Philippine Air Force
The Philippine Air Force is the aerial warfare service branch of the Armed Forces of the Philippines. On March 17,1917 Senate President Manuel L. Quezon enacted a bill for the creation of the Philippine Militia and it was enacted in anticipation that there would be an outbreak of hostilities between United States and Germany. By the end of the First World War, the US Army and Navy began selling aircraft, the Commission hired the services of the Curtiss School of Aviation to provide flight training to 33 students at a local base in Parañaque. The early aviation unit was, still lacking enough knowledge, on January 2,1935, Philippine Military Aviation was activated when the 10th Congress passed Commonwealth Act 1494 that provided for the organization of the Philippine Constabulary Air Corps. PCAC was renamed as the Philippine Army Air Corps in 1936 and it started with only three planes on its inventory. In 1941, PAAC had a total of 54 aircraft including pursuit light bombers, reconnaissance aircraft, light transport and they engaged the Japanese when they invaded the Philippines in 1941–42, and were reformed in 1945 after the countrys liberation.
The PAF became a military service on July 1,1947. The main aircraft type in the era of the PAF was the P-51 Mustang. Ground attack missions were flown against various insurgent groups, with aircraft hit by ground fire, in the 1950s the Mustang was used by the Blue Diamonds aerobatic display team. These would be replaced by the jet-powered North American F-86 Sabres in the late 1950s, assisted by Lockheed T-33 Shooting Star, the PAF saw its first international action in the Congo under the UN peacekeeping mission in 1960. Since the retirement of the Northrop F-5s in September 2005 without a planned replacement, the PAF resorted to the Aermacchi S-211 trainer jets to fill the void left by the F-5s. These S-211s were upgraded to light attack capability and used for air and sea patrol, the only active fixed wing aircraft to fill the roles were the SF-260 trainers with light attack capability, the OV-10 Bronco light attack and reconnaissance aircraft and the AS-211 warriors. The PAF currently has three active C-130s which were used during the 2013 Typhoon Yolanda crisis.
In December 2014, the PAF received 2 of the 8 AW-109E power attack version helicopters from Agusta Westland and was commissioned August 2015,6 more are expected to be delivered and these additional helicopters aims to boost its helicopter strike wing currently filled by the MD-520s. The MD-520s has been used to conduct operations against terrorist groups in Mindanao, some additional 21 refurbished UH-1 Hueys are due to arrive along with the NC-212 Aviocar acquired the same date as the CASA C-295M. In March 2015 the DND announced the upgrading of an old station to improve its air defense monitoring capability. In May 2015, the Philippines expressed interest in acquiring a number Lockheed P-3 Orion from Japan, in August 2015 all Bell-412 helicopters where delivered and commissioned,3 where for VIP and 5 as combat utility helicopters. In September 2015,30 defence acquisition projects including the LRPA,2 brand new frigates, ASW helicopters and CAS has been approved, the projects were put on hold due to the pending signing of the new AFP Modernization Law
Benigno Aquino III
Benigno Simeon Noynoy Cojuangco Aquino III is a Filipino politician who served as the 15th President of the Philippines from 2010 until 2016. Aquino is a politician and is the chairman of the Liberal Party from 2010 to 2016. Born in Manila, Aquino finished his Bachelor of Arts from Ateneo de Manila University in 1981 and he returned to the Philippines in 1983 shortly after the assassination of his father and held several positions working in the private sector. In 1998, he was elected to the House of Representatives as Representative of the 2nd district of Tarlac province and he was subsequently re-elected to the House in 2001 and 2004. In 2007, having been barred from running for re-election to the House due to term limits, in 2013, Time named him one of the 100 Most Influential People in the World. Benigno Simeon Noynoy Aquino III was born at 10,28 am on February 8,1960 at Far Eastern University Hospital in Sampaloc, Manila. He is the third of the five children of Benigno S. Aquino, Jr. who was the Vice Governor of Tarlac province and he has four sisters, Maria Elena, Aurora Corazon, Victoria Elisa, and Kristina Bernadette.
