Macintosh Quadra 605
The Macintosh Quadra 605 is a personal computer designed and sold by Apple Computer, Inc. from October 1993 to July 1996. The model names reflect a decision made at Apple in 1993 to follow an emerging industry trend of naming product families for their target customers – Quadra for business, LC for education, Performa for home. Accordingly, the Performa 475 and 476 was sold in department stores and electronics stores such as Circuit City, whereas the Quadra was purchased through an authorized Apple reseller; when introduced, the Quadra 605 was the least expensive new computer in Apple's lineup. The Quadra 605 reuses the Macintosh LC III's pizza box form factor with minor modifications; the Quadra 605 was discontinued in October 1994, the LC 475 variant continued to be sold to schools until July 1996. Apple offered no direct replacement for these machines, making it the final Macintosh to use the LC's lightweight slim-line form factor. Apple would not release another desktop computer under 10 pounds until the Mac Mini, nearly ten years later.
All models come standard with a 68LC040 CPU running at 25 MHz, 4 MB RAM on board, 512 KB of VRAM, 1 LC III-style Processor Direct Slot, 1 ADB and 2 serial ports, external SCSI port, a manual-inject floppy drive. Introduced October 18, 1993: Macintosh Performa 475: 4 MB RAM, 160 MB HDD. Bundled with a keyboard and Apple Color Plus 14" Display. Macintosh Performa 476: 4 MB RAM, 230 MB HDD. Bundled with a keyboard and Apple Color Plus 14" Display. Introduced October 21, 1993: Macintosh Quadra 605: 4 MB RAM, 80 MB HDD. Different case design, the only variant that does not have a case screw. Not available in Europe. Macintosh LC 475: 4 MB RAM, 80 MB HDD. Bundled with a keyboard and optionally with an Apple Macintosh Color Display. Central processing unit: 25 MHz MC68LC040, 32-bit bus. 8 KB of on-chip L1 cache is divided into 4 KB of instruction cache. There are no other caches; the 68LC040 can be replaced with a 68040. This will triple the speed of floating point operations. Random access memory: 4 MB on the motherboard, one 72-pin SIMM socket for 80 ns or faster SIMMs.
The official supported maximum RAM is 36 MB in one 32 MB 72-pin SIMM plus 4 MB on the motherboard, but larger SIMMs do work—up to 128 MB may be used, with some limits on RAM type. Physical limits might apply if the side of the SIMM facing the CPU has thicker chips, as the clips on the SIMM socket will not close around it automatically, it should be possible to manually push the clips enough to hold the SIMM in place. The DJMEMC memory controller used in the Quadra 605's predecessors will only recognize SIMMs up to 32 MB, while the newer MEMCjr used in the Quadra 605 recognizes the larger sizes. Video: Video out is provided by one DA15F connector, is compatible with VGA monitors through the use of an adaptor. Two internal Video RAM slots can take either two 256 KB 80 ns 68-pin VRAM SIMMs, or two 512 KB SIMMs. Installing one 512 KB and one 256 KB VRAM SIMM garbles the display. Resolutions and colors available with the two VRAM configurations are shown in the table below: Audio: Out: stereo 8-bit, 11 kHz or 22 kHz.
The input socket is a stereo socket, can input two channels of a stereo signal—however, these are mixed and only accessible to the hardware as a combined mono 8-bit signal. An Apple PlainTalk Microphone provides line-level input by using a longer 4-contact plug which receives power from a 5 V supply within the input jack. Other microphones only give a mic-level input, do not work with the Quadra 605. Recording is possible at 11,000 or 22,000 samples/second, with filters applied at 3.5 kHz and 7 kHz while recording. Floppy Drive: 1.4 MB SuperDrive, manual-inject. Hard Drive: 80 MB, 160 MB or 230 MB SCSI hard drive, depending on model. Battery: Quadra 605s take a lithium half-AA cell 3.6 V battery. If the battery is drained, the video will not start up. To start up a Quadra 605 with a flat or missing battery, it can be turned on for a few seconds turned off for a second on again; this leaves enough charge in the system's capacitors for video to start up. Power supply: 30 watts standard, but many second-hand machines come with replacement PSUs, either third-party, Apple replacement, or stripped from earlier LC models.
