cantonese dish Traditional Japanese noodles in soup are served in a hot soy-dashi broth and garnished with chopped scallions. Popular toppings include tempura batter or aburaage. Soba – thin brown buckwheat noodles. Known as Nihon-soba. In Okinawa, soba refers to Okinawa soba. Udon – thick wheat noodle served with various toppings in a hot soy-dashi broth, or sometimes in a Japanese curry soup. Chinese-influenced wheat noodles, served in a meat or chicken broth, have become popular in the past 100 years or so. Ramen – thin light yellow noodle served in hot chicken or pork broth, flavoured with soy or miso, with various toppings such as slices of pork, seaweed, or boiled egg. Known as Shina-soba or Chuka-soba Champon – yellow noodles of medium thickness served with a great variety of seafood and vegetable toppings in a hot chicken broth which originated in Nagasaki as a cheap food for students Okinawa soba – a thick wheat-flour noodle served in Okinawa served in a hot broth with sōki, beni shōga and kōrēgusu.
Akin to a cross between udon and ramen. Hōtō – a popular regional dish originating from Yamanashi, Japan made by stewing flat udon noodles and vegetables in miso soup. Janchi guksu – noodles in a light seaweed broth, served with fresh condiments Jjamppong – spicy noodle soup of Korean-Chinese origin Kalguksu – Hand-cut wheat noodles served in a seafood broth Makguksu – buckwheat noodles with chilled broth Naengmyeon – Korean stretchy buckwheat noodles in cold beef broth, with onions, julienned cucumber, boiled egg sliced in half, slices of pears; this dish is popular in the humid summers of Korea. Ramyeon – South Korean noodles in soup, served in food stalls, made of instant noodles with toppings added by stalls. In the 1960s, instant noodles were introduced to South Korea from Japan, its quick and easy preparation, as well as its cheap price, ensured it caught on. It is spicy with chili and kimchi added, amongst other ingredients. Beef noodle soup – noodles in beef soup, sometimes with a chunk of stewed beef, beef bouillon granules and dried parsley.
Popular in Taiwan. Oyster vermicelli – vermicelli noodles with oysters Bhakthuk – flattened short noodles in beef soup, with chunks of stewed beef, dried beef strips, daikon and topped with green onions. Popular in Tibet as well as Nepal and India which have large populations of Tibetans; the soup is richer than thukpa due to use of dried beef strips. Thukpa – flat strip noodles in beef soup, with chunks of stewed beef and topped with green onions. Popular in Tibet as well as Nepal and India which have large populations of Tibetans. Chicken noodle soup Saimin – Soft wheat banana egg noodles in dashi broth. A popular hybrid dish reflecting the multicultural roots of modern Hawaii. Toppings include baby bok choy, nori seaweed, char siu, linguiça or SPAM. Wedding soup Kuy teav – a pork broth based rice noodle soup served with ground pork, meat balls, pork liver and garnished with fried garlic, green onions, cilantro and hoisin sauce. Feu – fine white noodles in a meat broth, served with a garnish of green leaves and flavourings including lime juice, vinegar and sugar.
Khao Piak Sen - translates to wet rice strands. The broth is made from chicken simmered with galangal, kaffir lime leaves, garlic cooked in oil; the fresh noodles are made of rice flour, tapioca starch, water and cook directly in the broth, releasing starches that give khao piak sen its distinct consistency. Khao poon - known as Lao laksa and is a popular type of spicy Lao rice vermicelli soup, it is a long-simmered soup most made with pounded chicken, fish, or pork and seasoned with common Lao ingredients such as fish sauce, lime leaves, garlic, Lao chillies, perilla. Mie ayam – chicken noodle soup comprising a bowl of chicken stock, boiled
Fat is one of the three main macronutrients, along with carbohydrate and protein. Fats molecules consist of carbon and hydrogen atoms, thus they are all hydrocarbon molecules. Examples include cholesterol and triglycerides; the terms "lipid", "oil" and "fat" are confused. "Lipid" is the general term, though a lipid is not a triglyceride. "Oil" refers to a lipid with short or unsaturated fatty acid chains, liquid at room temperature, while "fat" refers to lipids that are solids at room temperature – however, "fat" may be used in food science as a synonym for lipid. Fats, like other lipids, are hydrophobic, are soluble in organic solvents and insoluble in water. Fat is an important foodstuff for many forms of life, fats serve both structural and metabolic functions, they are a necessary part of the diet of most heterotrophs and are the most energy dense, thus the most efficient form of energy storage. Some fatty acids that are set free by the digestion of fats are called essential because they cannot be synthesized in the body from simpler constituents.