He attended Ateneo de Manila University in Quezon City for his elementary, high school and he graduated in 1981 with a Bachelors degree in economics. He was one of the students of professor of economics at Ateneo de Manila University. In September 1972, Aquinos father, who was a senator, in August 1973, Aquinos father was brought before a military tribunal in Fort Bonifacio. On August 25,1973, Aquinos father wrote a letter to his son from Fort Bonifacio, giving advice to his son, The only advice I can give you, Live with honor, there is no greater nation on earth than our Motherland. No greater people than our own, serve them with all your heart, with all your might and with all your strength. Son, the ball is now in your hands, in 1980, after a series of heart attacks, Aquinos father was allowed to seek medical treatment in the United States, where Aquinos family began a period of self-exile. In 1981, shortly after graduation, Aquino joined his family in the United States, in 1983, after three years in exile in the United States, Aquinos family returned to the Philippines, shortly after the assassination of his father on August 21,1983.
He had a tenure as a member of the Philippine Business for Social Progress. He joined Mondragon Industries Philippines, Inc. as an assistant Retail Sales Supervisor and assistant promotions manager for Nike Philippines, Inc. From 1986 to 1992, during the presidency of his mother, Aquino joined the Intra-Strata Assurance Corporation, a company owned by his uncle Antolin Oreta Jr. as vice president. On August 28,1987, eighteen months into the presidency of Aquinos mother, rebel soldiers led by Gregorio Honasan staged a coup attempt
Philippine Airlines, a trade name of PAL Holdings, Inc. known historically as Philippine Air Lines, is the flag carrier of the Philippines. Headquartered at the PNB Financial Center in Pasay City, the airline was founded in 1941 and is the first and oldest commercial airline in Asia operating under its original name, formerly one of the largest Asian airlines, PAL was severely affected by the 1997 Asian Financial Crisis. The airline was placed under receivership in 1998, and gradually restored operations to many destinations, after PALs exit from receivership in 2007, PAL embarked on a frequent revamp of management. However, PALs vision to re-establish itself as one of Asias premier carriers, is still the matter of greatest importance. On November 14,1935, the Philippine Congress approved the franchise of Philippine Aerial Taxi Company Incorporated to provide mail, the company had scheduled Manila-Baguio and Manila-Paracale flights. The company became dormant for six years on its passenger operation under its assigned routes.
Philippine Air Lines, Inc. acquired the franchise of Philippine Aerial Taxi Company Incorporated, the airline’s first flight took place on March 15,1941 with a single Beechcraft Model 18 NPC-54 on daily services between Manila and Baguio. On July 22, the acquired the franchise of the Philippine Aerial Taxi Company. Government investment in September paved the way for its nationalization, PAL services were interrupted during World War II, which lasted in the Philippines from late 1941 to 1945. Upon the outbreak of the Pacific War on December 8,1941 the two Model 18s and their pilots were pressed into military service. They were used to evacuate American fighter pilots to Australia until one was shot down over Mindanao, on February 15,1946, PAL resumed operations after a five-year hiatus with service to 15 domestic points with five Douglas DC-3s and a payroll of 108 names. Philippine Airlines returned to its home, the Nielson Field in Makati. The airport was operated by Manila International Air Terminal, Inc.
a wholly owned PAL subsidiary, a regular service between Manila and San Francisco started in December 1946. During this time, the airline was designated as the flag carrier. PAL commenced service to Europe in 1947 with the acquisition of more Douglas DC-4s, by 1948, PAL had absorbed the only other scheduled airlines in the Philippines, Far Eastern Air Transport and Commercial Air Lines. The transfer was accomplished over a period from January 31 to June 28,1948, with PAL investing an additional P600,000 in ground installations. In 1951 PAL leased a DC-3 named Kinsei to Japan Airlines, in March 1954, the Philippine government suspended all flights to Europe and the United States, only to resume five years later. In three years PAL started services to Hong Kong and Taipei using Convair 340s that would be replaced by the Vickers Viscount 784, on March 15,1941, a Beech Model 18 twin engine monoplane left Manila for Baguio
It is the deadliest Philippine typhoon on record, killing at least 6,300 people in that country alone. Haiyan is the strongest storm recorded at landfall, in January 2014, bodies were still being found. Tracking generally westward, environmental conditions favored tropical cyclogenesis and the system developed into a depression the following day. Haiyan is the strongest tropical cyclone in the Eastern Hemisphere by wind speed, several hours later, the eye of the cyclone made its first landfall in the Philippines at Guiuan, Eastern Samar. Gradually weakening, the storm made five additional landfalls in the country before emerging over the South China Sea, turning northwestward, the typhoon eventually struck northern Vietnam as a severe tropical storm on November 10. Haiyan was last noted as a depression by the JMA the following day. The cyclone caused catastrophic destruction in the Visayas, particularly on Samar, according to UN officials, about 11 million people have been affected – many have been left homeless.