Some of these go up to 45 watts. The Quadra 605 is a registered Energy Star-Compliant product. Weight: 8.8 lb / 4 kg standard. A Quadra 605 can support a monitor up to 35 lb / 15.9 kg. Dimensions: 2.9" high x 12.2" wide x 15.3" deep / 7.4 cm high x 31 cm wide x 38.8 cm deep. The Quadra 605 contains. While this is mechanically compatible with previous models' LC PDS it is not a true LC PDS, but emulates the previous machine's 68030 slot. Due to the success of the LC PDS in earlier Macs and with many expansion options manufactured, Apple kept the same slot type in these 68040 machines. While the Quadra 605's LC PDS is 68030-compatible, expansion cards made for'030 processors, such as 68881 or 68882 FPUs, will not work. In addition it can utilize the Apple IIe Card; the Quadra 605 has one SCSI bus, with a 50-pin internal connector (with space for one low-profile 3.5" SC
The Apple II is an 8-bit home computer, one of the first successful mass-produced microcomputer products, designed by Steve Wozniak. It was introduced in 1977 at the West Coast Computer Faire by Jobs and was the first consumer product sold by Apple Computer, Inc, it is the first model in a series of computers which were produced until Apple IIe production ceased in November 1993. The Apple II marks Apple's first launch of a personal computer aimed at a consumer market – branded towards American households rather than businessmen or computer hobbyists. Byte magazine referred to the Apple II, Commodore PET 2001 and the TRS-80 as the "1977 Trinity." The Apple II had the defining feature of being able to display color graphics, this capability was the reason why the Apple logo was redesigned to have a spectrum of colors. By 1976, Steve Jobs had convinced the product designer Jerry Manock to create the "shell" for the Apple II – a smooth case inspired by kitchen appliances that would conceal the internal mechanics.
The earliest Apple IIs were assembled in Silicon Valley, in Texas. The first computers went on sale on June 10, 1977 with a MOS Technology 6502 microprocessor running at 1.023 MHz, two game paddles, 4 KB of RAM, an audio cassette interface for loading programs and storing data, the Integer BASIC programming language built into the ROMs. The video controller displays 24 lines by 40 columns of monochrome, uppercase-only text on the screen, with NTSC composite video output suitable for display on a TV monitor, or on a regular TV set by way of a separate RF modulator; the original retail price of the computer was $1,298 and $2,638. To reflect the computer's color graphics capability, the Apple logo on the casing has rainbow stripes, which remained a part of Apple's corporate logo until early 1998. Most the Apple II was a catalyst for personal computers across many industries. In the May 1977 issue of Byte, Steve Wozniak published a detailed description of his design; this arrangement eliminated the need for a separate refresh circuit for the DRAM chips, as the video transfer accessed each row of the dynamic memory within the timeout period.
In addition, it did not require separate RAM chips for the video RAM, while the PET and TRS-80 had SRAMs for the video. Rather than use a complex analog-to-digital circuit to read the outputs of the game controller, Wozniak used a simple timer circuit whose period is proportional to the resistance of the game controller, used a software loop to measure the timer. A single 14.31818 MHz master oscillator was divided by various ratios to produce all other required frequencies, including the microprocessor clock signals, the video transfer counters, the color-burst samples. The text and graphics screens have a complex arrangement. For instance, the scanlines were not stored in sequential areas of memory; this complexity was due to Wozniak's realization that the method would allow for the refresh of the dynamic RAM as a side effect. This method had no cost overhead to have software calculate or look up the address of the required scanline and avoided the need for significant extra hardware. In the high-resolution graphics mode, color is determined by pixel position and thus can be implemented in software, saving Wozniak the chips needed to convert bit patterns to colors.
This allowed for subpixel font rendering, since orange and blue pixels appear half a pixel-width farther to the right on the screen than green and purple pixels. The Apple II at first used data cassette storage like most other microcomputers of the time. In 1978, the company introduced an external 5 1⁄4-inch floppy disk drive, the Disk II, attached via a controller card that plugs into one of the computer's expansion slots; the Disk II interface, created by Wozniak, is regarded as an engineering masterpiece for its economy of electronic components. The approach taken in the Disk II controller is typical of Wozniak's designs. With a few small-scale logic chips and a cheap PROM, he created a functional floppy disk interface at a fraction of the component cost of standard circuit configurations. Steve Jobs extensively pushed to give the Apple II a case that looked visually appealing and sellable to people outside of electronics hobbyists, rather than the generic wood and metal boxes typical of early microcomputers.
