Pellston Regional Airport
Pellston Regional Airport known as Pellston Regional Airport of Emmet County, is a public airport located one mile northwest of the central business district of Pellston, a village in Emmet County, United States. It is included in the Federal Aviation Administration National Plan of Integrated Airport Systems for 2017–2021, in which it is categorized as a non-hub primary commercial service facility. A general aviation airport, Pellston Regional Airport functions as the primary commercial airport for the sparsely populated northern tip of Michigan's Lower Peninsula, owing to its location halfway between the region's primary cities and Cheboygan, as well as its close proximity to the tourist centers of Mackinaw City and Mackinac Island. One commercial airline, SkyWest, doing business as Delta Connection serves Pellston Regional with two departures and two arrivals daily; the 35,000 square feet northern lodge themed passenger terminal building was constructed in 2003 and designed by architect Paul W. Powers.
The new passenger terminal building replaced a smaller terminal building, demolished. Wireless internet service is available throughout the terminal at no charge to travelers. Pellston Regional Airport covers an area of 1,675 acres and contains two asphalt paved runways: 14/32 measures 6,513 by 150 feet and 5/23 is 5,401 by 150 feet. For the 12-month period ending September 30, 2016, the airport had 9,022 aircraft operations, an average of 25 per day: 81% general aviation, 18% scheduled commercial and 1% military. In April 2017, there were 38 aircraft based at this airport: 32 single-engine, 3 multi-engine, 2 jet and 1 helicopter; the current terminal serves as check-in, ticketing, TSA checkpoint and gates. Due to the airport being small in size and the amount of flights, only 2 gates are necessary and both are located in the terminal. Since 2009 travel services and offices have been placed at the end of baggage claim. On a normal day, three or four people operate this airport. One airline representative manages check-in, works as the gate agent.
One is a TSA Senior Agent. The others are ground baggage services. Delta/SkyWest has two aircraft in use, both are seat Canadair Regional Jets 100/200 series. On January 15, 2013, a Cessna 208B Cargomaster, operated by Martinaire and registered as N1120N, crashed shortly after takeoff from Pellston Regional Airport, it came down in a wooded area. On May 13, 1978, a brand new Piper Cheyenne with less than twenty hours had a CFIT two miles from the departure end of Runway 32 after failing to land at Boyne Falls airport; the NTSB investigation concluded the pilot attempted to land below published minimums for the ILS approach. The weather was foggy at the time with less than 3/8 of a mile visibility and 200' ceiling while the approach called for a 600' ceiling and 2 miles visibility. A contributing factor was the finding that the middle marker for Runway 32 was not functioning at the time contributing to the disorientation of the pilot and his location relative to the airfield; the aircraft was destroyed.
On May 9, 1970, UAW President Walter Reuther, his wife May, architect Oscar Stonorov, Reuther's bodyguard William Wolfman, the pilot and co-pilot were killed when their chartered Lear-Jet crashed in flames at 9:33 p.m. Michigan time; the plane, arriving from Detroit in rain and fog, was on final approach to the Pellston, airstrip near the union's recreational and educational facility at Black Lake. The Learjet 23, operated by Executive Jet Aviation and registered as N434EJ, crashed into trees and caught fire short of the runway. An investigation concluded that illusions produced by the lack of visual cues during a circling approach over unlighted terrain at night to a runway not equipped with approach lights or other visual approach aids, caused the crash; the aircraft was written off. On April 23, 1970, a McDonnell Douglas DC-9, operated by North Central Airlines, destined for Sault Ste. Marie Airport, was hijacked. One hijacker demanded to be taken to Detroit; the hijacker was taken down. Official website Lakeshore Express Aviation FAA Terminal Procedures for PLN, effective March 28, 2019 Resources for this airport: FAA airport information for PLN AirNav airport information for KPLN ASN accident history for PLN FlightAware airport information and live flight tracker NOAA/NWS latest weather observations SkyVector aeronautical chart, Terminal Procedures
Lewis Cass was an American military officer and statesman. He represented Michigan in the United States Senate and served in the Cabinets of two U. S. Presidents, Andrew Jackson and James Buchanan, he was the 1848 Democratic presidential nominee and a leading spokesman for the Doctrine of Popular Sovereignty, which held that the people in each territory should decide whether to permit slavery. Born in Exeter, New Hampshire, he attended Phillips Exeter Academy before establishing a legal practice in Zanesville, Ohio. After serving in the Ohio House of Representatives, he was appointed as a U. S. Marshal. Cass joined the Freemasons and would co-found the Grand Lodge of Michigan, he fought at the Battle of the Thames in the War of 1812 and was appointed to govern Michigan Territory in 1813. He negotiated treaties with Native Americans to open land for American settlement and led a survey expedition into the northwest part of the territory. Cass resigned as governor in 1831 to accept appointment as Secretary of War under Andrew Jackson.