On November 2, the Joint Typhoon Warning Center began monitoring a broad area about 425 kilometers east-southeast of Pohnpei. Moving through a region favoring tropical cyclogenesis, the Japan Meteorological Agency classified the system as a tropical depression early on November 3. Subsequent intensification resulted in the JMA upgrading the system to a tropical storm, by November 6, the Philippine Atmospheric and Astronomical Services Administration assigned the storm the local name Yolanda as it approached their area of responsibility. Later, the eye of the passed over the island of Kayangel in Palau. Around 1200 UTC on November 7, Haiyan attained ten-minute sustained winds of 230 km/h, six hours later, the JTWC estimated Haiyan to have attained one-minute sustained winds of 315 km/h and gusts up to 378 km/h, according to preliminary track data. The storm displayed some characteristics of a tropical cyclone, though a strong convective band remained present along the western side of the system.
At 2040 UTC on November 7, Typhoon Haiyan made landfall in Guiuan, the JTWCs unofficial estimate of one-minute sustained winds of 315 km/h would, by that measure, make Haiyan the most powerful storm ever recorded to strike land. Interaction with land caused slight degradation of the structure, though it remained an exceptionally powerful storm when it struck Tolosa. The typhoon made four additional landfalls as it traversed the Visayas, Bantayan Island, Concepcion, a weakened Haiyan, with its core disrupted by interaction with the Philippines, emerged over the South China Sea late on November 8. Environmental conditions ahead of the storm became less favorable, as cool stable air began wrapping into the western side of the circulation. Rapid weakening ensued as Haiyan approached its final landfall in Vietnam, once onshore, the storm quickly diminished and was last noted as it dissipated over Guangxi Province, China during November 11
Cebu Air, Inc. operating as Cebu Pacific, is a Philippine low-cost airline based on the grounds of Ninoy Aquino International Airport, Pasay City, Metro Manila, in the Philippines. It offers scheduled flights to domestic and international destinations. The airline is a subsidiary of JG Summit Holdings, Cebu Pacific is currently headed by Lance Gokongwei, presumptive heir of John Gokongwei, the chairman emeritus of JG Summit. As of January 2013, the company has 3,297 employees,2,565 were from operations,429 from the commercial departments, and 303 from the support departments. In October 2010, the airline completed an IPO of 30. 4% of outstanding shares, in 2010, Cebu Pacific became the Philippines largest airline based on number of passengers flown on domestic and international routes. The airline was established on 26 August 1988, and started operations on March 8,1996,7151, which grants franchise to Cebu Air, Inc. was approved on 30 August 1991. Cebu Air, Inc. was subsequently acquired by JG Summit Holdings, domestic services commenced following market deregulation by the Philippine government.
It temporarily ceased operations in February 1998 after being grounded by the government due to an accident and it initially started with 24 domestic flights daily among Metro Manila, Metro Cebu and Metro Davao. By the end of 2001, its operations had grown to about 80 daily flights to 18 domestic destinations. In the 2000s, Cebu Pacific was granted rights to international flights to the region, including Malaysia, Singapore, South Korea, Hong Kong. International flights were launched on 22 November 2001, with a service to Hong Kong. On 1 March 2002, it commenced flights to Seoul. Other regional flights were introduced and suspended later, including flights to Singapore, Cebu Pacifics plans to begin international flights from Clark were initially unsuccessful when its request was denied. The nations involved came to an agreement that Cebu Pacific would be allowed to operate charter flights from Clark to the respective countries airport. Only Singapore initially agreed to allow Cebu Pacific to fly scheduled flights from Clark to Singapore, Cebu Pacific now operates routes from Clark to Bangkok, Hong Kong and Singapore.