There are two essential fatty acids in human nutrition: linoleic acid. Other lipids needed by the body can be synthesized from other fats. Fats and other lipids are broken down in the body by enzymes called lipases produced in the pancreas. Fats and oils are categorized according to the number and bonding of the carbon atoms in the aliphatic chain. Fats that are saturated fats have no double bonds between the carbons in the chain. Unsaturated fats have one or more double bonded carbons in the chain; the nomenclature is based on the non-acid end of the chain. This end is called the n-end, thus alpha-linolenic acid is called an omega-3 fatty acid because the 3rd carbon from that end is the first double bonded carbon in the chain counting from that end. Some oils and fats are therefore called polyunsaturated fats. Unsaturated fats can be further divided into cis fats, which are the most common in nature, trans fats, which are rare in nature. Unsaturated fats can be altered by reaction with hydrogen effected by a catalyst.
This action, called hydrogenation, tends to break all the double bonds and makes a saturated fat. To make vegetable shortening liquid cis-unsaturated fats such as vegetable oils are hydrogenated to produce saturated fats, which have more desirable physical properties e.g. they melt at a desirable temperature, store well, whereas polyunsaturated oils go rancid when they react with oxygen in the air. However, trans fats are generated during hydrogenation as contaminants created by an unwanted side reaction on the catalyst during partial hydrogenation. Saturated fats can stack themselves in a packed arrangement, so they can solidify and are solid at room temperature. For example, animal fats tallow and lard are solids. Olive and linseed oils on the other hand are liquid. Fats serve both as energy sources for the body, as stores for energy in excess of what the body needs immediately; each gram of fat when burned or metabolized releases about 9 food calories. Fats are broken down in the healthy body to release their constituents and fatty acids.
Glycerol itself can be converted to glucose by the liver and so become a source of energy. There are many different kinds of fats. All fats are derivatives of fatty acids and glycerol. Most fats are glycerides triglycerides. One chain of fatty acid is bonded to each of the three -OH groups of the glycerol by the reaction of the carboxyl end of the fatty acid with the alcohol. Water is eliminated and the carbons are linked by an -O- bond through dehydration synthesis; this process is called esterification and fats are therefore esters. As a simple visual illustration, if the kinks and angles of these chains were straightened out, the molecule would have the shape of a capital letter E; the fatty acids would each be a horizontal line. Fats therefore have "ester" bonds; the properties of any specific fat molecule depend on the particular fatty acids. Fatty acids form a family of compounds that are composed of increasing numbers of carbon atoms linked into a zig-zag chain; the more carbon atoms there are in any fatty acid, the longer its chain will be.