As Secretary of War, he helped implement Jackson's policy of Indian removal. After serving as ambassador to France from 1836 to 1842, he unsuccessfully sought the presidential nomination at the 1844 Democratic National Convention. In 1845, the Michigan Legislature elected Cass to the Senate, where he served until 1848. Cass's nomination at the 1848 Democratic National Convention precipitated a split in the party, as Cass's advocacy for popular sovereignty alienated the anti-slavery wing of the party. Van Buren led the Free Soil Party's presidential ticket and appealed to many anti-slavery Democrats contributing to the victory of Whig nominee Zachary Taylor. Cass returned to the Senate in 1849 and continued to serve until 1857, when he accepted appointment as the Secretary of State, he unsuccessfully sought to buy land from Mexico and sympathized with American filibusters in Latin America. Cass resigned from the Cabinet in December 1860 in protest of Buchanan's handling of the threatened secession of several Southern states.
Since his death in 1866, he has been commemorated in various ways, including with a statue in the National Statuary Hall. Lewis Cass was born in 1782 in Exeter, New Hampshire, just after the end of the American Revolutionary War, he attended the private Phillips Exeter Academy. His parents were Major Jonathan Cass, a Revolutionary War veteran, Molly Gilman. In 1800 the family moved to Marietta, part of a wave of westward migration after the end of the war and defeat of Native Americans in the Northwest Indian War. Cass studied law with Return J. Meigs Jr. was admitted to the bar, began a practice in Zanesville. On May 26, 1806, Cass married Elizabeth Spencer; that same year, he was elected to the Ohio House of Representatives. The following year, President Thomas Jefferson appointed Cass as the U. S. Marshal for Ohio, he joined the Freemasons, an popular fraternal organization in that period, being initiated as an Entered Apprentice in what is now American Union Lodge No.1 at Marietta on December 5, 1803.
He achieved his Fellow Craft degree on April 2, 1804, his Master Mason degree on May 7, 1804. On June 24, 1805, he was admitted as Charter member of Lodge of Amity Zanesville, he served as the first Worshipful Master of Lodge of Amity in 1806. Cass was one of the founders of the Grand Lodge of Ohio, representing Lodge of Amity at the first meeting on January 4, 1808, he was elected Deputy Grand Master on January 5, 1809, Grand Master on January 3, 1810, January 8, 1811, January 8, 1812. When the War of 1812 began against the United Kingdom, he took command of the 3rd Ohio Volunteer Regiment, he became colonel of the 27th United States Infantry Regiment on February 20, 1813. Soon after, he was promoted to brigadier general in the Regular Army on March 12, 1813. Cass took part in the Battle of the Thames, a defeat of British Canadian forces. Cass resigned from the Army on May 1, 1814. Overall, the war closed in a draw, but settled the boundary between Canada and the United States; as a reward for his military service, Cass was appointed Governor of the Michigan Territory by President James Madison on October 29, 1813, serving until 1831.
As he was traveling on business, several territorial secretaries acted as governor in his place. During this period, he helped negotiate and implement treaties with Native American tribes in Michigan, by which they ceded substantial amounts of land; some were given small reservations in the territory. In 1817, Cass was one of the two commissioners, who negotiated the Treaty of Fort Meigs, signed on September 29 with several Native American tribes of the region, under which they ceded large amounts of territory to the United States; this helped open up areas of Michigan to settlement by Americans. That same year, Cass was named to serve as Secretary of War under President James Monroe, but he declined the honor. In 1820, Cass led an expedition to the northwestern part of the Michigan Territory, in the Great Lakes region in today's northern Minnesota, its purpose was to locate the source of the Mississippi River. The headwater of the great river was unknown, resulting in an undefined border between the United States and British North America, linked to the river.
