Machu Picchu is a 15th-century Inca citadel, located in the Eastern Cordillera of southern Peru, on a 2,430-metre mountain ridge. It is located in the Cusco Region, Urubamba Province, Machupicchu District, above the Sacred Valley, 80 kilometres northwest of Cuzco; the Urubamba River flows past it, cutting through the Cordillera and creating a canyon with a tropical mountain climate. Most archaeologists believe that Machu Picchu was constructed as an estate for the Inca emperor Pachacuti. Mistakenly referred to as the "Lost City of the Incas", it is the most familiar icon of Inca civilization; the Incas built the estate around 1450 but abandoned it a century at the time of the Spanish conquest. Although known locally, it was not known to the Spanish during the colonial period and remained unknown to the outside world until American historian Hiram Bingham brought it to international attention in 1911. Machu Picchu was built in the classical Inca style, with polished dry-stone walls, its three primary structures are the Intihuatana, the Temple of the Sun, the Room of the Three Windows.
Most of the outlying buildings have been reconstructed in order to give tourists a better idea of how they appeared. By 1976, 30% of Machu Picchu had been restored and restoration continues. Machu Picchu was declared a Peruvian Historic Sanctuary in 1981 and a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1983. In 2007, Machu Picchu was voted one of the New Seven Wonders of the World in a worldwide Internet poll. In the Quechua language, machu means "old" or "old person", while pikchu means either "portion of coca being chewed" or "pyramid, pointed multi-sided solid, thus the name of the site is sometimes interpreted as "old mountain". Machu Picchu was built starting 1450–1460. Construction appears to date from two great Inca rulers, Pachacutec Inca Yupanqui and Túpac Inca Yupanqui. There is a consensus among archaeologists that Pachacutec ordered the construction of the royal estate for himself, most after a successful military campaign. Though Machu Picchu is considered to be a "royal" estate it would not have been passed down in the line of succession.
Rather it was used for 80 years before being abandoned because of the Spanish Conquests in other parts of the Inca Empire. It is possible that most of its inhabitants died from smallpox introduced by travelers before the Spanish conquistadors arrived in the area. During its use as a royal estate, it is estimated that about 750 people lived there, with most serving as support staff who lived there permanently. Though the estate belonged to Pachacutec, religious specialists and temporary specialized workers lived there as well, most for the ruler's well-being and enjoyment. During the harsher season, staff dropped down to around a hundred servants and a few religious specialists focused on maintenance alone. Studies show that according to their skeletal remains, most people who lived there were immigrants from diverse backgrounds, they lacked the chemical markers and osteological markers they would have if they had been living there their whole lives. Instead, there was bone damage from various species of water parasites indigenous to different areas of Peru.
There were varying osteological stressors and varying chemical densities suggesting varying long-term diets characteristic of specific regions that were spaced apart. These diets are composed of varying levels of maize, grains and fish, but the overall most recent short-term diet for these people was composed of less fish and more corn; this suggests that several of the immigrants were from more coastal areas and moved to Machu Picchu where corn was a larger portion of food intake. The skeletal remains found at Machu Picchu are unique in their level of natural bone damage from laborious activities. Most people found at the site had lower levels of arthritis and bone fractures than those found in most sites of the Inca Empire. Inca individuals who had arthritis and bone fractures were those who performed heavy physical labor and/or served in the Inca military. Animals are suspected to have immigrated to Machu Picchu as there were several bones found that were not native to the area. Most animal bones found were from llamas and alpacas.
These animals live at altitudes of 4,000 metres rather than the 2,400 metres elevation of Machu Picchu. Most these animals were brought in from the Puna region for meat consumption and for their pelts. Guinea pigs were found at the site in special burial caves, suggesting that they were at least used for funerary rituals, as it was common throughout the Inca Empire to use them for sacrifices and meat. Six dogs were recovered from the site. Due to their placements among the human remains, it is believed that they served as companions of the dead. Much of the farming done at Machu Picchu was done on its hundreds of man-made terraces; these terraces were a work of considerable engineering, built to ensure good drainage and soil fertility while protecting the mountain itself from erosion and landslides. However, the terraces were not perfect, as studies of the land show that there were landslides that happened during the construction of Machu Picchu. Still visible are places where the terraces were shifted by landslides and stabilized by the Inca as they continued to build around the area.