In June 2007, Cebu Pacific announced an order of up to 14 brand-new ATR 72-500 aircraft, with six firm orders and it plans to initially offer flights to Boracay, using Boracays Godofredo P. Ramos Airport. On 12 November 2007, Cebu Pacific announced Davaos Francisco Bangoy International Airport as its fourth hub, Cebu Pacific announced that it would initially fly internationally from Davao City to Singapore, Hong Kong and fly one domestic flight to Iloilo. Both direct services from Davao to Singapore and Iloilo commenced on May 8,2008, in late 2007, Cebu Pacific mentioned that it was aiming to cross the Pacific and launch non-stop flights to the United States West Coast, Houston and Chicago, Illinois by mid-2009
Ninoy Aquino International Airport
The Ninoy Aquino International Airport or NAIA /ˈnaɪ. ə/, known as Manila International Airport, is the airport serving Manila and its surrounding metropolitan area. It is managed by the Manila International Airport Authority, a branch of the Department of Transportation, officially, NAIA is the only airport serving the Manila area. In the recent past there have been calls for Clark to replace NAIA eventually as the airport of the Philippines. The airport is named after the late Senator Benigno Ninoy Aquino, Jr. who was assassinated at the airport in 1983. In 2015, all terminals at NAIA handled a record breaking annual passenger traffic of 36,681,601, domestic passengers totaled 19,513,514 compared to international travelers, totaling 17,168,087. The original airport that served Manila, Grace Park Airfield, known as Manila North, was opened in 1935 in Grace Park and it was the citys first commercial airport, and was used by Philippine Aerial Taxi Company for its first domestic routes. In July 1937, Manila International Air Terminal located in the 42 hectares Nielson Airport was inaugurated and had served as the gateway to Manila and its runways of which now form Ayala Avenue and Paseo de Roxas in Makati.
The original structure was built on what is now the site of Terminal 2, in 1954 the airports international runway and associated taxiway were built, and in 1956, construction was started on a control tower and a terminal building for international passengers. The new terminal was inaugurated on September 22,1961, on January 22,1972, a fire caused substantial damage to the original terminal building, and a slightly smaller terminal was rebuilt in its place the following year. This second terminal would become the international terminal until 1981 when a new, higher-capacity terminal. The old international terminal would serve as Manilas domestic airport until another fire damaged it in May 1985, the present Terminal 1, originally named Manila International Airport, was given its present name on August 17,1987 by virtue of Republic Act No. Plans for a new terminal were conceived in 1989, when the Department of Transportation, the recommendation was to build two new terminals, and in 1998 Terminal 2 was completed.
Terminal 2 was nicknamed the Centennial Terminal as its completion coincided with the 100th anniversary of the Philippine Declaration of Independence from Spain, in 1997 the government approved the construction of Terminal 3, which was originally scheduled to be completed in 2002. After many delays caused by technical and legal issues, the terminal became operational in mid-2008. The government aims to return services from many of the airlines which cancelled services to Manila as a result of Terminal 1s problems, the original proposal for the construction of a third terminal was proposed by Asias Emerging Dragon Corporation. AEDP eventually lost the bid to PairCargo and its partner Fraport AG of Germany, on August 1997, President Fidel V. Ramos led the groundbreaking ceremony of Terminal 3. The structure was completed several years ago and was originally scheduled to open in 2002. The ultra-modern US$640 million,189, 000-square-metre facility was designed by Skidmore, however, before the terminal could be fully completed, President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo, called the contract onerous and therefore formed a committee to evaluate the agreement to buy out Fraport AG
Batangas City, is the largest and capital city of the Province of Batangas, Philippines. Known as the Industrial Port City of Calabarzon, Batangas City is currently classified as one of the fastest urbanizing cities of the Philippines, according to the 2015 census, the city has a population of 329,874 people. The first Spanish missionaries arrived in Batangas City since 1572 due to group migration, the town was named Batangan because huge logs, locally called batang, abounded in the place. The Spanish government appointed Don Agustin Casilao as Batangans first gobernadorcillo, said title of little governor as head of the pueblo or municipio was replaced in 1894 by capital municipal. It is not clear who succeeded Casilao nor is it known whether there were subsequent appointments of capital municipal, Don Agustin Casilao is sometimes referred to as Agustino or Augustino in some sources. At the coming of the Americans in the early 1900s, local government of Batangas was set up. It took effect on July 4,1901 with Jose Villanueva elected as Municipal President, in 1941 the title Municipal President was changed to Municipal Mayor.
