Mackinac Island

Mackinac Island is an island and resort area, covering 4.35 square miles in land area, in the U. S. state of Michigan. It is located in Lake Huron, at the eastern end of the Straits of Mackinac, between the state's Upper and Lower Peninsulas; the island was long home to an Odawa settlement and previous indigenous cultures before European colonization began in the 17th century. It was a strategic center of the fur trade around the Great Lakes. Based on a former trading post, Fort Mackinac was constructed on the island by the British during the American Revolutionary War, it was the site of two battles during the War of 1812 before the northern border was settled and the US gained this island in its territory. In the late 19th century, Mackinac Island became a popular tourist summer colony. Many of the structures on the island have undergone extensive historical preservation and restoration; because of its historic significance, the entire island is listed as a National Historic Landmark. It is well known for numerous cultural events.

More than 80 percent of the island is preserved as Mackinac Island State Park. Like many historic places in the Great Lakes region, Mackinac Island's name derives from a Native American language, in this case Ojibwe language; the Anishinaabe peoples in the Straits of Mackinac region likened the shape of the island to that of a turtle so they named it "Mitchimakinak" "Big Turtle". Andrew Blackbird, an official interpreter for the U. S. government and son of an Odawa chief, said the island was known locally after a tribe that had lived there. The French spelled it as Michilimackinac; the British shortened it to the present name: "Mackinac." Michillimackinac is spelled as Mishinimakinago, Mǐshǐma‛kǐnung, Mi-shi-ne-macki naw-go, Teiodondoraghie. The Menominee traditionally lived in a large territory of 10 million acres extending from Wisconsin to the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. Historic references include one by Father Frederic Baraga, a Slovenian missionary priest in Michigan, who in his 1878 dictionary wrote: Mishinimakinago.

And from this word, the name of the village of Mackinac, or Michillimackinac, is derived. Maehkaenah is the Menominee word for turtle. In his 1952 book The Indian Tribes of North America, John Reed Swanton recorded under the "Wisconsin" section: "Menominee," a band named "Misi'nimäk Kimiko Wini'niwuk,'Michilimackinac People,' near the old fort at Mackinac, Mich."In an early written history of Mackinac Island by Andrew Blackbird, the Odawa historian, he describes that a small independent tribe called "Mi-shi-ne-macki naw-go" once occupied Mackinac Island. They became confederated with the Ottawa from Ottawa Island, situated north of Lake Huron. One winter the Mi-shi-ne-macki naw-go on Mackinac Island were entirely annihilated by the Seneca people from western New York, who were one of the Five Nations of the Iroquois Confederacy. Only two of the local natives escaped by hiding in one of the natural caves at the island. To commemorate the losses of this allied tribe, the Ottawa named what is now Mackinac Island, as "Mi-shi-ne-macki-nong."

In 1895 John R. Bailey, the doctor at Fort Mackinac, published a history, entitled Mackinac Michilimackinac, describing some of the earliest French traders on Mackinac, they arrived in 1654 with a large party of Huron and Ottawa heading to Three Rivers. Archaeologists have excavated prehistoric fishing camps on Mackinac Island and in the surrounding areas. Fishhooks and other artifacts establish a Native American presence at least 700 years before European exploration, around AD 900; the island is a sacred place in the tradition of some of its earliest known inhabitants, the Anishinaabe peoples. They consider it to be home of the Gitche Manitou, or the "Great Spirit". According to legend, Mackinac Island was created by the Great Hare and was the first land to appear after the Great Flood receded; the island was a gathering place for the local tribes. It became the burial place of tribal chiefs; the first European to have seen Mackinac Island is Jean Nicolet, a French-Canadian coureur des bois, during his 1634 explorations.

The Jesuit priest Claude Dablon founded a mission for the Native Americans on Mackinac Island in 1670, stayed over the winter of 1670–71. The missionary and explorer Jacques Marquette succeeded him, moving the mission to St. Ignace soon after his arrival in the region in the fall of 1671. With the mission as a focus, the Straits of Mackinac became an important French fur trading location; the British took control of the Straits of Mackinac after the French and Indian War and Major Patrick Sinclair chose the bluffs of the island for Fort Mackinac in 1780. The Jesuit Relations contains a long description of Mackinac Island: its fisheries, its phenomena of wind and tide, the tribes who, now and in the past, have made it their abode. A favorite resort for all the Algonkin tribes, many are returning to it since the peace with the Iroquois. On this account, the Jesuits have begun a new mission, opposite Mackinac, called St. Ignace. Thither have fled the Hurons, driven from Chequamegon Bay by fear of the Sioux, "the Iroquois of the West."

The Relations indicate the tremendous strategic importance of Michilimackinac/Mackinac Island as "the central point for all trave


In marketing, geomarketing is a discipline that uses geolocation in the process of planning and implementation of marketing activities. It can be used in any aspect of the marketing mix – the product, promotion, or place. Market segments can correlate with location, this can be useful in targeted marketing. Geomarketing is applied in the financial sector through identifying ATMs traffic generators and creating hotspots maps based on geographical parameters integrated with customer behavior. Geomarketing has a direct impact on the development of modern trade and the reorganization of retail types. Site selection based on scientific procedures that saves both time and money. Geomarketing uses key facts, a good base map, Whois data layers, consumer profiling, success/fail criteria. GPS tracking and GSM localization can be used to obtain the actual position of the travelling customer. Geolocation software is used to display data that can be linked to area, it can be used to: Recommend nearby social events.

