Louisville and Nashville Railroad
The Louisville and Nashville Railroad, commonly called the L&N, was a Class I railroad that operated freight and passenger services in the southeast United States. Chartered by the Commonwealth of Kentucky in 1850, the road grew into one of the success stories of American business. Operating under one name continuously for 132 years, it survived civil war and economic depression and several waves of social and technological change. Under Milton H. Smith, president of the company for thirty years, as one of the premier Southern railroads, the L&N extended its reach far beyond its namesake cities, stretching to St. Louis, Memphis and New Orleans. The railroad was economically strong throughout its lifetime, operating both freight and passenger trains in a manner that earned it the nickname, The Old Reliable, growth of the railroad continued until its purchase and the tumultuous rail consolidations of the 1980s which led to continual successors. By the end of 1970, L&N operated 6,063 miles of road on 10,051 miles of track, not including the Carrollton Railroad.
In 1971 the Seaboard Coast Line Railroad, successor to the Atlantic Coast Line Railroad, purchased the remainder of the L&N shares it did not already own, by 1982 the railroad industry was consolidating quickly, and the Seaboard Coast Line absorbed the Louisville & Nashville Railroad entirely. Then in 1986, the Seaboard System merged with the C&O and B&O, soon after the combined company became CSX Transportation, which now owns and operates all of the former Louisville and Nashville lines. Its first line extended south of Louisville, Kentucky. There were about 250 miles of track in the system by the outbreak of the Civil War, during the Civil War, different parts of the network were pressed into service by both armies at various times, and considerable damage from wear and sabotage occurred. It profited from Northern haulage contracts for troops and supplies, paid in sound Federal greenbacks, buoyed by these fortunate circumstances, the firm began an expansion that never really stopped. Within 30 years the network reached from Ohio and Missouri to Louisiana, by 1884, the firm had such importance that it was included in the Dow Jones Transportation Average, the first American stock market index.
It was such a customer of the Rogers Locomotive and Machine Works, the countrys second largest locomotive maker. Since all locomotives of the time were steam-powered, many railroads had favored coal as their engines fuel source after wood-burning models were found unsatisfactory. The L&N guaranteed not only its own fuel sources but a steady revenue stream by pushing its lines into the difficult but coal-rich terrain of eastern Kentucky, and well into northern Alabama. There the small town of Birmingham had recently been founded amidst undeveloped deposits of coal, iron ore and limestone, the arrival of L&N transport and investment capital helped create a great industrial city and the Souths first postwar urban success story. The railroads access to good coal enabled it to claim for a few years starting in 1940 the nations longest unrefuelled run, about 490 miles from Louisville to Montgomery, Alabama. In the Gilded Age of the late 19th century there were no such things as anti-trust or fair-competition laws, business was a keen and mean affair, and the L&N was a formidable competitor
Nashville is the capital of the U. S. state of Tennessee and the county seat of Davidson County. It is located on the Cumberland River in the central part of the state. The city is a center for the music, publishing and transportation industries and it is known as a center of the country music industry, earning it the nickname Music City, U. S. A. Since 1963, Nashville has had a consolidated city-county government which includes six municipalities in a two-tier system. Nashville is governed by a mayor, vice-mayor, and 40-member Metropolitan Council, thirty-five of the members are elected from single-member districts, five are elected at-large. Reflecting the citys position in government, Nashville is home to the Tennessee Supreme Courts courthouse for Middle Tennessee. According to 2015 estimates from the U. S. Census Bureau, the balance population, which excludes semi-independent municipalities within Nashville, was 654,610. The 2015 population of the entire 13-county Nashville metropolitan area was 1,830,345, the 2015 population of the Nashville-Davidson–Murfreesboro–Columbia combined statistical area, a larger trade area, was 1,951,644.
The town of Nashville was founded by James Robertson, John Donelson, and it was named for Francis Nash, the American Revolutionary War hero. Nashville quickly grew because of its location, accessibility as a port on the Cumberland River, a tributary of the Ohio River. By 1800, the city had 345 residents, including 136 African American slaves and 14 free blacks, in 1806, Nashville was incorporated as a city and became the county seat of Davidson County, Tennessee. In 1843, the city was named the permanent capital of the state of Tennessee, by 1860, when the first rumblings of secession began to be heard across the South, antebellum Nashville was a prosperous city. The citys significance as a port made it a desirable prize as a means of controlling important river. In February 1862, Nashville became the first state capital to fall to Union troops, the state was occupied by Union troops for the duration of the war. Within a few years after the Civil War, the Nashville chapter of the Ku Klux Klan was founded by Confederate veteran John W.
