Macintosh II family
The Macintosh II is a family of personal computers, designed and sold by Apple Computer, Inc. from 1987 to 1993. The Macintosh II was the initial model, representing the high-end of the Macintosh line for the time. Over the course of the next six years, seven more models were produced, culminating with the short-lived Macintosh IIvi and Macintosh IIvx models. Apple retired the Macintosh II name. Unlike prior Macintosh models, which are "all-in-one" designs, the Macintosh II models are "modular" systems which do not include built-in monitors and are expandable. Beginning with the Macintosh II and culminating in the Macintosh IIfx, the Macintosh II family was Apple's high-end line from 1987 until the introduction of the Motorola 68040-based Macintosh Quadra computers in 1991. Expansion was provided by way of NuBus, which become the standard expansion bus for the entire Macintosh line for a decade; the Macintosh II was the first to support color displays and the first to support a screen resolution larger than 512x384.
The Macintosh II is the first to use a Motorola 68000 series processor other than the Motorola 68000. Except for the original Macintosh II which launched the line with a Motorola 68020 clocked at 16 MHz, they used the Motorola 68030 microprocessor after the Motorola 68040 was introduced. Apple would adopt the'040 with the introduction of the Quadra 700 and 900, positioning these models as high-end workstation-class machines for graphics and scientific computing, while positioning the Macintosh II family as a mainstream desktop computer. During the Macintosh II series' lifespan, they rose to become among the most powerful personal computers available. While the Macintosh II series itself was replaced by the Macintosh Centris and Quadra, the Macintosh LC and Performa families continued to use the II's 68030 technology long after the 68040 was introduced and the PowerBook continued to use the'030 into the Power Macintosh era. List of Macintosh models grouped by CPU type List of Macintosh models by case type Mac II Series Index, Low End Mac
NuBus is a 32-bit parallel computer bus developed at MIT and standardized in 1987 as a part of the NuMachine workstation project. The first complete implementation of the NuBus was done by Western Digital for their NuMachine, for the Lisp Machines Inc. LMI Lambda; the NuBus was incorporated in Lisp products by Texas Instruments, used as the main expansion bus by Apple Computer and NeXT. It is no longer used outside the embedded market. Early microcomputer buses like S-100 were just connections to the pins of the microprocessor and to the power rails; this meant that a change in the computer's architecture led to a new bus as well. Looking to avoid such problems in the future, NuBus was designed to be independent of the processor, its general architecture and any details of its I/O handling. Among its many advanced features for the era, NuBus used a 32-bit backplane when 8- or 16-bit busses were common; this was seen as making the bus "future-proof", as it was believed that 32-bit systems would arrive in the near future while 64-bit buses and beyond would remain impractical and excessive.
In addition, NuBus was agnostic about the processor itself. Most buses up to this point conformed to the signalling and data standards of the machine they were plugged into. NuBus made no such assumptions, which meant that any NuBus card could be plugged into any NuBus machine, as long as there was an appropriate device driver. In order to select the proper device driver, NuBus included an ID scheme that allowed the cards to identify themselves to the host computer during startup; this meant that the user didn't have to configure the system, the bane of bus systems up to that point. For instance, with ISA the driver had to be configured not only for the card, but for any memory it required, the interrupts it used, so on. NuBus required no such configuration, making it one of the first examples of plug-and-play architecture. On the downside, while this flexibility made NuBus much simpler for the user and device driver authors, it made things more difficult for the designers of the cards themselves.
Whereas most "simple" bus systems were supported with a handful of input/output chips designed to be used with that CPU in mind, with NuBus every card and computer had to convert everything to a platform-agnostic "NuBus world". This meant adding a NuBus controller chip between the bus and any I/O chips on the card, increasing costs. While this is a trivial exercise today, one that all newer buses require, in the 1980s NuBus was considered complex and expensive; the NuBus became a standard in 1987 as IEEE 1196. This version used a standard 96-pin three-row connector, running the system on a 10 MHz clock for a maximum burst throughput of 40 MB/s and average speeds of 10 to 20 MB/s. A addition, NuBus 90, increased the clock rate to 20 MHz for better throughput, burst increasing to about 70 MB/s, average to about 30 MB/s; the NuBus was first developed commercially in the Western Digital NuMachine, first used in a production product by their licensee, Lisp Machines, Inc. in the LMI-Lambda, a Lisp Machine.