The Cass expedition erroneously identified what became known as Cass Lake as the Mississippi's source. It was not until 1832 that Henry Rowe Schoolcraft, the Cass expedition's geologist, identified nearby Lake Itasca as the headwater of the Mississippi. On August 1, 1831, Cass resigned as gove
Macomb County, Michigan
Macomb County is a county located in the eastern portion of the U. S. is part of metro Detroit. As of the 2010 census, the population was 840,978, making it the third-most populous county in the state. Of Michigan's five largest counties, Macomb experienced the most population growth between 1950 and 1960; the county seat is Mt. Clemens. Macomb County is part of MI Metropolitan Statistical Area; the city of Detroit is located south of the county's southern border. Macomb County contains 27 cities and villages, including three of the top ten most populous municipalities in Michigan as of the 2010 census: Warren, Sterling Heights and Clinton Township. Most of this population is concentrated south of Hall one of the county's main thoroughfares; the Ojibwe lived in the area for centuries before European contact, were preceded by other cultures of ancient indigenous peoples. The first European explorers were French, they arrived in the area during the 17th century. Other early settlers were French fur trappers, who sometimes married Ojibwe women, Jesuit missionaries.
A Moravian colony was established in the county in the late 18th century. In addition to the original French and English settlers immigrants included Germans and others from Europe. In the 19th century the county received many American migrants from New York and New England, who were attracted to the area for land and booming jobs in the lumber and other resource industries. Macomb County was formally organized on January 15, 1818 as the third county in the Michigan territory; the county was named in honor of Detroit-born Alexander Macomb, Jr. a decorated veteran of the War of 1812 and hero of the Battle of Plattsburg. He was made Commanding General of the U. S. Army in 1828; as was typical in development, it first encompassed a much larger area than at present. As population increased, the legislature removed territory in 1819 and 1820 to form the counties of Oakland, Genesee, St. Clair. In May 2008, Macomb County voters approved the inclusion of a County Executive in a new charter to be submitted to the voters by 2010.
A charter commission was elected in November 2008 for the purpose of drafting a charter for submission to Governor Granholm, submitted and approved and placed on the November 2009 ballot. The Charter passed with a 60.4% to 39.6% margin. Mark Hackel was voted in as Macomb's first county executive. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 571 square miles, of which 479 square miles is land and 92 square miles is water; the county's southeastern border with Canada is located across Lake St. Clair. Lake St. Clair borders the county on the east. Far northern parts of the county, such as Richmond and Armada, are considered to be part of Michigan's Thumb region. Lambton County, Canada - southeast St. Clair County, Michigan - northeast Lapeer County, Michigan - northwest Oakland County, Michigan - west Wayne County, Michigan - south As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 840,978 people residing in the county. 85.4% were White, 8.6% Black or African American, 3.0% Asian, 0.3% Native American, 0.6% of some other race and 2.1% of two or more races.
2.3% were Hispanic or Latino. 14.8 % were of 14.3 % Polish, 11.1 % Italian, 6.5 % Irish and 5.9 % American ancestry. In 2000, 87.6% of county residents spoke only English at home. Among Asian ethnic groups, six numbered over 1,000 people in Macomb County; the most numerous were the 5,713 Southeast Asian Indians, followed by Filipinos, Koreans Vietnamese, Hmong. Pakistanis are represented in Macomb County's population. European and Mid-Eastern national and ethnic groups that have settled in Macomb County since the 20th century include Albanians, Arabs and Macedonians. Native American tribes had over 2,478 residents in Macomb County in 2000. In 2000, there were 309,203 households out of which 31.10% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 54.30% were married couples living together, 10.10% had a female householder with no husband present, 31.80% were non-families. 26.90% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.30% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.52 and the average family size was 3.09.
In 2000, the age distribution of the county was as follows: 24.10% under the age of 18, 8.00% from 18 to 24, 31.50% from 25 to 44, 22.80% from 45 to 64, 13.70% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females, there were 96.00 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.90 males. The median income for a household in the county was $52,102, the median income for a family was $62,816. Males had a median income of $48,303 versus $30,215 for females; the per capita income for the county was $24,446. About 4.00% of families and 5.60% of the population were below the poverty line, including 7.00% of those under age 18 and 6.40% of those age 65 or over. According to the 2006 American Community Survey the average family size was 3.15. The population of 25 and over was 571,463. 86.9% of that population had graduated from high school, 21% of the population had a Bachelor's degree or higher. About 14.3% of that population was disabled. 12.5% of Macomb's population could speak another language at home.