Determine where the customers are. Determine who the customer is, or make a guess on it based on earlier encounters by tracking IP address, credit card information, VOIP address, etc. Visualize any data in a geographic context by linking it to a digital map. Locate a web client's computer on a digital map. Calculate summary information for specific areas. Select customers within specific areas. Select customers with a certain radius of a point. Using micro-geographic segmentation select customers similar to a specific type in the rest of the country; some of the software used includes Geoconcept Sales&Marketing Portal, MapInfo, ArcGIS, RegioGraph, WIGeoWeb assorted open source like Mapwindow, DIVA, GRASS GeoEdge. Several other software are available. Indeed, Google Earth provides an excellent set of images. Location-based social media marketing uses geo-specific tools to draw imaginary perimeters that will display all of the social content posted by users in that particular area. A typical example for different web content by location is the FedEx website at where users have the choice to select their country geo —location first and are presented with different site or article content depending on their selection.

Individuals can deliver different content in internet marketing, through paid or organic search results, based on the geographical geolocation of the targeted audiences. Solve problems regarding location of a new retail outlet Map consumer demand trends to best distribute products and advertising; this links with trade zone management. Scope digital advertising towards individual consumers and producers. Research consumer shopping patterns and observe traffic within shopping centers and between retail outlets, it helps in visualisation of market research findings and help improve the overall planning ability of organisations. Improve customer cooperation. Creation of sales territoriesWe can define the geo-marketing as a strategy and mechanism that provides valuable information that helps in the process of making business decisions using geographical information; the functions of this to search and evaluate marketing opportunities, analyzing geographical information such as location residential areas, topography, it analyzes demographic information such as age, annual income and lifestyle.

This information can be sub-segmented as secondary data. This works with retail chain stores in the sales industry, real estate, renewable energy, among others. With geomarketing, the general data of a company changes to be more specific regarding their customers and market trends; this allows companies to use secondary data wisely, providing excellent results at low cost compared with traditional market research methods. All data is acquired with GPS equipment and geographical information software, once the data is acquired, this information is processed by professionals in the field. Geomarketing has helped companies to acquire valuable information such as transit behaviors, most visited places or areas, etc. this information will help these companies to deliver the right message, at the right time and place. Most companies use their mobile apps to obtain this information. Mobile apps became more sophisticated using GPS, social networks to obtain their market information, this information helps to improve their promotional campaigns.

According to comScore, about 60 percent of all Internet activities in the U. S. originates from mobile devices and about half of total Internet traffic flows through mobile apps. One example of Geo Location is Google Maps - you can search in Google Maps Restaurants near me and it will show different options around your location. One important factor that companies is that they must be sure to optimize their business in Google's directory list. Digital marketing GSM localization Internet marketing Local advertising Location-based service Amaduzzi S. Geomarketing. I sistemi informativi territoriali SIT - GIS a supporto delle aziende e della pubblica amministrazione, Roma, EPC editore 2011, ISBN 978-88-6310-311-3, Maguire D. Kouyoumjian V. Smith R; the Business Benefits of GIS - An ROI Approach, ESRI Press, 2008. Peterson K

Philippe Besson

Philippe Besson is a French writer. In 1999, Besson, a law graduate, was inspired to write his first novel, En l'absence des hommes while reading of accounts of ex-serviceman during the First World War; the novel, with its daring inclusion of Marcel Proust as a central character, won the Prix Emmanuel Roblès. Besson's second novel, Son Frère was shortlisted for the Prix Femina, adapted for cinema by Patrice Chéreau in 2003; the film was well won the Silver Bear at the Berlin Film Festival. En l'absence des hommes, Éditions Julliard, 2001, ISBN 9782260015642 In the Absence of Men, Heinemann 2003, translated by Frank Wynne, Carroll & Graf, 2003, ISBN 978-0-7867-1161-1 Son frère, Julliard, 2001, ISBN 978-2-260-01586-4 His Brother translated by Frank Wynne, Heinemann, 2004, ISBN 978-0-434-01211-4 L'arrière saison, Julliard, 2002, ISBN 978-2-260-01610-6 Un garçon d'Italie, Julliard, 2003, ISBN 978-2-260-01642-7 Les Jours fragiles, Julliard, 2004, ISBN 978-2-260-01641-0 Un instant d'abandon: roman, Julliard, 2005, ISBN 978-2-260-01681-6 Se résoudre aux adieux: roman, Julliard, 2007, ISBN 978-2-260-01726-4 The Accidental Man Arrête avec tes mensonges, Éditions Julliard, 2017, ISBN 9782260029885 Lie with Me translated by Molly Ringwald, Scribner, 2019, ISBN 9781501197871 "Review: In the Absence of Men by Philippe Besson", Speak its name