The project and the development group was sold by Western Digital to Texas Instruments in 1984. The technology was incorporated into their TI Explorer a Lisp Machine. In 1986, Texas Instruments used the NuBus in the S1500 multiprocessor UNIX system. Both Texas Instruments and Symbolics developed Lisp Machine NuBus boards based on their Lisp supporting microprocessors; these NuBus boards were co-processor Lisp Machines for the Apple Macintosh line. NuBus was selected by Apple Computer for use in their Macintosh II project, where its plug-n-play nature fit well with the Mac philosophy of ease-of-use, it was used in most of the Macintosh II series that made up the professional-level Mac lineup from the late 1980s. It was used into the mid-1990s. Early Quadras only supported the 20 MHz rate when two cards were talking to each other, since the motherboard controller was not upgraded; this was addressed in the NuBus implementation on the 660AV and 840AV models. This improved NuBus controller was used in the first generation Power Macintosh 6100, 7100 and 8100 models.
Power Mac models adopted Intel's PCI bus. Apple's NuBus implementation used pin and socket connectors on the back of the card rather than edge connectors with Phillips screws inside the case that most cards use, making it much easier to install cards. Apple's computers supplied an always-on +5 V "trickle" power supply for tasks such as watching the phone line while the computer was turned off; this was part of an unapproved NuBus standard. NuBus was selected by NeXT Computer for their line of machines, but used a different physical PCB layout. NuBus appears to have seen little use outside these roles, when Apple switched to PCI in the mid 1990s, NuBus disappeared. Amiga Zorro II Industry Standard Architecture Extended Industry Standard Architecture Micro Channel architecture VESA Local Bus Peripheral Component Interconnect Accelerated Graphics Port PCI Express List of device bandwidths NuBus specs Developing for the Macintosh NuBus Pictures of several NuBus cards at applefritter
Apple IIc Plus
The Apple IIc Plus is the sixth and final model in the Apple II series of personal computers, produced by Apple Computer. The "Plus" in the name was a reference to the additional features it offered over the original portable Apple IIc, such as greater storage capacity, increased processing speed, a general standardization of the system components. In a notable change of direction, the Apple IIc Plus, for the most part, did not introduce new technology or any further evolutionary contributions to the Apple II series, instead integrating existing peripherals into the original Apple IIc design; the development of the 8-bit machine was criticized by quarters more interested in the more advanced 16-bit Apple IIGS. The Apple IIc Plus was introduced on September 16, 1988, at the AppleFest conference in San Francisco, with less fanfare than the Apple IIc had received four years earlier. Described as little more than a "turbocharged version of the IIc with a high-capacity 3½ disk drive" by one magazine review of the time, some users were disappointed.
Many IIc users had add-ons giving them something rather close to what the new model offered. Before the official release of the machine, it had been rumored to be a slotless version of the Apple IIGS squeezed into the portable case of the Apple IIc. Apple employee John Arkley, one of the engineers working on the Apple IIc Plus project, had devised rudimentary plans for an enhanced Apple IIGS motherboard that would fit in the IIc case, petitioned management for the go-ahead with such a project; when the project started the original plan was to just replace the 5.25-inch floppy drive with a 3.5-inch, without modifying the IIc design. Other features were added as the project progressed, it is believed the Apple IIc Plus design, its existence at all, was influenced by a third-party Apple IIc-compatible known as the Laser 128. It is not a coincidence that the Apple IIc Plus is similar in design to the Laser 128EX/2 model, released shortly before the Apple IIc Plus; as it was backwards-compatible, the Apple IIc Plus replaced the Apple IIc.
Codenames for the machine while under development included: Raisin and Adam Ant. The Apple IIc Plus had comprised three new features compared to the IIc; the first and most noticeable feature was the replacement of the 5.25-inch floppy drive with the new 3.5-inch drive. Besides offering nearly six times the storage capacity, the new drive had a much faster seek time and button-activated motorized ejection. To accommodate the increased data flow of the new drive, specialized chip circuitry called the MIG, an acronym for "Magic Interface Glue", was designed and added to the motherboard along with a dedicated 2 KB static RAM buffer; the second most important feature was a faster 65C02 processor. Running at 4 MHz, it made the computer faster than any other Apple II, including the IIGS. Apple licensed the Zip Chip Apple II accelerator from third-party developer Zip Technologies and added to the IIc Plus; the CPU acceleration was a last-minute feature addition, which in turn made the specialized circuitry for the use of a 3.5-inch drive unnecessary at full CPU speed as the machine was now fast enough to handle the data flow.