Long chains are more susceptible to intermolecular forces of attraction, so the longer ones melt at a higher temperature. Fatty acid chains may differ by length categorized as short to long. Short-chain fatty acids are fatty acids with aliphatic tails of fewer than six carbons. Medium-chain fatty acids are fatty acids with aliphatic tails of 6–12 carbons, which can form medium-chain triglycerides. Long-chain fatty acids are fatty acids with aliphatic tails of 13 to 21 carbons. Long chain fatty acids are fatty acids with aliphatic tails of 22 or more carbons. Any of these aliphatic fatty acid chains may be glycerated and the resultant fats may have tails of different lengths from short triformin to long, e.g. cerotic acid, or hexacosanoic acid, a 26-carbon long-chain saturated fatty acid. Long chain fats are exemplified by tallow. Most fats found in foo
A dandy is a man who places particular importance upon physical appearance, refined language, leisurely hobbies, pursued with the appearance of nonchalance in a cult of self. A dandy could be a self-made man who strove to imitate an aristocratic lifestyle despite coming from a middle-class background in late 18th- and early 19th-century Britain. Previous manifestations of the petit-maître and the Muscadin have been noted by John C. Prevost, but the modern practice of dandyism first appeared in the revolutionary 1790s, both in London and in Paris; the dandy cultivated cynical reserve, yet to such extremes that novelist George Meredith, himself no dandy, once defined cynicism as "intellectual dandyism". Some took a more benign view. Honoré de Balzac introduced the worldly and unmoved Henri de Marsay in La fille aux yeux d'or, a part of La Comédie Humaine, who fulfils at first the model of a perfect dandy, until an obsessive love-pursuit unravels him in passionate and murderous jealousy. Charles Baudelaire defined the dandy, in the "metaphysical" phase of dandyism, as one who elevates æsthetics to a living religion, that the dandy's mere existence reproaches the responsible citizen of the middle class: "Dandyism in certain respects comes close to spirituality and to stoicism" and "These beings have no other status, but that of cultivating the idea of beauty in their own persons, of satisfying their passions, of feeling and thinking....
Dandyism is a form of Romanticism. Contrary to what many thoughtless people seem to believe, dandyism is not an excessive delight in clothes and material elegance. For the perfect dandy, these things are no more than the symbol of the aristocratic superiority of mind." The linkage of clothing with political protest had become a English characteristic during the 18th century. Given these connotations, dandyism can be seen as a political protest against the levelling of egalitarian principles including nostalgic adherence to feudal or pre-industrial values, such as the ideals of "the perfect gentleman" or "the autonomous aristocrat". Paradoxically, the dandy required an audience, as Susann Schmid observed in examining the "successfully marketed lives" of Oscar Wilde and Lord Byron, who exemplify the dandy's roles in the public sphere, both as writers and as personae providing sources of gossip and scandal. Nigel Rodgers in The Dandy: Peacock or Enigma? Questions Wilde's status as a genuine dandy, seeing him as someone who only assumed a dandified stance in passing, not a man dedicated to the exacting ideals of dandyism.
The origin of the word is uncertain. Eccentricity, defined as taking characteristics such as dress and appearance to extremes, began to be applied to human behavior in the 1770s. A later Scottish border ballad, circa 1780 features the word, but without all the contextual aspects of its more recent meaning; the original, full form of'dandy' may have been jack-a-dandy. It was a vogue word during the Napoleonic Wars. In that contemporary slang, a "dandy" was differentiated from a "fop" in that the dandy's dress was more refined and sober than the fop's. In the twenty-first century, the word dandy is a jocular sarcastic adjective meaning "fine" or "great"; the model dandy in British society was George Bryan "Beau" Brummell, in his early days, an undergraduate student at Oriel College, Oxford and an associate of the Prince Regent. Brummell was not from an aristocratic background. A. Barbey d'Aurevilly observed in 1845. Never unpowdered or unperfumed, immaculately bathed and shaved, dressed in a plain dark blue coat, he was always brushed fitted, showing much starched linen, all freshly laundered, composed with an elaborately knotted cravat.