The result was a futuristic-looking molded white plastic case. Jobs paid close attention to the keyboard design and decided to use dark brown keycaps as it contrasted well with the case; the first production Apple IIs had hand-molded cases. In addition, the initial case design ha
Apple Inc. is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Cupertino, that designs and sells consumer electronics, computer software, online services. It is considered one of the Big Four of technology along with Amazon and Facebook; the company's hardware products include the iPhone smartphone, the iPad tablet computer, the Mac personal computer, the iPod portable media player, the Apple Watch smartwatch, the Apple TV digital media player, the HomePod smart speaker. Apple's software includes the macOS and iOS operating systems, the iTunes media player, the Safari web browser, the iLife and iWork creativity and productivity suites, as well as professional applications like Final Cut Pro, Logic Pro, Xcode, its online services include the iTunes Store, the iOS App Store, Mac App Store, Apple Music, Apple TV+, iMessage, iCloud. Other services include Apple Store, Genius Bar, AppleCare, Apple Pay, Apple Pay Cash, Apple Card. Apple was founded by Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Ronald Wayne in April 1976 to develop and sell Wozniak's Apple I personal computer, though Wayne sold his share back within 12 days.
It was incorporated as Apple Computer, Inc. in January 1977, sales of its computers, including the Apple II, grew quickly. Within a few years and Wozniak had hired a staff of computer designers and had a production line. Apple went public in 1980 to instant financial success. Over the next few years, Apple shipped new computers featuring innovative graphical user interfaces, such as the original Macintosh in 1984, Apple's marketing advertisements for its products received widespread critical acclaim. However, the high price of its products and limited application library caused problems, as did power struggles between executives. In 1985, Wozniak departed Apple amicably and remained an honorary employee, while Jobs and others resigned to found NeXT; as the market for personal computers expanded and evolved through the 1990s, Apple lost market share to the lower-priced duopoly of Microsoft Windows on Intel PC clones. The board recruited CEO Gil Amelio to what would be a 500-day charge for him to rehabilitate the financially troubled company—reshaping it with layoffs, executive restructuring, product focus.
In 1997, he led Apple to buy NeXT, solving the failed operating system strategy and bringing Jobs back. Jobs pensively regained leadership status, becoming CEO in 2000. Apple swiftly returned to profitability under the revitalizing Think different campaign, as he rebuilt Apple's status by launching the iMac in 1998, opening the retail chain of Apple Stores in 2001, acquiring numerous companies to broaden the software portfolio. In January 2007, Jobs renamed the company Apple Inc. reflecting its shifted focus toward consumer electronics, launched the iPhone to great critical acclaim and financial success. In August 2011, Jobs resigned as CEO due to health complications, Tim Cook became the new CEO. Two months Jobs died, marking the end of an era for the company. Apple is well known for its size and revenues, its worldwide annual revenue totaled $265 billion for the 2018 fiscal year. Apple is the world's largest information technology company by revenue and the world's third-largest mobile phone manufacturer after Samsung and Huawei.
In August 2018, Apple became the first public U. S. company to be valued at over $1 trillion. The company employs 123,000 full-time employees and maintains 504 retail stores in 24 countries as of 2018, it operates the iTunes Store, the world's largest music retailer. As of January 2018, more than 1.3 billion Apple products are in use worldwide. The company has a high level of brand loyalty and is ranked as the world's most valuable brand. However, Apple receives significant criticism regarding the labor practices of its contractors, its environmental practices and unethical business practices, including anti-competitive behavior, as well as the origins of source materials. Apple Computer Company was founded on April 1, 1976, by Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Ronald Wayne; the company's first product is the Apple I, a computer designed and hand-built by Wozniak, first shown to the public at the Homebrew Computer Club. Apple I was sold as a motherboard —a base kit concept which would now not be marketed as a complete personal computer.
The Apple I went on sale in July 1976 and was market-priced at $666.66. Apple Computer, Inc. was incorporated on January 3, 1977, without Wayne, who had left and sold his share of the company back to Jobs and Wozniak for $800 only twelve days after having co-founded Apple. Multimillionaire Mike Markkula provided essential business expertise and funding of $250,000 during the incorporation of Apple. During the first five years of operations revenues grew exponentially, doubling about every four months. Between September 1977 and September 1980, yearly sales grew from $775,000 to $118 million, an average annual growth rate of 533%; the Apple II invented by Wozniak, was introduced on April 16, 1977, at the first West Coast Computer Faire. It differs from its major rivals, the TRS-80 and Commodore PET, because of its character cell-based color graphics and open architecture. While early Apple II models use ordinary cassette tapes as storage devices, they were superseded by the introduction of a 5 1⁄4-inch floppy disk drive and interface called the Disk II.