By default the machine ran at 4 MHz, but holding down the'ESC' key during a cold or warm boot disabled the acceleration so it could run at a standard 1 MHz operation — necessary for older software that depended on timing games. The third major change was the internalization of the power supply into the Apple IIc Plus's case, utilizing a new miniature design from Sony. Cosmetic changes were apparent as well; the keyboard layout and style now mirrored that of the Apple IIGS and Macintosh, including an enlarged "Return" key and updated modifier keys. Above the keyboard, the used "40/80" switch was replaced by a sliding volume control; the case housing and keyboard had been changed to the light-grey Apple platinum color, creating a seamless blend between keyboard and case, making them appear as one. The machine, a half pound lighter than the original IIc, weighed in at 7 pounds. In the rear of the machine the most obvious change was a three-prong AC plug connector and power switch where the voltage converter had once been, an Apple security port at the far left corner, the standardization of the serial port connectors.
All the same built-in Apple II peripheral equivalents and port functionality of the IIc remained, with the one exception being the floppy port. Whereas the previous IIc could only support one external 5.25-inch floppy drive and "intelligent" storage devices such as the UniDisk 3.5, the Apple IIc Plus offered backwards port compatibility and more. Support for the external Apple 3.5 Drive used by the Apple IIGS and Macintosh was now present, up to two external 5.25-inch floppy drives could be added as well. Internally, the new motherboard sported a pin connector for an internal modem.
The Apple III is a business-oriented personal computer produced and released by Apple Computer in 1980. It was intended as the successor to the Apple II series, but was considered a failure in the market. Development work on the Apple III started in late 1978 under the guidance of Dr. Wendell Sander, it had the internal code name of "Sara", named after Sander's daughter. The machine was first announced and released on May 19, 1980, but due to serious stability issues that required a design overhaul and a recall of existing machines, it was formally reintroduced in the second half of 1981. Development stopped and the Apple III was discontinued on April 24, 1984, its last successor, the III Plus, was dropped from the Apple product line in September 1985; the Apple III could be viewed as an enhanced Apple II – the newest heir to a line of 8-bit machines dating back to 1976. However, the Apple III was not part of the Apple II line, but rather a close cousin; the key features business users wanted in a personal computer were a true typewriter-style upper/lowercase keyboard and an 80-column display.
In addition, the machine had to pass U. S. Federal Communications Commission radio frequency interference qualifications for business equipment. In 1981, International Business Machines unveiled the IBM Personal Computer – a new 16-bit design soon available in a wide range of inexpensive clones; the business market moved towards the PC DOS/MS-DOS platform pulling away from the Apple 8-bit computer line. After numerous stability issues and a recall that included the first 14,000 units from the assembly line, Apple was able to produce a reliable version of the machine. However, damage to the computer's reputation had been done and it failed to do well commercially as a direct result. In the end, an estimated 65,000–75,000 Apple III computers were sold; the Apple III Plus brought this up to 120,000. Apple co-founder Steve Wozniak stated that the primary reason for the Apple III's failure was that the system was designed by Apple's marketing department, unlike Apple's previous engineering-driven projects.
The Apple III's failure led Apple to reevaluate its plan to phase out the Apple II, prompting the eventual continuation of development of the older machine. As a result Apple II models incorporated some hardware, such as the thermal Apple Scribe printer, software technologies of the Apple III. Steve Wozniak and Steve Jobs expected hobbyists to purchase the Apple II, but because of VisiCalc and Disk II, small businesses purchased 90% of the computers; the Apple III was designed to be a successor. While the Apple II contributed to the inspirations of several important business products, such as VisiCalc and Apple Writer, the computer's hardware architecture, operating system, developer environment were limited. Apple management intended to establish market segmentation by designing the Apple III to appeal to the 90% business market, leaving the Apple II to home and education users. Management believed that "once the Apple III was out, the Apple II would stop selling in six months", Wozniak said.
The Apple III is powered by a 1.8 MHz Synertek 6502A or B 8-bit CPU and, like some of the machines in the Apple II family, uses bank switching techniques to address memory beyond the 6502's traditional 64KB limit, up to 256 K in the IIIs case. Third-party vendors produced memory upgrade kits that allow the Apple III to reach up to 512 KB. Other Apple III built-in features include an 80-column, 24-line display with upper and lowercase characters, a numeric keypad, dual-speed cursor control keys, 6-bit audio, a built-in 140 KB 5.25" floppy disk drive. Graphics modes include 560x192 in black and white, 280x192 with 16 colors or shades of gray. Unlike the Apple II, the Disk III controller is part of the logic board; the Apple III is the first Apple product to allow the user to choose both a screen font and a keyboard layout: either QWERTY or Dvorak. These choices cannot be changed while programs were running, unlike the Apple IIc, which has a keyboard switch directly above the keyboard, allowing the user to switch on the fly.