Pedro Berberabe was elected first municipal mayor, Batangas City was severely damaged due to the Japanese A6M Zero bombardment and on December 12,1941, the Batangas Airport which is located in Brgy. On October 14,1943, municipal councilor Roman L. Perez was appointed Mayor by the Japanese after the inauguration of the Second Republic of the Philippines. Liberation begun when 158th Regimental Combat Team under the command of the US 6th Army reached Poblacion, hostilities ended as the war came closer to the end. Mayor Perez ran and won in 1944, the first post-War elections in the country, in November 1949 he was killed by an unknown assassin. Vice Mayor Atilano Magadia succeeded Mayor Perez, Mayor Macario Chavez was elected in 1951. His four-year term ended in 1955, people voted Pedro S. Tolentino overwhelmingly as mayor in 1956. It was during his term that Congress approved the Charter. Other succeeding mayors followed are Mayor Macario M. Mendoza, 1974–1979, Alfredo M. Borbon, 1979–1980, Berberabe, 1980–1986, Jose M.
Atienza, 1986–1987, Mario M. Perez,1987, Eduardo B. Dimacuha, 1988–1998, Angelito D. Dimacuha, 1998–2001 and again Eduardo B, Dimacuha, 2001–2010, Vilma A. Dimacuha, 2010-2013 and again Eduardo B. Meanwhile, on January 19,2008, gloria Macapagal-Arroyo opened Phase II project of the Batangas City International Container Port. She inspected a major project in Southern Tagalog
Clark International Airport
Clark serves the general vicinity of central and northern Luzon. In 1993, the former Clark Air Base was reopened as the Clark Special Economic Zone after the area was cleared from debris from the Mount Pinatubo explosion. During the administration of former President Fidel V.7 billion expansion of DMIA, the first stage of Clark Airports expansion program, a PH₱130 million terminal expansion, was completed in January 2008 to accommodate more than 2 million passengers annually. In February 2012, the name reverted to Clark International Airport. Completed in April 2010, the $12 million expansion added a story and departure lounges. The expansion boosts Clarks capacity to five million, once Terminal 2 is completed, Terminal 1 will take over all domestic routes. The future international gateway for the country is currently being built at Clark International Airport and it is planned to become one of the worlds biggest in terms of terminal size and land area. A high speed railway system will be built to connect the new airport to Metro Manila, Ninoy Aquino International Airport is the only airport serving the Manila area.
The Terminal 2 of Clark comes in two phases and it will be dedicated to international traffic. It has a floor area of 35,000 square meters. Total investment for this phase is estimated at US$150 million and it includes the expansion of the eastern runway to 4000 meters. A new runway, a new terminal complex, and a new control tower. The terminal will be designed by Aéroports de Paris and it would have a capacity of 15 million passengers per year, Terminal 3 is expected to make CIA handle 80 million passengers a year. When completed, Clark Airport will have,3 parallel runways A high-speed train, once completed, it can accommodate 80 million passengers annually, thus becoming one of the largest airports in the world. Facility can accommodate the A380 once completed, Clark Airport has two 3, 200-meter parallel runways, one of which will be extended to 4,000 meters to accommodate new generation wide-bodied aircraft. The runways descriptions include, The primary runway has a length of 3,200 meters and it is equipped with various navigational aids and lighting facilities, and it has a Category 1 rating for precision approach.
The Clark International Airport is being pushed to become the Philippines first aerotropolis with businesses and industries relocating to the former American airfield complex, the Clark complex used to be the hub of UPS cargo and Subic Bay was the hub of FedEx cargo until both relocated to China. The future corridor between NAIA and Clark International Airport is the Metro Manila Skyway Stage 3 from NLEx to SLEx and NAIA Expressway from Skyway, the target completion of the NLEx-SLEx elevated expressway link project is 2019
United States Air Force
The United States Air Force is the aerial warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven American uniformed services. Initially part of the United States Army, the USAF was formed as a branch of the military on 18 September 1947 under the National Security Act of 1947. It is the most recent branch of the U. S. military to be formed, the U. S. Air Force is a military service organized within the Department of the Air Force, one of the three military departments of the Department of Defense. The Air Force is headed by the civilian Secretary of the Air Force, who reports to the Secretary of Defense, the U. S. Air Force provides air support for surface forces and aids in the recovery of troops in the field. As of 2015, the service more than 5,137 military aircraft,406 ICBMs and 63 military satellites. It has a $161 billion budget with 313,242 active duty personnel,141,197 civilian employees,69,200 Air Force Reserve personnel, and 105,500 Air National Guard personnel.