The Apple II was chosen to be the desktop platform for the first "killer app" of the business world: VisiCalc, a spreadsheet program. VisiCalc created a business market for the Apple II and gave home users an additional reason to buy an Apple II: compatibility with the office. Before VisiCalc, Apple had been a distant third place c
The megabyte is a multiple of the unit byte for digital information. Its recommended unit symbol is MB; the unit prefix mega is a multiplier of 1000000 in the International System of Units. Therefore, one megabyte is one million bytes of information; this definition has been incorporated into the International System of Quantities. However, in the computer and information technology fields, several other definitions are used that arose for historical reasons of convenience. A common usage has been to designate one megabyte as 1048576bytes, a measurement that conveniently expresses the binary multiples inherent in digital computer memory architectures. However, most standards bodies have deprecated this usage in favor of a set of binary prefixes, in which this quantity is designated by the unit mebibyte. Less common is a convention that used the megabyte to mean 1000×1024 bytes; the megabyte is used to measure either 10002 bytes or 10242 bytes. The interpretation of using base 1024 originated as a compromise technical jargon for the byte multiples that needed to be expressed by the powers of 2 but lacked a convenient name.
As 1024 approximates 1000 corresponding to the SI prefix kilo-, it was a convenient term to denote the binary multiple. In 1998 the International Electrotechnical Commission proposed standards for binary prefixes requiring the use of megabyte to denote 10002 bytes and mebibyte to denote 10242 bytes. By the end of 2009, the IEC Standard had been adopted by the IEEE, EU, ISO and NIST; the term megabyte continues to be used with different meanings: Base 10 1 MB = 1000000 bytes is the definition recommended by the International System of Units and the International Electrotechnical Commission IEC. This definition is used in networking contexts and most storage media hard drives, flash-based storage, DVDs, is consistent with the other uses of the SI prefix in computing, such as CPU clock speeds or measures of performance; the Mac OS X 10.6 file manager is a notable example of this usage in software. Since Snow Leopard, file sizes are reported in decimal units. In this convention, one thousand megabytes is equal to one gigabyte, where 1 GB is one billion bytes.
Base 2 1 MB = 1048576 bytes is the definition used by Microsoft Windows in reference to computer memory, such as RAM. This definition is synonymous with the unambiguous binary prefix mebibyte. In this convention, one thousand and twenty-four megabytes is equal to one gigabyte, where 1 GB is 10243 bytes. Mixed 1 MB = 1024000 bytes is the definition used to describe the formatted capacity of the 1.44 MB 3.5-inch HD floppy disk, which has a capacity of 1474560bytes. Semiconductor memory doubles in size for each address lane added to an integrated circuit package, which favors counts that are powers of two; the capacity of a disk drive is the product of the sector size, number of sectors per track, number of tracks per side, the number of disk platters in the drive. Changes in any of these factors would not double the size. Sector sizes were set as powers of two for convenience in processing, it was a natural extension to give the capacity of a disk drive in multiples of the sector size, giving a mix of decimal and binary multiples when expressing total disk capacity.
Depending on compression methods and file format, a megabyte of data can be: a 1 megapixel bitmap image with 256 colors stored without any compression. A 4 megapixel JPEG image with normal compression. 1 minute of 128 kbit/s MP3 compressed music. 6 seconds of uncompressed CD audio. A typical English book volume in plain text format; the human genome consists of DNA representing 800 MB of data. The parts that differentiate one person from another can be compressed to 4 MB. Timeline of binary prefixes Gigabyte § Consumer confusion Historical Notes About The Cost Of Hard Drive Storage Space the megabyte International Electrotechnical Commission definitions IEC prefixes and symbols for binary multiples
A personal computer is a multi-purpose computer whose size and price make it feasible for individual use. Personal computers are intended to be operated directly by an end user, rather than by a computer expert or technician. Unlike large costly minicomputer and mainframes, time-sharing by many people at the same time is not used with personal computers. Institutional or corporate computer owners in the 1960s had to write their own programs to do any useful work with the machines. While personal computer users may develop their own applications these systems run commercial software, free-of-charge software or free and open-source software, provided in ready-to-run form. Software for personal computers is developed and distributed independently from the hardware or operating system manufacturers. Many personal computer users no longer need to write their own programs to make any use of a personal computer, although end-user programming is still feasible; this contrasts with mobile systems, where software is only available through a manufacturer-supported channel, end-user program development may be discouraged by lack of support by the manufacturer.
