Macmillan Publishers

Macmillan Publishers Ltd was an international publishing company owned by Holtzbrinck Publishing Group. It operated in more than thirty others. Since 2015 it has been a subsidiary of Springer Verlag, by July 2018 was integrated into Springer Nature. Macmillan was founded in 1843 by Daniel and Alexander Macmillan, two brothers from the Isle of Arran, Scotland. Daniel was the business brain, while Alexander laid the literary foundations, publishing such notable authors as Charles Kingsley, Thomas Hughes, Francis Turner Palgrave, Christina Rossetti, Matthew Arnold and Lewis Carroll. Alfred Tennyson joined the list in 1884, Thomas Hardy in 1886 and Rudyard Kipling in 1890. Other major writers published by Macmillan included W. B. Yeats, Rabindranath Tagore, Nirad C. Chaudhuri, Seán O'Casey, John Maynard Keynes, Charles Morgan, Hugh Walpole, Margaret Mitchell, C. P. Snow, Rumer Godden and Ram Sharan Sharma. Beyond literature, the company created such enduring titles as Nature, the Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians and Sir Robert Harry Inglis Palgrave's Dictionary of Political Economy.

George Edward Brett opened the first Macmillan office in the United States in 1869 and Macmillan sold its U. S. operations to the Brett family, George Platt Brett, Sr. and George Platt Brett, Jr. in 1896, resulting in the creation of an American company, Macmillan Publishing called the Macmillan Company. With the split of the American company from its parent company in England, George Brett, Jr. and Harold Macmillan remained close personal friends. Macmillan Publishers re-entered the American market in 1954 under the name St. Martin's Press. Macmillan of Canada was founded in 1905. Following numerous mergers, Macmillan Canada dissolved in 2002 after John Wiley & Co. acquired it. After retiring from politics in 1964, former Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, Harold Macmillan, became chairman of the company, serving until his death in December 1986, he had been with the family firm as a junior partner from 1920 to 1940, from 1945 to 1951 while he was in the opposition in Parliament. Holtzbrinck Publishing Group purchased the company in 1999.

Pearson acquired the Macmillan name in America in 1998, following its purchase of the Simon & Schuster educational and professional group. Holtzbrinck purchased it from them in 2001. McGraw-Hill continues to market its pre-kindergarten through elementary school titles under its Macmillan/McGraw-Hill brand; the US operations of Holtzbrinck Publishing changed its name to Macmillan in October 2017. Its audio publishing imprint changed its name from Audio Renaissance to Macmillan Audio, while its distribution arm was renamed from Von Holtzbrinck Publishers Services to Macmillan Publishers Services. Pan Macmillan purchased Kingfisher, a British children's publisher, from Houghton Mifflin in October 2007. Roaring Brook Press publisher Simon Boughton would oversee Kingfisher's US business. By some estimates, as of 2009, e-books account for three to five per cent of total book sales, are the fastest growing segment of the market. According to The New York Times and other major publishers "fear that massive discounting by retailers including Amazon, Barnes & Noble and Sony could devalue what consumers are willing to pay for books."

In response, the publisher introduced a new boilerplate contract for its authors that established a royalty of 20 per cent of net proceeds on e-book sales, a rate five per cent lower than most other major publishers. Following the announcement of the Apple iPad on 27 January 2010—a product that comes with access to the iBookstore—Macmillan gave two options: continue to sell e-books based on a price of the retailer's choice, with the e-book edition released several months after the hardcover edition is released, or switch to the agency model introduced to the industry by Apple, in which both are released and the price is set by the publisher. In the latter case, would receive a 30 per cent commission. Amazon responded by pulling all Macmillan books, both physical, from their website. On 31 January 2010, Amazon chose the agency model preferred by Macmillan. In April 2012, the United States Department of Justice filed United States v. Apple Inc. naming Apple and four other major publishers as defendants.