According to the National Security Act of 1947, which created the USAF and it shall be organized and equipped primarily for prompt and sustained offensive and defensive air operations. The stated mission of the USAF today is to fly and win in air, space and we will provide compelling air and cyber capabilities for use by the combatant commanders. We will excel as stewards of all Air Force resources in service to the American people, while providing precise and reliable Global Vigilance, Reach and it should be emphasized that the core functions, by themselves, are not doctrinal constructs. The purpose of Nuclear Deterrence Operations is to operate, maintain, in the event deterrence fails, the US should be able to appropriately respond with nuclear options. Dissuading others from acquiring or proliferating WMD, and the means to deliver them, different deterrence strategies are required to deter various adversaries, whether they are a nation state, or non-state/transnational actor. Nuclear strike is the ability of forces to rapidly and accurately strike targets which the enemy holds dear in a devastating manner.
Should deterrence fail, the President may authorize a precise, tailored response to terminate the conflict at the lowest possible level, post-conflict, regeneration of a credible nuclear deterrent capability will deter further aggression. Finally, the Air Force regularly exercises and evaluates all aspects of operations to ensure high levels of performance. Nuclear surety ensures the safety and effectiveness of nuclear operations, the Air Force, in conjunction with other entities within the Departments of Defense or Energy, achieves a high standard of protection through a stringent nuclear surety program. The Air Force continues to pursue safe and effective nuclear weapons consistent with operational requirements, adversaries and the American people must be highly confident of the Air Forces ability to secure nuclear weapons from accidents, theft and accidental or unauthorized use. This day-to-day commitment to precise and reliable nuclear operations is the cornerstone of the credibility of the NDO mission, positive nuclear command, communications, effective nuclear weapons security, and robust combat support are essential to the overall NDO function. OCA is the method of countering air and missile threats, since it attempts to defeat the enemy closer to its source
According to the International Civil Aviation Organization, a runway is a defined rectangular area on a land aerodrome prepared for the landing and takeoff of aircraft. Runways may be a surface or a natural surface. Runways are named by a number between 01 and 36, which is generally the magnetic azimuth of the heading in decadegrees. This heading differs from true north by the magnetic declination. A runway numbered 09 points east, runway 18 is south, runway 27 points west, when taking off from or landing on runway 09, a plane would be heading 90°. A runway can normally be used in both directions, and is named for each separately, e. g. runway 33 in one direction is runway 15 when used in the other. The two numbers usually differ by 18, Runway Zero Three Left becomes Runway Two One Right when used in the opposite direction. In some countries, if parallel runways are too close to each other, at large airports with four or more parallel runways some runway identifiers are shifted by 10 degrees to avoid the ambiguity that would result with more than three parallel runways.
For example, in Los Angeles, this results in runways 6L, 6R, 7L. At Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport, there are five parallel runways, named 17L, 17C, 17R, 18L, for clarity in radio communications, each digit in the runway name is pronounced individually, runway three six, runway one four, etc. A leading zero, for example in runway zero six or runway zero one left, is included for all ICAO, most U. S. civil aviation airports drop the leading zero as required by FAA regulation. This includes some military airfields such as Cairns Army Airfield and this American anomaly may lead to inconsistencies in conversations between American pilots and controllers in other countries. It is very common in a such as Canada for a controller to clear an incoming American aircraft to, for example, runway 04. In flight simulation programs those of American origin might apply U. S. usage to airports around the world, for example, runway 05 at Halifax will appear on the program as the single digit 5 rather than 05.