From the mid-1790s, Beau Brummell was the early incarnation of "the celebrity", a man chiefly famous for being famous. By the time Pitt taxed hair powder in 1795 to help pay for the war against France and to discourage the use of flour in such a frivolous product, Brummell had abandoned wearing a wig, had his hair cut in the Roman fashion, "à la Brutus". Moreover, he led the transition from breeches to snugly tailored dark "pantaloons," which directly led to contemporary trousers, the sartorial mainstay of men's clothes in the Western world for the past two centuries. In 1799, upon coming of age, Beau Brummell inherited from his father a fortune of thirty thousand pounds, which he spent on costume and high living. In 1816 he suffered the dandy's stereotyped fate. Men of more notable accomplishments than Beau Brummell adopted the dandiacal pose: George Gordon Byron, 6th Baron Byron
Malaysia is a country in Southeast Asia. The federal constitutional monarchy consists of 13 states and three federal territories, separated by the South China Sea into two sized regions, Peninsular Malaysia and East Malaysia. Peninsular Malaysia shares a land and maritime border with Thailand and maritime borders with Singapore and Indonesia. East Malaysia shares land and maritime borders with Brunei and Indonesia and a maritime border with the Philippines and Vietnam. Kuala Lumpur is the national capital and largest city while Putrajaya is the seat of federal government. With a population of over 30 million, Malaysia is the world's 44th most populous country; the southernmost point of continental Eurasia, Tanjung Piai, is in Malaysia. In the tropics, Malaysia is one of 17 megadiverse countries, with large numbers of endemic species. Malaysia has its origins in the Malay kingdoms which, from the 18th century, became subject to the British Empire, along with the British Straits Settlements protectorate.
Peninsular Malaysia was unified as the Malayan Union in 1946. Malaya was restructured as the Federation of Malaya in 1948, achieved independence on 31 August 1957. Malaya united with North Borneo and Singapore on 16 September 1963 to become Malaysia. In 1965, Singapore was expelled from the federation; the country is multi-cultural, which plays a large role in its politics. About half the population is ethnically Malay, with large minorities of Malaysian Chinese, Malaysian Indians, indigenous peoples. While recognising Islam as the country's established religion, the constitution grants freedom of religion to non-Muslims; the government system is modelled on the Westminster parliamentary system and the legal system is based on common law. The head of state is the king, known as the Yang di-Pertuan Agong, he is an elected monarch chosen from the hereditary rulers of the nine Malay states every five years. The head of government is the Prime Minister; the country's official language is a standard form of the Malay language.
English remains an active second language. Since independence, Malaysian GDP has grown at an average of 6.5% per annum for 50 years. The economy has traditionally been fuelled by its natural resources, but is expanding in the sectors of science, tourism and medical tourism. Today, Malaysia has a newly industrialised market economy, ranked fourth largest in Southeast Asia and 38th largest in the world, it is a founding member of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations, the East Asia Summit and the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, a member of Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, the Commonwealth of Nations, the Non-Aligned Movement. The name "Malaysia" is a combination of the word "Malay" and the Latin-Greek suffix "-sia"/-σία; the word "melayu" in Malay may derive from the Tamil words "malai" and "ur" meaning "mountain" and "city, land", respectively. "Malayadvipa" was the word used by ancient Indian traders. Whether or not it originated from these roots, the word "melayu" or "mlayu" may have been used in early Malay/Javanese to mean to accelerate or run.
This term was applied to describe the strong current of the river Melayu in Sumatra. The name was adopted by the Melayu Kingdom that existed in the seventh century on Sumatra. Before the onset of European colonisation, the Malay Peninsula was known natively as "Tanah Melayu". Under a racial classification created by a German scholar Johann Friedrich Blumenbach, the natives of maritime Southeast Asia were grouped into a single category, the Malay race. Following the expedition of French navigator Jules Dumont d'Urville to Oceania in 1826, he proposed the terms of "Malaysia", "Micronesia" and "Melanesia" to the Société de Géographie in 1831, distinguishing these Pacific cultures and island groups from the existing term "Polynesia". Dumont d'Urville described Malaysia as "an area known as the East Indies". In 1850, the English ethnologist George Samuel Windsor Earl, writing in the Journal of the Indian Archipelago and Eastern Asia, proposed naming the islands of Southeast Asia as "Melayunesia" or "Indunesia", favouring the former.