Macomb County is home to more than 130 parks covering 12,000 acres managed by the state, regional and local government. There are four major public parks in the County - Freedom Hill County Park, Macomb Orchard Trail, Lake St. Clai
Straits of Mackinac
The Straits of Mackinac are narrow waterways in the U. S. state of Michigan between Michigan's Lower and Upper Peninsulas. The main strait flows under the Mackinac Bridge and connects two of the Great Lakes, Lake Michigan and Lake Huron; the main strait has a maximum depth of 295 feet. Hydrologically, the two connected lakes can be considered one lake, called Lake Michigan–Huron; the native Odawa people called the region around the Straits Michilimackinac. The Straits of Mackinac is "whipsawed by currents unlike anywhere else in the Great Lakes". Islands forming the edge of Straits of Mackinac include the two populated islands, Bois Blanc and Mackinac, one, uninhabited: Round island; the Straits of Mackinac is a major shipping lane, providing passage for raw materials and finished goods and connecting, for instance, the iron mines of Minnesota to the steel mills of Gary, Indiana. Before the railroads reached Chicago from the east, most immigrants arrived in the Midwest and Great Plains by ships on the Great Lakes.
The straits is five miles wide at its narrowest point. Before the bridge was built, car ferries transported vehicles across the straits. Today passenger-only ferries carry people to Mackinac Island. Visitors can take their vehicles on a car ferry to Bois Blanc Island; the straits are narrow enough to freeze over in the winter. Navigation is ensured for year-round shipping to the Lower Great Lakes by the use of icebreakers; the straits were an important Native American and fur trade route. The Straits of Mackinac are named after Mackinac Island; the local Ojibwe Native Americans in the Straits of Mackinac region likened the shape of the island to that of a turtle, so they named the island Mitchimakinak, meaning "Big Turtle". When the British explored the area, they shortened the name to its present form: Mackinac. Located on the southern side of the straits is the town of Mackinaw City, the site of Fort Michilimackinac, a reconstructed French fort founded in 1715, on the northern side is St. Ignace, site of a French Catholic mission to the Indians, founded in 1671.
The eastern end of the straits was controlled by Fort Mackinac on Mackinac Island, a British colonial and early American military base and fur trade center, founded in 1781. A French Catholic mission to the Indians was founded at St. Ignace in 1671. In 1715, Fort Michilimackinac was built by the French on the south end of the straits' narrow. Michilimackinac was replaced in 1781 by Fort Mackinac, on Mackinac Island. Enbridge Line 5 was built in 1953 as an extension of the one-thousand-one-hundred-and-fifty-mile Interprovincial Pipe Line Company line West of the iconic Mackinac Bridge bringing oil from Alberta to Lake Superior. On December 12, 2018, Michigan Governor Rick Snyder signed a bill establishing the Mackinac Straits Corridor Authority and appointed its first members; the straits are patrolled by a detachment of the United States Coast Guard based at Graham Point, St. Ignace. A shipping channel through the winter ice is maintained by the Coast Guard's Great Lakes icebreaker, USCGC Mackinaw, based in Cheboygan near the eastern edge of the Straits.
This vessel went into service during the 2005/06 ice season. Most of the Straits have been set aside by the state of Michigan as the Straits of Mackinac Shipwreck Preserve, a riparian public space dedicated to those personnel who were lost aboard the boats and ships that sank in these dangerous shipping lanes. Lighthouses in the Straits of Mackinac include: The McGulpin Point Light, on McGulpin Point, three miles west of Fort Michilimackinac; the Old Mackinac Point Light, in Mackinaw City, open to the public. The Round Island Light on Round Island, not open to the public but which can be viewed from the Mackinac Island ferry channel. West of the iconic Mackinac Bridge is Enbridge's pipeline, called Enbridge Line 5, built in 1953 as an extension of the one-thousand-one-hundred-and-fifty-mile Interprovincial Pipe Line Company line bringing oil from Alberta to Lake Superior; the 1953 pipeline enters the Straits of Mackinac water on the north shore at St. Ignace and lies along the bottom of the Straits, nearly two hundred and fifty feet in places.