A major limitation of the Apple II and DOS 3.3 is the way it addresses resources, which makes it desirable for peripherals to be installed in standardized locations This forces the user to identify a peripheral by its physical location, such as PR#6, CATALOG, D1, so on. The Apple III introduced an advanced operating system called Apple SOS, pronounced "apple sauce", its ability to address resources by name instead of a physical location allows the Apple III to be more scalable than the Apple II. Apple SOS allows the full capacity of a storage device to be used as a single volume, such as the Apple ProFile hard disk drive. Apple SOS supports a hierarchical file system; some of the features and code base of Apple SOS were migrated into the Apple II's ProDOS and GS/OS operating systems, as well as Lisa 7/7 and Macintosh system software. With a starting price between $4,340 to $7,800 US, the Apple III was more expensive than many of the CP/M-based business computers that were available at the time.
Few software titles besides VisiCalc were available for the computer. Because Apple did not view the Apple III as suitable for hobbyists, it did not provide much of the technical software information that accompanied the Apple II
AppleCD is a range of SCSI-based CD-ROM drives for Apple Macintosh personal computers and sold by Apple Computer from the late 1980s to late 1990s. Earlier AppleCD drives required a CD caddy in order to be used, while models used a tray-loading mechanism; the original model introduced in 1988 was called the AppleCD SC. There was a version of the CD drive that did not have the Apple logo; the AppleCD SC was the first CD-ROM by Apple Computer Company, introduced in 1988. It contained a fan but in 1990 they removed it because it was unneeded and attracted dust onto the optical disk head which could cause problems, it is only capable of Read Only Media. This accessory device was only able to read compact disks up to a 650 MB capacity in five formats, CD-Audio, CD-ROM, HFS, ProDOS, High Sierra. On the front of the device it has an eject button, mini-phono sound out jack, a volume knob. On the rear it has a power switch, power input, two Centronics 50-pin SCSI outputs, an audio RCA connector. With appropriate software it would run on any Macintosh with a DB-25 connector, or an Apple II with an Apple II SCSI interface card.
The AppleCD SC Plus was Apple Computer Company's second CD-ROM as a replacement for the AppleCD SC, introduced in 1991. It had the model number M3021, it had just like its predecessor, the AppleCD SC and it had a 1x Read Only Media CD-ROM; the Plus could read a CD with up to 750 MB of data over the 650 MB of the AppleCD SC. It had indicator lights, an eject button, mini-phone audio jack, volume knob, the CD caddy drive on the front of the accessory. On the back there were two 50-pin Centronics SCSI connectors, audio RCA connectors, power input, a power switch; the AppleCD SC Plus had only minor improvements over the AppleCD SC and it was the same. Several other models were made, including 300, 300e, 300i plus, 600i, 600e plus and 1200i, they all include two Centronics 50-pin SCSI ports, require mains power. Notes
Processor Direct Slot
The Processor Direct Slot or PDS, introduced by Apple Computer, in several of their Macintosh models, provided a limited measure of hardware expandability, without going to the expense of providing full-fledged bus expansion slots. A machine would feature multiple bus expansions slots, if any. However, there was never more than one PDS slot. Rather than providing a sophisticated communication protocol with arbitration between different bits of hardware that might be trying to use the communication channel at the same time, the PDS slot, for the most part, just gave direct access to signal pins on the CPU, making it closer in nature to a local bus. Thus, PDS slots tended to be CPU-specific, therefore a card designed for the PDS slot in the Motorola 68030-based Macintosh SE/30, for example, would not work in the Motorola 68040-based Quadra 700; the one notable exception to this was the PDS design for the original Motorola 68020-based Macintosh LC. This was Apple's first attempt at a "low-cost" Mac, it was such a success that, when subsequent models replaced the CPU with a 68030, a 68040, a PowerPC processor, Apple found methods to keep the PDS slot compatible with the original LC, so that the same expansion cards would continue to work.