In modern terminology, "Malay" remains the name of an ethnoreligious group of Austronesian people predominantly inhabiting the Malay Peninsula and portions of the adjacent islands of Southeast Asia, including the east coast of Sumatra, the coast of Borneo, smaller islands that lie between these areas. The state that gained independence from the United Kingdom in 1957 took the name the "Federation of Malaya", chosen in preference to other potential names such as "Langkasuka", after the historic kingdom located at the upper section of the Malay Peninsula in the first millennium CE; the name "Malaysia" was adopted in 1963 when the existing states of the Federation of Malaya, plus Singapore, North Borneo and Sarawak formed a new federation. One theory posits the name was chosen so that "si" represented the inclusion of Singapore, North Borneo, Sarawak to Malaya in 1963. Politicians in the Philippines contemplated renaming their state "Malaysia" before the modern country took the name. Evidence of modern human habitation in Malaysia dates back 40,000 years.
In the Malay Peninsula, the first inhabitants are thought to be Negritos. Traders and settlers from India and China arrived as early as the first century AD, establishing trading ports and coastal towns in the second and third centuries, their presence resulted in strong Indian and Chinese influences on the local cultures, the people of the Malay Peninsula adopted the religions of Hinduism and Buddhism. Sanskrit inscriptions appear as early as the fifth century; the Kingdom of
The gram is a metric system unit of mass. Defined as "the absolute weight of a volume of pure water equal to the cube of the hundredth part of a metre, at the temperature of melting ice". However, in a reversal of reference and defined units, a gram is now defined as one thousandth of the SI base unit, the kilogram, or 1×10−3 kg, which itself is now defined by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures, not in terms of grams, but by "the amount of electricity needed to counteract its force" The only unit symbol for gram, recognised by the International System of Units is "g" following the numeric value with a space, as in "640 g" to stand for "640 grams" in the English language; the SI does not support the use of abbreviations such as "gr", "gm" or "Gm". The word gramme was adopted by the French National Convention in its 1795 decree revising the metric system as replacing the gravet introduced in 1793, its definition remained that of the weight of a cubic centimetre of water. French gramme was taken from the Late Latin term gramma.
This word—ultimately from Greek γράμμα, "letter"—had adopted a specialised meaning in Late Antiquity of "one twenty-fourth part of an ounce", corresponding to about 1.14 modern grams. This use of the term is found in the carmen de ponderibus et mensuris composed around 400 AD. There is evidence that the Greek γράμμα was used in the same sense at around the same time, in the 4th century, survived in this sense into Medieval Greek, while the Latin term did not remain current in Medieval Latin and was recovered in Renaissance scholarship; the gram was the fundamental unit of mass in the 19th-century centimetre–gram–second system of units. The CGS system co-existed with the MKS system of units, first proposed in 1901, during much of the 20th century, but the gram has been displaced by the kilogram as the fundamental unit for mass when the MKS system was chosen for the SI base units in 1960; the gram is today the most used unit of measurement for non-liquid ingredients in cooking and grocery shopping worldwide.
Most standards and legal requirements for nutrition labels on food products require relative contents to be stated per 100 g of the product, such that the resulting figure can be read as a percentage by weight. 1 gram = 15.4323583529 grains 1 grain = 0.06479891 grams 1 avoirdupois ounce = 28.349523125 grams 1 troy ounce = 31.1034768 grams 100 grams = 3.527396195 ounces 1 gram = 5 carats 1 gram = 8.98755179×1013 joules 1 undecimogramme = 1 "eleventh-gram" = 10−11 grams in the historic quadrant–eleventh-gram–second system a.k.a. hebdometre–undecimogramme–second system 500 grams = 1 Jin in the Chinese units of measurement. 1 gram is equal to 1 small paper clip or pen cap. The Japanese 1 yen coin has a mass of one gram, lighter than the British penny, the United States cent, the Euro cent, the 5 cent Australian coins. Conversion of units Duella Gold gram Orders of magnitude Gram at Encyclopædia Britannica
A carbohydrate is a biomolecule consisting of carbon and oxygen atoms with a hydrogen–oxygen atom ratio of 2:1 and thus with the empirical formula Cmn. This formula holds true for monosaccharides; some exceptions exist. The carbohydrates are technically hydrates of carbon; the term is most common in biochemistry, where it is a synonym of saccharide, a group that includes sugars and cellulose. The saccharides are divided into four chemical groups: monosaccharides, disaccharides and polysaccharides. Monosaccharides and disaccharides, the smallest carbohydrates, are referred to as sugars; the word saccharide comes from the Greek word σάκχαρον, meaning "sugar". While the scientific nomenclature of carbohydrates is complex, the names of the monosaccharides and disaccharides often end in the suffix -ose, as in the monosaccharides fructose and glucose and the disaccharides sucrose and lactose. Carbohydrates perform numerous roles in living organisms. Polysaccharides serve as structural components; the 5-carbon monosaccharide ribose is an important component of coenzymes and the backbone of the genetic molecule known as RNA.