Runway designations change over time because the magnetic poles slowly drift on the Earths surface, depending on the airport location and how much drift takes place, it may be necessary over time to change the runway designation. As runways are designated with headings rounded to the nearest 10 degrees, for example, if the magnetic heading of a runway is 233 degrees, it would be designated Runway 23. If the magnetic heading changed downwards by 5 degrees to 228, if on the other hand the original magnetic heading was 226, and the heading decreased by only 2 degrees to 224, the runway should become Runway 22. Because the drift itself is slow, runway designation changes are uncommon
Bangalore /bæŋɡəˈlɔːr/, officially known as Bengaluru, is the capital of the Indian state of Karnataka. It has a population of about 8.42 million and a population of about 8.52 million, making it the third most populous city. It is located in southern India on the Deccan Plateau and its elevation is over 900 m above sea level, the highest of Indias major cities. In 1638, the Marāthās conquered and ruled Bangalore for almost 50 years, after which the Mughals captured and it was captured by the British after victory in the Fourth Anglo-Mysore War, who returned administrative control of the city to the Maharaja of Mysore. The old city developed in the dominions of the Maharaja of Mysore and was capital of the Princely State of Mysore. In 1809, the British shifted their cantonment to Bangalore, outside the old city, and a grew up around it. Following Indias independence in 1947, Bangalore became the capital of Mysore State, the two urban settlements of Bangalore – city and cantonment – which had developed as independent entities merged into a single urban centre in 1949.
The existing Kannada name, Bengalūru, was declared the name of the city in 2006. Bangalore is sometimes referred to as the Silicon Valley of India because of its role as the leading information technology exporter. Indian technological organisations ISRO, Wipro and HAL are headquartered in the city, a demographically diverse city, Bangalore is the second fastest-growing major metropolis in India. Numerous state-owned aerospace and defence organisations, such as Bharat Electronics, Hindustan Aeronautics, the city houses the Kannada film industry. The name Bangalore represents a version of the Kannada language name. It is the name of a village near kodegehalli and was copied by Kempegowda to the city of Bangalore, Bangalore was built on a venue earlier called as Shivanasamudram in the 16th century. The earliest reference to the name Bengalūru was found in a ninth-century Western Ganga Dynasty stone inscription on a vīra gallu, in this inscription found in Begur, Bengalūrū is referred to as a place in which a battle was fought in 890 CE.
It states that the place was part of the Ganga Kingdom until 1004 and was known as Bengaval-uru, an apocryphal story recounts that the 12th century Hoysala king Veera Ballala II, while on a hunting expedition, lost his way in the forest. Tired and hungry, he came across an old woman who served him boiled beans. The grateful king named the place benda-kaal-uru, which evolved into Bengalūru. On 11 December 2005, the Government of Karnataka announced that it had accepted a proposal by Jnanpith Award winner U. R. Ananthamurthy to rename Bangalore to Bengalūru, on 27 September 2006, the Bruhat Bangalore Mahanagara Palike passed a resolution to implement the proposed name change
Central Visayas is a region of the Philippines, designated as Region VII. It is located in the part of the Visayas island group. Cebu City is the regional center, the region is dominated by the native speakers of Cebuano. The land area of the region is 10,102 square kilometres, on May 29,2015, the region was redefined, when Region VII lost the province of Negros Oriental to the newly formed Negros Island Region. By virtue of Executive Order No.183 issued on May 29,2015 by President Benigno Aquino III, in the 2013 electoral roll, it had 4,114,046 registered voters, meaning that 68% of the population are aged 18 and over. According to the 2015 census, it had a population of 6,041,903, the 2015 census showed an average annual population growth rate of 1. 76% from 2010 to 2015, slightly higher than the national average of 1. 72%. Cebuano is the dominant language of the region, the Central Visayas region consists of 3 provinces and 3 independent cities, Negros Oriental was formerly a part of Region VII.
President Benigno Aquino III signed the Executive Order No.183, Cebu City is the main media hub for both the region. Most of these stations broadcast local news and public affairs as well as entertainment, aside from the 24 national daily newspapers available, Cebu City has 20 local newspapers. Among the widely read are the Sun Star Cebu, the countrys main Islamic news journal, The Voice of Islam, was founded in 1961 and published in this city. The Port of Cebu is the main gateway. There are ports in Tagbilaran in Bohol and Larena in Siquijor, inter-island shipping is served by numerous shipping lines, two of them fastcraft companies which serve all the provinces in the region. The Mactan-Cebu International Airport, located in Lapu-Lapu City, is the second busiest airport. It is the airline hub of Cebu Pacific, and secondary hub for Philippine Airlines and its subsidiaries. It serves international flights to other Asian and intercontinental destinations, other airports in the region are Tagbilaran Airport, serves Tagbilaran and Bohol with flights to Manila.
Media related to Central Visayas at Wikimedia Commons Central Visayas travel guide from Wikivoyage