Morton, the city had reclaimed its important shipping and trading position and developed a solid manufacturing base. The post–Civil War years of the late 19th century brought new prosperity to Nashville and these healthy economic times left the city with a legacy of grand classical-style buildings, which can still be seen around the downtown area. Circa 1950 the state approved a new city charter that provided for the election of city council members from single-member districts. This change was supported because at-large voting diluted the minority populations political power in the city and they could seldom gain a majority of the population to support a candidate of their choice
Interstate 69 in Kentucky
Route 41 on the southern outskirts of Henderson. Eventually, I-69 will leave the Pennyrile Parkway just south of the Audubon Parkway interchange north into Indiana, the proposed route for the remainder of I-69 in Kentucky travels about ten miles utilizing a bridge into Indiana. I-69 has been divided into three sections of independent utility through Kentucky, SIUs 5 and 6 encompass existing freeways. Federal legislation has designated the route for these sections and Kentucky is in the process of installing I-69 signs on the route, SIU4 includes a new bridge over the Ohio River between Henderson and Evansville, which is currently stalled due to lack of funding. The proposed funding formula calls for Kentucky to finance two-thirds of the projected $1.4 billion bridge, on May 15,2006, Kentucky governor Ernie Fletcher announced that I-69 will encompass 130 miles of existing parkways and a 17-mile-long segment of I-24. It further designates the Audubon Parkway as a spur of I-69 once necessary upgrades are completed.
President George W. Bush signed the bill on June 6,2008, ford Western Kentucky Parkway from the Pennyrile Parkway to the interchange with the Western Kentucky Parkway at I-24. Signage and mile marker posts were changed in mid-December 2012, a 2007 engineering study for SIU5 identified then-current conditions along the Pennyrile and Western Kentucky Parkways. The report identified seven overpasses that fell short of the 16-foot minimum vertical clearance necessary for Interstate Highways, an additional 28 mainline bridges were identified for not meeting the minimum horizontal clearance of 38 feet. Most – if not all – of the bridges were built during construction of the parkways in the 1960s and are nearing the end of their serviceable lifespans and are due to be replaced. The main issues concerning the 16 interchanges in SIU5 were short acceleration/deceleration lanes, according to the Kentucky Transportation Cabinet 2006 Six-Year Transportation Plan Executive Summary, the KYTC recently completed a study of the parkway upgrade needs from Interstate 24 to Henderson.
The Transportation Plan estimated that the cost of upgrading the parkways would be about $700 million, during a pavement preservation project, the existing pavement is removed, repairs are made to the highways sub-base, and the road is resurfaced. Two projects on the Pennyrile Parkway and the Western Kentucky Parkway in Hopkins County were evidence that Kentucky is taking this approach, in 2007, work began on a $14.9 million project to replace 7 miles of pavement on the Pennyrile Parkway segment slated for the I-69 designation. The adjusted cost of upgrading the parkways in SIUs 5 and 6 was pegged at around $300 million, of that $300 million price tag, high-priority projects accounted for about half of the total cost. Without the I-69 designation, the parkway sections slated to become I-69 would not be eligible for Interstate Highway funds for upgrades, in January 2010, Governor Steve Beshear released the next draft Six-Year Plan for consideration by the Kentucky Legislature. The proposed plan included the reconstruction of interchanges on the Pennyrile.
The proposed work would upgrade the interchanges to Interstate standards as required to get the parkways signed as I-69, pending approval and funding, the interchange work would begin in 2012 and be finished by 2015. In 2014, work began on the upgrades to the Pennyrile Parkway in anticipation of the I-69 designation
1910 United States Census
The 1910 Census switched from a portrait page orientation to a landscape orientation. The column titles in the form are as follows, LOCATION. Number of dwelling house in order of visitation, Number of family in order of visitation. NAME of each person whose place of abode on April 15,1910, was in this family, enter surname first, the given name and middle initial, if any. Include every person living on April 15,1910, omit children born since April 15,1910. Relationship of this person to the head of the family, whether single, widowed, or divorced. Number of years of present marriage, Mother of how many children, Number born. Mother of how children, Number now living. Place of birth of each person and parents of each person enumerated, if born in the United States, give the state or territory. If of foreign birth, give the country, place of birth of this Person. Place of birth of Father of this person, place of birth of Mother of this person. Year of immigration to the United States, whether able to speak English, or, if not, give language spoken.
Trade or profession of, or particular kind of work done by person, as spinner, laborer. General nature of industry, business, or establishment in which this works, as cotton mill, dry goods store, farm. Whether as employer, employee, or work on own account, whether out of work on April 15,1910. Number of weeks out of work during year 1909, attended school any time since September 1,1909. Whether a survivor of the Union or Confederate Army or Navy, special Notation, In 1912, New Mexico and Arizona would become the 47th and 48th states admitted to the Union. The 1910 population count for each of these areas was 327,301 and 204,354 respectively
The Boston Celtics are an American professional basketball team based in Boston, Massachusetts. The Celtics compete in the National Basketball Association as a club of the leagues Eastern Conference Atlantic Division. Founded in 1946 and one of eight NBA teams to survive the leagues first decade, the Celtics play their home games at the TD Garden, which they share with the National Hockey League s Boston Bruins. The franchises 17 championships are the most of any NBA franchise, as a percentage of championships won, the Celtics are the most successful franchise to date in the major four traditional North American professional sports leagues. The Celtics have played the Lakers a record 12 times in the Finals, including their most recent appearances in 2008 and 2010, four Celtics players have won the NBA Most Valuable Player Award for an NBA record total of 10 MVP awards. Their mascot Lucky the Leprechaun is a nod to the teams Irish heritage, in 1950, the Celtics signed Chuck Cooper, becoming the first NBA franchise to draft a black player.