Since the early 1990s, Microsoft operating systems and Intel hardware have dominated much of the personal computer market, first with MS-DOS and with Microsoft Windows. Alternatives to Microsoft's Windows operating systems occupy a minority share of the industry; these include free and open-source Unix-like operating systems such as Linux. Advanced Micro Devices provides the main alternative to Intel's processors; the advent of personal computers and the concurrent Digital Revolution have affected the lives of people in all countries. "PC" is an initialism for "personal computer". The IBM Personal Computer incorporated the designation in its model name, it is sometimes useful to distinguish personal computers of the "IBM Personal Computer" family from personal computers made by other manufacturers. For example, "PC" is used in contrast with "Mac", an Apple Macintosh computer.. Since none of these Apple products were mainframes or time-sharing systems, they were all "personal computers" and not "PC" computers.
The "brain" may one day come down to our level and help with our income-tax and book-keeping calculations. But this is speculation and there is no sign of it so far. In the history of computing, early experimental machines could be operated by a single attendant. For example, ENIAC which became operational in 1946 could be run by a single, albeit trained, person; this mode pre-dated the batch programming, or time-sharing modes with multiple users connected through terminals to mainframe computers. Computers intended for laboratory, instrumentation, or engineering purposes were built, could be operated by one person in an interactive fashion. Examples include such systems as the Bendix G15 and LGP-30of 1956, the Programma 101 introduced in 1964, the Soviet MIR series of computers developed from 1965 to 1969. By the early 1970s, people in academic or research institutions had the opportunity for single-person use of a computer system in interactive mode for extended durations, although these systems would still have been too expensive to be owned by a single person.
In what was to be called the Mother of All Demos, SRI researcher Douglas Engelbart in 1968 gave a preview of what would become the staples of daily working life in the 21st century: e-mail, word processing, video conferencing, the mouse. The demonstration required technical support staff and a mainframe time-sharing computer that were far too costly for individual business use at the time; the development of the microprocessor, with widespread commercial availability starting in the mid 1970's, made computers cheap enough for small businesses and individuals to own. Early personal computers—generally called microcomputers—were sold in a kit form and in limited volumes, were of interest to hobbyists and technicians. Minimal programming was done with toggle switches to enter instructions, output was provided by front panel lamps. Practical use required adding peripherals such as keyboards, computer displays, disk drives, printers. Micral N was the earliest commercial, non-kit microcomputer based on a microprocessor, the Intel 8008.
It was built starting in 1972, few hundred units were sold. This had been preceded by the Datapoint 2200 in 1970, for which the Intel 8008 had been commissioned, though not accepted for use; the CPU design implemented in the Datapoint 2200 became the basis for x86 architecture used in the original IBM PC and its descendants. In 1973, the IBM Los Gatos Scientific Center developed a portable computer prototype called SCAMP based on the IBM PALM processor with a Philips compact cassette drive, small CRT, full function keyboard. SCAMP emulated an IBM 1130 minicomputer in order to run APL/1130. In 1973, APL was available only on mainframe computers, most desktop sized microcomputers such as the Wang 2200 or HP 9800 offered only BASIC; because SCAMP was the first to emulate APL/1130 performance on a portable, single user computer, PC Magazine in 1983 designated SCAMP a "revolutionary concept" and "the world's first personal computer". This seminal, single user portable computer now resides in the Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.