The related deoxyribose is a component of DNA. Saccharides and their derivatives include many other important biomolecules that play key roles in the immune system, preventing pathogenesis, blood clotting, development, they are found in a wide variety of processed foods. Starch is a polysaccharide, it is abundant in cereals and processed food based on cereal flour, such as bread, pizza or pasta. Sugars appear in human diet as table sugar, lactose and fructose, both of which occur in honey, many fruits, some vegetables. Table sugar, milk, or honey are added to drinks and many prepared foods such as jam and cakes. Cellulose, a polysaccharide found in the cell walls of all plants, is one of the main components of insoluble dietary fiber. Although it is not digestible, insoluble dietary fiber helps to maintain a healthy digestive system by easing defecation. Other polysaccharides contained in dietary fiber include resistant starch and inulin, which feed some bacteria in the microbiota of the large intestine, are metabolized by these bacteria to yield short-chain fatty acids.
In scientific literature, the term "carbohydrate" has many synonyms, like "sugar", "saccharide", "ose", "glucide", "hydrate of carbon" or "polyhydroxy compounds with aldehyde or ketone". Some of these terms, specially "carbohydrate" and "sugar", are used with other meanings. In food science and in many informal contexts, the term "carbohydrate" means any food, rich in the complex carbohydrate starch or simple carbohydrates, such as sugar. In lists of nutritional information, such as the USDA National Nutrient Database, the term "carbohydrate" is used for everything other than water, fat and ethanol; this includes chemical compounds such as acetic or lactic acid, which are not considered carbohydrates. It includes dietary fiber, a carbohydrate but which does not contribute much in the way of food energy though it is included in the calculation of total food energy just as though it were a sugar. In the strict sense, "sugar" is applied for sweet, soluble carbohydrates, many of which are used in food.
The name "carbohydrate" was used in chemistry for any compound with the formula Cm n. Following this definition, some chemists considered formaldehyde to be the simplest carbohydrate, while others claimed that title for glycolaldehyde. Today, the term is understood in the biochemistry sense, which excludes compounds with only one or two carbons and includes many biological carbohydrates which deviate from this formula. For example, while the above representative formulas would seem to capture the known carbohydrates and abundant carbohydrates deviate from this. For example, carbohydrates display chemical groups such as: N-acetyl, carboxylic acid and deoxy modifications. Natural saccharides are built of simple carbohydrates called monosaccharides with general formula n where n is three or more. A typical monosaccharide has the structure H–x–y–H, that is, an aldehyde or ketone with many hydroxyl groups added one on each carbon atom, not part of the aldehyde or ketone functional group. Examples of monosaccharides are glucose and glyceraldehydes.