The suit alleged that they conspired to fix prices for e-books, weaken's position in the market, in violation of antitrust law. In December 2013, a federal judge approved a settlement of the antitrust claims, in which Macmillan and the other publishers paid into a fund that provided credits to customers who had overpaid for books due to the price-fixing. In 2010, Macmillan Education submitted to an investigation on grounds of fraudulent practices; the Macmillan division admitted to bribery in an attempt to secure a contract for an education project in southern Sudan. As a direct result of the investigation, sanctions were applied by the World Bank Group, namely a 6-year debarment declaring the company ineligible to be awarded Bank-financed contracts. In December 2011, Bedford and Worth Publishing Group, Macmillan's higher education group, changed its name to Macmillan Higher Education while retaining the Bedford and Worth name for its k–12 educational unit; that month, Brian Napack resigned as Macmillan president while staying on for transitional p

Agoston Haraszthy

Agoston Haraszthy was a Hungarian-American nobleman, traveler, town-builder, pioneer winemaker in Wisconsin and California referred to as the "Father of California Viticulture," or the "Father of Modern Winemaking in California". One of the first men to plant vineyards in Wisconsin, he was the founder of the Buena Vista Winery in Sonoma, an early writer on California wine and viticulture, he was the first Hungarian to settle permanently in the United States and only the second to write a book about the country in his native language. He is remembered in Wisconsin as the founder of the oldest incorporated village in the state, he operated the first commercial steamboat on the upper Mississippi River. In San Diego, he is remembered as the first county sheriff. In California he introduced more than three hundred varieties of European grapes. Haraszthy was born in Pest, Hungary, he was his wife, Anna Mária. It had been claimed that he was born in Futak, but, disproved in 1995; the Haraszthys were a Hungarian noble family who traced their roots to Ung county in northeastern Hungary, now part of Hungary and Ukraine.

Agoston Haraszthy belonged to the Mokcsai branch of the Haraszthy family, signifying that at one time or another his ancestors owned estates at places called Mokcsa and Haraszth. In Hungary, he was formally known as Mokcsai Haraszthy Ágoston; the name has sometimes been written as Agoston Haraszthy de Mokcsa. This is the Latin form of the name, used in official government business and in Catholic Church records in Hungary. In the United States, Haraszthy was known as Agoston Haraszthy; as a Hungarian nobleman, Haraszthy was entitled to be addressed as Spectabilis Dominus or Tekintetes Úr. These titles were Noble Lord in English; when he lived in Wisconsin in the 1840s, the local settlers German-speaking immigrants, called him "Count" Haraszthy, although he was never addressed by that title in Hungary, California, or Nicaragua. In California, he was addressed as "Colonel" Haraszthy, an honorary designation given to distinguished “gentlemen” and vaguely derived from his military service in Hungary.

Both Agoston and Károly Haraszthy owned estates in a part of southern Hungary called the Bácska, now a part of Serbia. Agoston's father-in-law was Ferenc Dedinszky, the superintendent of a large estate at Futak on the Danube River where, among other things, vines were cultivated and wine was produced. Both of the Haraszthys were engaged in the wine business around Futak. On January 6, 1833, Agoston Haraszthy married Eleonóra Dedinszky in Hungary; the Dedinszkys were a Polish family, though they had lived in Hungary for many centuries and in 1272 were accepted into the Hungarian nobility. Agoston and Eleonora Haraszthy were the parents of six children: Géza, Attila, Árpád, Ida and Otelia. Traveling with a maternal cousin named Károly Fischer, Haraszthy left Hungary for the United States in March 1840. Moving through Austria and England, Haraszthy and his cousin crossed the Atlantic to New York proceeded by way of the Hudson River, the Erie Canal, the Great Lakes to Wisconsin settling there. In Haraszthy’s own words, he came to America “for one reason only–namely, to see this blessed country for myself.”

Haraszthy was a writer in his native Hungarian, in German, in English. When he returned to Hungary in 1842, he made arrangements to write a Hungarian language book about the United States, he traveled through the United States to gather material for the book, which praised American life and enterprise. The two-volume book was published at Pest in 1844 under the title of Utazas Éjszakamerikában. A second edition was published in 1850; this was the second book about the United States to be published in Hungarian. In Wisconsin and his cousin attempted to settle on some land at Lake Koshkonong; this effort was unsuccessful, however, so they went on to the Sauk Prairie, on the Wisconsin River west of Madison. There Haraszthy purchased a large tract of property on the west bank of the river and laid out a town. First called Széptáj Haraszthy, the town was renamed Westfield and Sauk City after Haraszthy left for California in 1849. In 1842, Haraszthy returned to Hungary to bring his parents and children to Wisconsin as permanent residents of the United States.