C.. Successful demonstrations of the 1973 SCAMP prototype led to the IBM 5100 portable microcomputer launched in 1975 with the ability to be programmed in both APL and BASIC for engineers, analysts and other business problem-solvers. In the late 1960s such a machine would have been nearly as large as two desks and would have weigh
Macintosh Quadra 950
The Macintosh Quadra 950 is a personal computer designed and sold by Apple Computer, Inc. from March 1992 to October 1995. It replaced the Quadra 900, introduced several months earlier, increasing the CPU clock rate of its 68040 CPU from 25 MHz to 33 MHz, improving the graphics support; the two computers were otherwise identical, including the price. With a Macintosh Processor Upgrade Card installed, this computer is known as the Power Macintosh 950. In 1993, the 950 was overtaken in performance by the less expensive Quadra 800 and 840AV; the newer Quadras had the addition of interleaved RAM, as well as an enhanced video system and SCSI bus. However, their more compact case offered less expansion capability, so the 950 was kept in continued production for the server market, outliving the 800 and 840AV. After the 950 was discontinued, Apple didn't offer another 6-slot Macintosh until the Power Macintosh 9600 in 1997; the Quadra 950 was replaced by the PowerPC-based Power Macintosh 9500 in May 1995, with sales continuing until October.
It was the last Macintosh Quadra sold by Apple, one of the last 68k models to be discontinued, due to its high RAM capacity and large number of NuBus slots. The Workgroup Server 95 was succeeded by the Workgroup Server 9150; the logic board has five NuBus slots and a Processor Direct Slot, but due to the positioning of the PDS it is not possible to use one of the NuBus slots when a PDS card is installed. The NuBus-90 standard is supported, allowing for cards to run at 20 MHz, two of the slots provide 25 watts of power instead of the usual 15 watts; the logic board has 1 MB of on-board video RAM, with 4 SIMM slots that allow for upgrading to 2 MB. The 950 includes a key to limit access to various subsystems depending on the computer's use environment; the key switch has three positions labelled OFF, ON and SECURE. The OFF position cuts the power and prevented the computer from being powered on; the ON position allows the computer to operate normally. The SECURE position was intended for use as a server – power was always applied in this position.
If the computer lost power, it starts up when power was restored. This position disables the keyboard and floppy disk drive; the Workgroup Server 95 models include the "Workgroup Server PDS Card", which provides three capabilities: Two SCSI controllers with two internal SCSI connectors. There are three additional slots that provide the ability further expand the L2 cache to 512 KB; the Quadra 950 was announced on March 18, with dealers receiving machines around May 18. Introduced May 18, 1992: Macintosh Quadra 950: 33 MHz 68040 CPU. $7,200 for a floppy drive only model, $8,499 with a 230 MB HDD, $9,199 with a 400 MB HDD. 8 MB of memory was standard everywhere except for some European countries, where the standard included memory was 4 MB. Introduced March 22, 1993: Workgroup Server 95: Sold in several configurations, all of which include a 33 MHz 68040 CPU and a PDS card containing a fast SCSI connection. In the United States, the configurations were split into "File and Print", "Database" configurations: File/Print: 16 MB RAM, 230 MB HDD, 128 KB L2 cache.
$7,589. File/Print: 16 MB RAM, 500 MB HDD, DDS-DC digital tape drive, 256 KB L2 cache. $10,039. File/Print: 32 MB RAM, 1000 MB HDD, DDS-DC digital tape drive, AppleShare Pro, 512 KB L2 cache. $12,839. Database: 32 MB RAM, 230 MB and 500 MB HDDs, DDS-DC digital tape drive, 256 KB L2 cache. $11,319. Database: 48 MB RAM, 230 MB and 1000 MB HDDs, DDS-DC digital tape drive, 512 KB L2 cache. $12,929. Processor: Motorola 68040 Processor Speed: 33 MHz Processor Cache: 8 KiB L1 Processor Bus Speed: 33 MHz Hard Drive: 230 MB - 1 GB Media drives: 2x CD-ROM drive, 1.44 MB floppy drive, optional DDSDC drive Software: Mac OS 7.1 - 8.1 Logicboard RAM: None Maximum RAM: 256 MB Type of RAM Slots 16 - 30 pin SIMM Minimum RAM Speed: 80 ns Interleaving Support: No Display Connection: DB-15 Graphics Card: None Graphics memory: 1 - 2 MB Expansion Slots: 5 - NuBus, 1 - PDS Hard Drive Bus: SCSI Backup Battery: 3.6 V Lithium Max Watts: 303 W Ports: AAUI-15 Ethernet, DB-25 SCSI, 2 Serial, 3.5-mm mono input jack, 3.5-mm stereo output jack EveryMac.com Quadra 950 Specs Quadra 950 at Lowendmac
Macintosh LC family
The Macintosh LC is a family of personal computers designed and sold by Apple Computer, Inc. from 1990 to 1997. Introduced alongside the Macintosh IIsi and Macintosh Classic as part of a new wave of lower-priced Macintosh computers, the LC offered the same overall performance as the Macintosh II for half the price. Part of Apple's goal was to produce a machine that could be sold to school boards for the same price as an Apple IIGS, a machine, successful in the education market. Not long after the Apple IIe Card was introduced for the LC, Apple announced the retirement of the IIGS, as the company wanted to focus its sales and marketing efforts on the LC; the original Macintosh LC was introduced on October 1990, with updates in the form of the LC II and LC III in 1992 and early 1993. These early models all shared the same pizza box form factor, were joined by the Macintosh LC 500 series of all-in-one desktop machines in mid-1993. A total of twelve different LC models were produced by the company, the last of which, the Power Macintosh 5300 LC, was on sale until early 1997.