By 2013 Enbridge had increased the "maximum capacity on the lines to 540,000 barrels per day". In selling the idea of the pipeline to residents living near the Straits, the pipeline developers claimed, it was "essential to the defense of the United States and the whole North American continent". A University of Michigan study studied the risks of a leak, leading to experts and local governments calling for the shutdown of the pipeline. On December 12, 2018, Michigan Governor Rick Snyder signed a bill establishing the Mackinac Straits Corridor Authority, charged with overseeing construction and operation of a tunnel to hold a new Enbridge Line 5 under the lake bed in the straits. Snyder appointed its first members: Geno Alessandrini of Iron Mountain, Anthony England of Ypsilanti and Michael Zimmer of Dimondale, who serve six-year terms. Huron Lightship Straits of Mackinac Shipwreck Preserve Enbridge Line 5 Mackinac Falls Straits of Mackinac Shipwreck Lighthouses in the Mackinac Strait Lighthouses of the Straits of Mackinac
2010 United States Census
The 2010 United States Census is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010; the census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired; the population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million, as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000; as required by the United States Constitution, the U. S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U. S. Census was the previous census completed. Participation in the U. S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code. On January 25, 2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, a resident of Noorvik, Alaska.
More than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U. S. Post Office beginning March 15, 2010; the number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was 134 million on April 1, 2010. Although the questionnaire used April 1, 2010 as the reference date as to where a person was living, an insert dated March 15, 2010 included the following printed in bold type: "Please complete and mail back the enclosed census form today." The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%. From April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called "non-response follow-up". In December 2010, the U. S. Census Bureau delivered population information to the U. S. President for apportionment, in March 2011, complete redistricting data was delivered to states. Identifiable information will be available in 2082; the Census Bureau did not use a long form for the 2010 Census. In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, which asked for detailed social and economic information.
The 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions: How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1, 2010? Were there any additional people staying here on April 1, 2010 that you did not include in Question 1? Mark all that apply: Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – What is your telephone number? What is Person 1's name? What is Person 1's sex? What is Person 1's age and Person 1's date of birth? Is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin? What is Person 1's race? Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else? The form included space to repeat all of these questions for up to twelve residents total. In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, nor was the form available for download. Detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey; the survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years.
A small percentage of the population on a rotating basis will receive the survey each year, no household will receive it more than once every five years. In June 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau announced. However, the final form did not contain a separate "same-sex married couple" option; when noting the relationship between household members, same-sex couples who are married could mark their spouses as being "Husband or wife", the same response given by opposite-sex married couples. An "unmarried partner" option was available for couples; the 2010 census cost $13 billion $42 per capita. Operational costs were $5.4 billion under the $7 billion budget. In December 2010 the Government Accountability Office noted that the cost of conducting the census has doubled each decade since 1970. In a detailed 2004 report to Congress, the GAO called on the Census Bureau to address cost and design issues, at that time, had estimated the 2010 Census cost to be $11 billion. In August 2010, Commerce Secretary Gary Locke announced that the census operational costs came in under budget.
Locke credited the management practices of Census Bureau director Robert Groves, citing in particular the decision to buy additional advertising in locations where responses lagged, which improved the overall response rate. The agency has begun to rely more on questioning neighbors or other reliable third parties when a person could not be reached at home, which reduced the cost of follow-up visits. Census data for about 22% of U. S. househol
Emmet County, Michigan
Emmet County is a county located in the U. S. state of Michigan. As of the 2010 census, the population was 32,694; the county seat is Petoskey. Emmet County is located at the top of the Lower Peninsula of Michigan, bounded on the west by Lake Michigan and on the north by the Straits of Mackinac, its rural areas are habitat for several endangered species. Long a center of occupation by the Odawa people, today the county is the base for the federally recognized Little Traverse Bay Bands of Odawa Indians; the county was created by the Michigan Legislature from Mackinac County. It was first named Tonedagana County and renamed Emmet County effective March 8, 1843. Emmet County remained attached to Mackinac County for administrative purposes until county government was organized in 1853. "Emmet" refers to the Irish nationalist Robert Emmet, who in 1803 was tried and executed for high treason against the British king for leading a rebellion in Dublin. Ottawa history records that Emmet County was thickly populated by indigenous peoples called the Mush-co-desh, which means "the prairie tribe".