The Haraszthys never returned to Hungary. Haraszthy formed a partnership with an Englishman named Robert Bryant and threw himself into a myriad of ambitious projects. Besides the town that he laid out, he built mills, raised corn and other grains, kept sheep and horses, he opened a brickyard. Many of the oldest houses still standing in Sauk City were built with bricks from Haraszthy’s brickyard, he owned and operated a steamboat that carried passengers and freight on the Wisconsin and Mississippi Rivers. He donated land on which the first Roman Catholic school in Sauk City were built. On the east side of the Wisconsin River, in what became the Town of Roxbury, Haraszthy planted grapes and dug wine cellars into hillside slopes above the river; the cellars and slopes are today home to

2004 California Proposition 71

Proposition 71 of 2004 is a law enacted by California voters to support stem cell research in the state. It was proposed by means of the initiative process and approved in the 2004 state elections on November 2; the Act amended both the Health and Safety Code. The Act makes conducting stem cell research a state constitutional right, it authorizes the sale of general obligation bonds to allocate three billion dollars over a period of ten years to stem cell research and research facilities. Although the funds could be used to finance all kinds of stem cell research, it gives priority to human embryonic stem cell research. Proposition 71 created the California Institute for Regenerative Medicine, in charge of making "grants and loans for stem cell research, for research facilities, for other vital research opportunities to realize therapies" as well as establishing "the appropriate regulatory standards of oversight bodies for research and facilities development"; the Act establishes a governing body called the Independent Citizen’s Oversight Committee to oversee CIRM.

Proposition 71 is unique in at least three ways. Firstly, it uses general obligation bonds, which are used to finance brick-and-mortar projects such as bridges or hospitals, to fund scientific research. Secondly, by funding scientific research on such a large scale, California is taking on a role, fulfilled by the U. S. federal government. Thirdly, Proposition 71 establishes the state constitutional right to conduct stem cell research; the initiative represents a unique instance where the public directly decided to fund scientific research. Proposition 71 states that "This measure shall be known as the California Stem Cell Research and Cures Act”; that is therefore the official citation. However the measure is headed as the California Stem Cell Research and Cures Initiative; the Act is complex. It amends the state constitution by adding "Article 35 – Medical Research"; this article guarantees a right to conduct stem cell research. Proposition 71 amends the Health and Safety Code, by introducing a provision in Part 5 of Division 106 called "Chapter 3 – California Stem Cell Research and Cures Bond Act".

This chapter, among other provisions, establishes the ICOC. the chancellors of University of California at San Francisco, San Diego, Los Angeles, Irvine. The Governor, the Lieutenant Governor, the Treasurer, the Controller each appoints a member from each of the following three categories: A California university, excluding the ones mentioned above. A California nonprofit academic and research institution, not part of the University of California. A California life science commercial entity, not engaged in researching or developing therapies with pluripotent or progenitor stem cells; the Governor appoints two members, each from the following disease advocacy groups: Alzheimer's and spinal cord injury. The Lieutenant Governor appoints two members, each from the following disease advocacy groups: type II diabetes and multiple sclerosis, or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis; the Treasurer appoints two members, each from the following disease advocacy groups: type I diabetes and heart disease. The Controller appoints two members, each from the following disease advocacy groups: cancer and Parkinson’s disease.

The Speaker of the Assembly appoints a member from a mental health disease advocacy group. The President pro Tempore of the Senate appoints a member from an HIV/AIDS disease advocacy group. A chairperson and vice chairperson who shall be elected by the ICOC members. CIRM may have up to 50 employees. CIRM is divided in three working groups. Scientific and Medical Research Funding Working Group. Fifteen stem-cell experts who cannot be from California; the ICOC chair. Scientific and Medical Accountability Standards Working Group. Nine stem-cell experts. Four ethicists; the ICOC chair. Scientific and Medical Research Facilities Working Group. Four real estate specialists who must be from California; the ICOC chair Human embryonic stem cell research became a public issue in 1998 when two teams of scientists developed "methods for culturing cell lines derived from: cells taken from the inner cell mass of early embryos, the gonadal ridges of aborted fetuses". Since this type of research has sparked intense controversy in the United States.

Since 1996, Congress has attached to the Health and Human Services appropriations bill a provision known as the "Dickey–Wicker Amendment". This amendment, named after the former representative Jay Dickey, Republican from Arkansas, prohibits the use of federal monies to fund "research that destroys or endangers human embryos, or creates them for research purposes". In 1999, the General Counsel of the Department of Health and Human Services issued a legal opinion arguing, "that the wording of the law might permit an interpretation under which human embryonic stem cell research could be funded"; this interpretation stipulated that the government could fund this research so long as the embryos used had been destroyed by researchers paid. Although the Clinton administration adopted this interpretation and wrote the corresponding guidelines, it did not have the time to enforce them; the issue wou