Pictures of several PDS cards at applefritter What kind of expansion or upgrade slots does my Mac have? at macfaq
Apple Computer 1 known as the Apple I, or Apple-1, is a desktop computer released by the Apple Computer Company in 1976. It was hand-built by Steve Wozniak. Wozniak's friend Steve Jobs had the idea of selling the computer; the Apple I was Apple's first product, to finance its creation, Jobs sold his only motorized means of transportation, a VW Microbus, for a few hundred dollars, Steve Wozniak sold his HP-65 calculator for $500. It was demonstrated in July 1976 at the Homebrew Computer Club in California. Production was discontinued on September 30, 1977, after the June 10, 1977 introduction of its successor, the Apple II, which Byte magazine referred to as part of the "1977 Trinity" of personal computing. On March 5, 1975, Steve Wozniak attended the first meeting of the Homebrew Computer Club in Gordon French's garage, he was so inspired that he set to work on what would become the Apple I computer. After building it for himself and showing it at the Club, he and Steve Jobs gave out schematics for the computer to interested club members and helped some of them build and test out copies.
Steve Jobs suggested that they design and sell a single etched and silkscreened circuit board—just the bare board, with no electronic parts—that people could use to build the computers. Wozniak calculated that having the board design laid out would cost $1,000 and manufacturing would cost another $20 per board. To fund this small venture—their first company—Jobs sold his van and Wozniak sold his HP-65 calculator. Soon after, Steve Jobs arranged to sell "something like 50" built computers to the Byte Shop at $500 each. To fulfill the $25,000 order, they obtained $20,000 in parts at 30 days net and delivered the finished product in 10 days; the Apple I went on sale in July 1976 at a price of US$666.66, because Wozniak "liked repeating digits" and because of a one-third markup on the $500 wholesale price. The first unit produced was used in a high school math class, donated to Liza Loop's public-access computer center. About 200 units were produced, all but 25 were sold within nine or ten months.
The Apple I's built-in computer terminal circuitry was distinctive. All one needed was a television set. Competing machines such as the Altair 8800 were programmed with front-mounted toggle switches and used indicator lights for output, had to be extended with separate hardware to allow connection to a computer terminal or a teletypewriter machine; this made the Apple I an innovative machine for its day. In April 1977, the price was dropped to $475, it continued to be sold through August 1977, despite the introduction of the Apple II in April 1977, which began shipping in June of that year. In October 1977, the Apple I was discontinued and removed from Apple's price list; as Wozniak was the only person who could answer most customer support questions about the computer, the company offered Apple I owners discounts and trade-ins for Apple IIs to persuade them to return their computers. These recovered boards were destroyed by Apple, contributing to their rarity today; as of 2013, sixty-three Apple I computers have been confirmed to exist.
Only six have been verified to be in working condition. The Apple-1 Registry lists every known Apple I computer; this registry serves an additional purpose by including a list of all auctions since 2000. An Apple I sold for US$50,000 at auction in 1999. In 2008, the website Vintage Computing and Gaming reported that Apple I owner Rick Conte was looking to sell his unit and was "expecting a price in excess of $15,000 U. S." The site reported Conte had donated the unit to the Maine Personal Computer Museum in 2009. A unit was sold in September 2009 for $17,480 on eBay. A unit belonging to early Apple Computer engineers Dick and Cliff Huston was sold on March 23, 2010, for $42,766 on eBay. In November 2010, an Apple I sold for £133,250 at Christie's auction house in London; the high price was due to the rare documents and packaging offered in the sale in addition to the computer, including the original packaging, a typed and signed letter from Jobs, the original invoice showing "Steven" as the salesman.
The computer was brought to Polytechnic University of Turin where it was fixed and used to run the BASIC programming language. On June 15, 2012, a working Apple I was sold at auction by Sotheby's for a then-record $374,500, more than double the expected price; this unit is on display at the Nexon Computer Museum in South Korea. In October 2012, a non-working Apple I from the estate of former Apple Computer employee Joe Copson was put up for auction by Christie's, but found no bidder, willing to pay the starting price of US$80,000. Copson's board had been listed on eBay in December 2011, with a starting bid of $170,000 and failed to sell. Following the Christie's auction, the board was restored to working condition by computer historian Corey Cohen. Copson's Apple I was once again listed on eBay, where it sold for US$236,100.03 on April 23, 2015. On November 24, 2012, a working Apple I was sold at auction by Auction Team Breker for €400,000. On May 25, 2013, a functioning 1976 model was sold for a then-record €516,000 in Cologne.
Auction Team Breker said "an unnamed Asian