They had an agrarian society and were said to have "shaped the land by making the woodland into prairie as they abandoned their old worn out gardens which formed grassy plains". Ottawa tradition claims that they slaughtered from forty to fifty thousand Mush-co-desh and drove the rest from the land after the Mush-co-desh insulted an Ottawa war party; the Odawa were important prior to European colonization for their trading network throughout the Great Lakes area. They retained this influence into the 18th century, as French traders relied on them to take furs east from tribes they traded with to the north and west; when French explorers first came to this area, they claimed it as part of New France, based in today's Quebec province. The Ottawa and Ojibwe tribes were the principal inhabitants of this area, extending across to Manitoulin Island and the Bruce Peninsula of Ontario, Canada; the French established Fort Michilimackinac in about 1715. It was the basis of a multicultural settlement that developed around it.
Seasonally numerous native Americans of various tribes would come to trade there. During the Seven Years' War and French forces, together with Indian allies on each side, fought on the North American front in what became known in the British colonies as the French and Indian War; the British continued to use it as a trading post. In 1763, Ojibwe warriors took the fort as a part of Pontiac's Rebellion and held it for a year before the British retook it; the British abandoned the wooden fort in 1781 after building the limestone Fort Mackinac on nearby Mackinac Island. An Indian community on the lakeshore in the western part of the county continued to thrive after the British abandoned the fort. After the War of 1812, Mackinac Island and this area became part of the United States. In the 1840s, Odawa villages lined the Lake Michigan shore from present-day Harbor Springs to Cross Village; the area was reserved for native tribes by treaty provisions with the US federal government until 1875. In 1847, a group of Mormons settled on nearby Beaver Island and established a "kingdom" led by "King" James Jesse Strang.
There were bitter disputes between other white settlers. Strang, seeking to strengthen his position, gained election to the Michigan State House of Representatives. In January 1853, he pushed through legislation titled, "An act to organize the County of Emmet", which enlarged Emmet County by attaching the nearby Lake Michigan islands to the county, as well as a portion of Cheboygan County, it annexed the old Charlevoix County, named Keskkauko County and was as yet unorganized, as a township of Emmet County. Due to Strang's influence, Mormons came to dominate county government, causing an exodus of many non-Mormon settlers to neighboring areas. In 1855, the non-Mormon resistance succeeded in getting the Michigan Legislature to reorganize Emmet County; the islands, including Beaver Island and North and South Manitou Islands, were transferred into the separate Manitou County, which eliminated Mormons from Emmet County government. On April 27, 1857 an election selected Little Traverse as the county seat.
However, at about this time, investors were trying to promote development at Mackinaw City. Due to their influence, in February 1858, the State Legislature passed an act establishing Mackinaw City as the county seat; the Emmet County Board of Supervisors protested that the county seat had been established at Little Traverse, in 1861 the act was repealed as unconstitutional. In a contested election in 1867, residents voted to move the county seat to Charlevoix, upheld by a Circuit Court decision in 1868. However, in 1869, Charlevoix County was split from Emmet County, resulting in the county seat being in another county. No provisions for official relocation were authorized, although Harbor Springs served as the unofficial county seat until April 1902; the present county seat of Petoskey was selected at that time in a county-wide election. Charlevoix Township was organized in 1853 and included all of the nine townships in the southern half of the county. In the 1855 reorganization, four new townships were created by the State Legislature: La Croix Township Little Traverse Township Bear Creek Township Old Fort Mackinac In 1855, county supervisors established the townships of Arbour Croche and Utopia.
The state had inadvertently drawn boundaries for Little Traverse and Bear
The fur trade is a worldwide industry dealing in the acquisition and sale of animal fur. Since the establishment of a world fur market in the early modern period, furs of boreal and cold temperate mammalian animals have been the most valued; the trade stimulated the exploration and colonization of Siberia, northern North America, the South Shetland and South Sandwich Islands. Today the importance of the fur trade has diminished. Animal rights organizations oppose the fur trade, citing that animals are brutally killed and sometimes skinned alive. Fur has been replaced in some clothing by synthetic imitations, for example, as in ruffs on hoods of parkas. Before the European colonization of the Americas, Russia was a major supplier of fur pelts to Western Europe and parts of Asia, its trade developed in the Early Middle Ages, first through exchanges at posts around the Baltic and Black seas. The main trading market destination was the German city of Leipzig. Kievan Russia, the first Russian State, was the first supplier of the Russian Fur Trade.