After Apple co-founder Steve Jobs left Apple in 1985, product development was handed to Jean-Louis Gassée manager of Apple France. Gassée pushed the Apple product line in two directions, towards more "openness" in terms of expandability and interoperability, towards higher price. Gassée long argued that Apple should not market their computers towards the low end of the market, where profits were thin, but instead concentrate on the high end and higher profit margins, he illustrated the concept using a graph showing the price/performance ratio of computers with low-power, low-cost machines in the lower left and high-power high-cost machines in the upper right. The "high-right" goal became a mantra among the upper management, who said "fifty-five or die", referring to Gassée's goal of a 55 percent profit margin; this policy led to a series of more expensive computers. This was in spite of strenuous objections within the company, when a group at Claris started a low-end Mac project called "Drama", Gassée killed it.
Elsewhere at the company, two engineers, H. L. Cheung and Paul Baker, had been working in secret on a pet project, a color Macintosh prototype they called "Spin"; the idea was to produce a low-cost system in the vein of the Apple II, a product that Cheung had worked on at Apple as the head of design. The machine would, in effect, be a smaller Macintosh II with built-in video, no NuBus expansion, a matching RGB monitor similar to the one introduced with the Apple IIgs the year prior; the project changed direction during development, with executives dictating that the machine should have video capabilities and processing power similar to the Macintosh IIci, under development at the time. In early 1989, the prototype was shown Apple executives, who liked the project but felt it was not different enough from existing models to justify further effort, the project was shut down. Around the same time, Apple CEO John Sculley was facing public scrutiny for declining sales, blamed in large part on the company's lack of an inexpensive Macintosh computer.
Amidst promises to the press and investors that a new low-cost Macintosh was on the way, he revived the Spin project with the goal of creating the lowest-priced Macintosh, possible. Gassée pleaded with the team to keep color as a feature of the project, from on the product was known internally by a new code name, "Elsie", a homonym for the "LC" name the computer would be sold as. Elsie prototypes at this point resembled an Apple IIc where the keyboard was integrated into the unit, it had a single 800 KB floppy drive with no hard drive; the team ended up with a problem — the machine was cheap, but it wasn't a good computer because the 68000 CPU was not powerful enough to display color graphics with acceptable performance. By April 1989, it was decided to split the project into three computers -- the Macintosh IIsi, which would have the more powerful 68030 CPU. To keep the price down, Apple cut some corners on performance and features, redesigned components to be less expensive. For example, the external floppy connector, included on the IIsi and Classic was excluded from the LC, as it would save a couple of dollars for the connector.
The integrated keyboard had been dropped by this point. The Macintosh LC was introduced to the market alongside the Macintosh Classic and the Macintosh IIsi. Due to pent-up demand for a low-cost color Macintosh, the LC was a strong seller, in 1992, the original Macintosh LC was succeeded by the LC II; the updated machine replaced the LC's Motorola 68020 processor with a 68030 and increased the soldered memory to 4 MB to make it more suitable for System 7. However, it retained the original LC's 16-bit system bus and 10 MB RAM limit, making its performance the same as the earlier model; the main benefit of the 030 processor in the LC II was the ability to use System 7's virtual memory feature. In spite of this, the new model sold better than the LC. Computer Gaming World in 1990 criticized the LC as too expensive, stating that consumers would prefer a $2,000 IBM PS/1 with VGA graphics to a $3,000 LC with color monitor. Although the Classic was more popular at first, by May 1992 the LC was outselling the Classic (1.2 mi