However, some biological substances called "monosaccharides" do not conform to this formula and there are many chemicals that do conform to this formula but are not considered to be monosaccharides. The open-chain form of a monosaccharide coexists with a closed ring form where the aldehyde/ketone carbonyl group carbon and hydroxyl group react forming a hemiacetal with a new C–O–C bridge. Monosaccharides can be linked togeth
A wig is a head covering made from human hair, animal hair, or synthetic fiber. The word wig is short for periwig, which makes its earliest known appearance in the English language in William Shakespeare's The Two Gentlemen of Verona; some people wear wigs to disguise baldness. In Egyptian society men and women had clean shaven or close cropped hair and wore wigs; the ancient Egyptians created the wig to shield shaved, hairless heads from the sun. They wore the wigs on top of their hair using beeswax and resin to keep the wigs in place. Wealthy Egyptian would wear scented cones of animal fat on top of their wigs. Other ancient cultures, including the Assyrians, Jews in ancient Israel and Romans used wigs as an everyday fashion. In China, the popularization of the wig started from Autumn period. In Japan, the upper classes wearing wigs started from before Nara period. In Korea, gache were popular among women during Goryeo dynasty until it was banned in the late 18th century. After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, the use of wigs fell into disuse in the West for a thousand years until they were revived in the 16th century as a means of compensating for hair loss or improving one's personal appearance.
They served a practical purpose: the unhygienic conditions of the time meant that hair attracted head lice, a problem that could be much reduced if natural hair were shaved and replaced with a more de-loused artificial hairpiece. Fur hoods were used in a similar preventive fashion. Royal patronage was crucial to the revival of the wig. Queen Elizabeth I of England famously wore a red wig and elaborately curled in a "Roman" style, while among men King Louis XIII of France started to pioneer wig-wearing in 1624 when he had prematurely begun to bald; this fashion was promoted by his son and successor Louis XIV of France, which contributed to its spread in European and European-influenced countries. Perukes or periwigs for men were introduced into the English-speaking world with other French styles when Charles II was restored to the throne in 1660, following a lengthy exile in France; these wigs were shoulder-length or longer, imitating the long hair that had become fashionable among men since the 1620s.
Their use soon became popular in the English court. The London diarist Samuel Pepys recorded the day in 1665 that a barber had shaved his head and that he tried on his new periwig for the first time, but in a year of plague he was uneasy about wearing it:"3rd September 1665: Up, put on my coloured silk suit fine, my new periwig, bought a good while since, but darst not wear it because the plague was in Westminster when I bought it, and it is a wonder what will be the fashion after the plague is done as to periwigs, for nobody will dare to buy any haire for fear of the infection? That it had been cut off the heads of people dead of the plague." Wigs were not without other drawbacks, as Pepys noted on March 1663: "I did go to the Swan. With wigs obligatory garb for men with social rank, wigmakers gained considerable prestige. A wigmakers' guild was established in France in a development soon copied elsewhere in Europe, their job was a skilled one as 17th century wigs were extraordinarily elaborate, covering the back and shoulders and flowing down the chest.
Such wigs were expensive to produce. The best examples were made from natural human hair; the hair of horses and goats was used as a cheaper alternative. In the 18th century, men's wigs were powdered to give them their distinctive white or off-white color. Women in the 18th century did not wear wigs, but wore a coiffure supplemented by artificial hair or hair from other sources. Women powdered their hair grey, or blue-ish grey, from the 1770s onwards never bright white like men. Wig powder was made from finely ground starch, scented with orange flower, lavender, or orris root. Wig powder was colored violet, pink or yellow, but was most used as off-white. Powdered wigs and powdered natural hair with supplemental hairpieces became essential for full dress occasions and continued in use until the end of the 18th century; the elaborate form of wigs worn at the coronation of George III in 1761 was lampooned by William Hogarth in his engraving Five Orders of Periwigs. Powdering wigs and extensions was messy and inconvenient, the development of the white or off-white powderless wig for men made the retention of wigs in everyday court dress a practical possibility.
By the 1780s, young men were setting a fashion trend by powdering their natural hair, as women had done from the 1770s onwards. After 1790, both wigs and powder were reserved for older, more conservative men, were in use by ladies being presented at court. After 1790, English women powdered their hair. In 1795, the British government levied a tax on hair powder of one guinea per year; this tax caused the demise of both the fashion for wigs and powder. Granville Leveson-Gower, in Paris during the winter of 1796, at the height of the Thermidorian Directory, noted "The word citoyen seemed but little in use, hair powder being common, the appearance of the people was less democratic than in England."Among women in the French court of Versailles in the mid-to-late 18