Russia exported raw furs, consisting in most cases of the pelts of martens, wolves, foxes and hares. Between the 16th and 18th centuries, Russians began to settle in Siberia, a region rich in many mammal fur species, such as Arctic fox, sable, sea otter and stoat. In a search for the prized sea otter pelts, first used in China, for the northern fur seal, the Russian Empire expanded into North America, notably Alaska. From the 17th through the second half of the 19th century, Russia was the world's largest supplier of fur; the fur trade played a vital role in the development of Siberia, the Russian Far East and the Russian colonization of the Americas. As recognition of the importance of the trade to the Siberian economy, the sable is a regional symbol of the Ural Sverdlovsk Oblast and the Siberian Novosibirsk and Irkutsk Oblasts of Russia; the European discovery of North America, with its vast forests and wildlife the beaver, led to the continent becoming a major supplier in the 17th century of fur pelts for the fur felt hat and fur trimming and garment trades of Europe.
Fur was relied on to make warm clothing, a critical consideration prior to the organization of coal distribution for heating. Portugal and Spain played major roles in fur trading after the 15th century with their business in fur hats. From as early as the 10th century and boyars of Novgorod had exploited the fur resources "beyond the portage", a watershed at the White Lake that represents the door to the entire northwestern part of Eurasia, they began by establishing trading posts along the Volga and Vychegda river networks and requiring the Komi people to give them furs as tribute. Novgorod, the chief fur-trade center prospered as the easternmost trading post of the Hanseatic League. Novgorodians expanded farther east and north, coming into contact with the Pechora people of the Pechora River valley and the Yugra people residing near the Urals. Both of these native tribes offered more resistance than the Komi, killing many Russian tribute-collectors throughout the tenth and eleventh centuries.
As Muscovy gained more power in the 15th century and proceeded in the "gathering of the Russian lands", the Muscovite state began to rival the Novgorodians in the North. During the 15th century Moscow began subjugating many native tribes. One strategy involved exploiting antagonisms between tribes, notably the Komi and Yugra, by recruiting men of one tribe to fight in an army against the other tribe. Campaigns against native tribes in Siberia remained insignificant until they began on a much larger scale in 1483 and 1499. Besides the Novgorodians and the indigenes, Muscovites had to contend with the various Muslim Tatar khanates to the east of Muscovy. In 1552 Ivan IV, the Tsar of All the Russias, took a significant step towards securing Russian hegemony in Siberia when he sent a large army to attack the Kazan Tartars and ended up obtaining the territory from the Volga to the Ural Mountains. At this point the phrase "ruler of Obdor and all Siberian lands" became part of the title of the Tsar in Moscow.
So, problems ensued after 1558 when Ivan IV sent Grigory Stroganov to colonize land on the Kama and to subjugate and enserf the Komi living there. The Stroganov family soon came into conflict with the Khan of Sibir. Ivan told the Stroganovs to hire Cossack mercenaries to protect the new settlement from the Tatars. From ca 1581 the band of Cossacks led by Yermak Timofeyevich fought many battles that culminated in a Tartar victory and the temporary end to Russian occupation in the area. In 1584 Ivan’s son Fyodor sent military governors and soldiers to reclaim Yermak conquests and to annex the land held by the Khanate of Sibir. Similar skirmishes with Tartars took place across Siberia. Russian conquerors treated the natives of Siberia as exploited enemies who were inferior to them; as they penetrated deeper into Siberia, traders built outposts or winter lodges called zimovya where they lived and collected fur tribute from native tribes. By 1620 Russia dominated the land from the Urals eastward to the Yenisey valley and to the Altai Mountains in the south, comprising about 1.25 million square miles of land.
Furs would become Russia's largest source of wealth during the seventeenth centuries. Keeping up with the advances of Western Europe required significant capital and Russia did not have sources of gold and silver, but it did have furs, which became known as "soft gold" and provided Russia with hard cur