It is estimated that the area around the site has received more than 1,800 mm of rain per year since AD 1450, more than needed to support crop growth there. Because of the large amount of rainfall at Machu Picchu, it was foun
Demet Kılınç is a Turkish women's football forward playing in the First League for ALG Spor with jersey number 7. She played for the Turkish girls' national U-15 team, is a member of the Turkish girls' U-17 and Turkish women's U-19 teams, she received her license on June 2008 for her hometown club Gazikentspor, where she still plays. After her club won the play-offs, she plays in the 2014–14 season with her team promoted to the Turkish Women's First league, her team Gazikentspor were relegated to the Second League after two seasons. Kılınç transferred to 1207 Antalya Döşemealtı Belediyespor for the second half of the 2016-17 Turlish Women's First Football League. On January 4, 2018, after appearing two half seasons for the Antalya-based club, she signed for Ataşehir Belediyespor in Istanbul. In October 2018, she joined the to the FWomen's First League promoted club ALG Spor in her hometown. Demet Kılınç was called up to the Turkey girls' U-15 team, debuted internationally in the friendly match against Belarus on November 28, 2012.
She was admitted to the Turkey gitls' U-17 team, debuted in the UEFA Development Tournament against Portugal. She was part of the team. In 2014, she took part in three 2015 UEFA Championship qualifying round – Group 8 matches, scored one goal, she played in three games of the Elite round in April 2015. On February 22, 2014, she played for the first time in the Turkey women's U-19 team at the friendly match against Azerbaijan, she took part at the 2016 UEFA Women's Under-19 Championship qualification - Group 4, 2017 UEFA Women's Under-19 Championship qualification - Group 10 and Elite round - Gfroup 2 mathes. She was part of the team, she capped 18 times for the natşonal U-19 ream. As of April 28, 2019 Turkish Women's First League Ataşehir Belediyespor Winners: 2017–18ALG Spor Runners-up: 2018–19 UEFA Development Tournament Turkey women's U-19 Winners: 2016 Demet Kılınç – UEFA competition record
Roman Andreyevich Savosin is a Russian figure skater. He is the 2019 Junior World silver medalist, the 2016 CS Tallinn Trophy champion, 2016 CS Ondrej Nepela Memorial bronze medalist, 2016 JGP France champion. Savosin began learning to skate in 2003. After winning the bronze medal at the 2016 Russian Junior Championships, he was selected to compete at the 2016 World Junior Championships in Debrecen, he qualified for the free skate in Hungary by placing thirteenth in the short program and went on to finish fourteenth overall. Savosin received his first Junior Grand Prix assignment in the 2016–17 season. Ranked second in both segments, he won the gold medal in Saint-Gervais-les-Bains, France, by a margin of 7.74 points over his teammate Ilia Skirda. After winning bronze at his second JGP event, in Ostrava, Czech Republic, he qualified to the JGP Final. Savosin's senior international debut came in late September and early October 2016 at a Challenger Series event, the Ondrej Nepela Memorial, he placed fifth in the short and second in the free skate to win the bronze medal with a personal best score of 222.37 points, behind Sergei Voronov and Kevin Reynolds.
In November, he outscored Anton Shulepov for gold at the 2016 CS Tallinn Trophy after placing second in the short and first in the free skate. Competing at the 2016–17 JGP Final, held in December in Marseille, he placed third in the short, fourth in the free, fourth overall. Savosin started his season by competing in the 2017 JGP series, he first won the silver medal in Brisbane, he placed fourth in Riga, Latvia. In November he placed fourth at the 2017 CS Warsaw Cup. In December 2017 Savosin placed tenth at the 2018 Russian Championships. In January 2018 he won the silver medal at the 2018 Russian Junior Championships after placing sixth in the short program and second in the free skate. In March 2018 Savosin competed at the 2018 Junior Worlds where he placed fifth after placing twelfth in the short program and fifth in the free skate. Savosin started his season by competing in the 2018 JGP series. At his first JGP event of the season he placed fifth in Slovakia. At his second JGP event he won the bronze medal in Austria.
In late November Savosin finished fifth at the 2018 CS Tallinn Trophy. At the 2019 Russian Championships, he placed 12th. A month Savosin to earn the bronze medal at junior nationals and qualify for 2019 World Junior Championships. In the 2019 World Junior Championships, he finished sixth in the short and first in the free, with a total of 229.28 points, Savosin won silver medal. Competing in his first senior Grand Prix, Savoisin finished twelfth at the 2019 Skate America. CS: Challenger Series. Roman Savosin at the International Skating Union Roman Savosin on Instagram