The Celtics struggled during their years, until the hiring of coach Red Auerbach. In the franchises early days, Auerbach had no assistants, ran all the practices, did all the scouting—both of opposing teams and college draft prospects—and scheduled all the road trips. One of the first great players to join the Celtics was Bob Cousy, Cousy eventually became the property of the Chicago Stags, but when that franchise went bankrupt, Cousy went to the Celtics in a dispersal draft. After the 1955–56 season, Auerbach made a stunning trade and he sent perennial All-Star Ed Macauley to the St. Louis Hawks along with the draft rights to Cliff Hagan in exchange for the second overall pick in the draft. Auerbach acquired Holy Cross standout, and 1957 NBA Rookie of the Year and Heinsohn worked extraordinarily well with Cousy, and they were the players around whom Auerbach would build the champion Celtics for more than a decade. With Bill Russell, the Celtics advanced to the NBA Finals and defeated the St.
Louis Hawks in seven games, Russell went on to win 11 championships, making him the most decorated player in NBA history. In 1958, the Celtics again advanced to the NBA Finals, with the acquisition of K. C. Jones that year, the Celtics began a dynasty that would last for more than a decade. In 1959, the Celtics won the NBA Championship after sweeping the Minneapolis Lakers, during that time, the Celtics met the Lakers in the Finals five times, starting an intense and often bitter rivalry that has spanned generations. In 1964, the Celtics became the first NBA team to have an all African-American starting lineup. On December 26,1964, Willie Naulls replaced an injured Tommy Heinsohn, joining Tom Satch Sanders, K. C. Jones, Sam Jones, the Celtics defeated St. Louis 97–84. Boston won its next 11 games with Naulls starting in place of Heinsohn, the Celtics of the late-1950s–60s are widely considered as one of the most dominant teams of all time. Auerbach retired as coach after the 1965–66 season and Russell took over as player-coach, with his appointment, Russell became the first African-American coach in any U. S. pro sport
Hopkinsville is a home rule-class city in and the county seat of Christian County, United States. The population at the 2010 census was 31,577, the area of present-day Hopkinsville was initially claimed in 1796 by Bartholomew Wood as part of a 1, 200-acre grant for his service in the American Revolution. Following the creation of Christian County the same year, the Woods donated 5 acres of land, by 1798, a log courthouse and stray pen had been built, the next year, John Campbell and Samuel Means laid out the streets for Christian Court House. The Civil War generated major divisions in Christian County, Confederate support in Hopkinsville and Christian County was evident in the formation of the Oak Grove Rangers and the 28th Kentucky Cavalry. Christian County was the birthplace of Jefferson Davis, president of the Confederate States of America, though his birthplace is now part of Todd County, several local businessmen and plantation owners contributed money and war supplies to the South. After Confederate forces retreated to Tennessee, Camp Joe Anderson was established by the Union to the northwest of Hopkinsville in 1862, men who trained there became members of the 35th Kentucky Cavalry, the 25th Kentucky Infantry, and the 35th Kentucky Infantry.
Gen. James S. Jackson had been a Hopkinsville attorney before the war and was killed in service to the Union at the Battle of Perryville in October 1862, private citizens who supported the Union cause provided the army with mules, wagons and food. Hopkinsville changed hands at least half a dozen times, being occupied in turn by Confederate, in December 1864, Confederate troops under Gen. Hylan B. Lyon captured the town and burned the Christian County courthouse, being used by the Union army as a barracks, another skirmish between Union and Confederate forces took place in the field opposite Western State Hospital near the end of the war. The Evansville and Nashville Railroad was the first to connect the city in 1868, in 1879, it was purchased by the L&N. The Ohio Valley Railroad reached the city in 1892, as did the Tennessee Central in 1903, the tobacco from the Black Patch region was highly desired in Europe. The ATC used their power to reduce the prices they paid to farmers. Many farmers continued to sell independently or secretly, prompting the association to form a Silent Brigade to pressure such farmers into compliance, with societal pressure seeming to fail, the Silent Brigade organized the Night Riders to terrorize farmers into submission.
On December 7,1907,250 masked Night Riders seized Hopkinsvilles police station and they pursued tobacco executives who bought tobacco from farmers who were not members of the Dark Tobacco District Planters Protective Association and city officials who aided them. Three warehouses were burned, one of sites became Peace Park. They have gone on with their mischief making, until they have almost ruined the country, on April 2,2006, an F3 tornado swept through parts of Hopkinsville. In the storm,200 homes were damaged and 28 people were injured, a gas line was damaged, causing a gas leak. Hopkinsville is located south of the center of Christian County at 36°51′17″N 87°29′20″W, madisonville is 35 miles to the north, Russellville is 35 miles to the east, and Clarksville, Tennessee, is 26 miles to the south
Hopkins County, Kentucky
Hopkins County is a county located in the U. S. state of Kentucky. As of the 2010 census, the population was 46,920, the county was formed in 1806 and named for General Samuel Hopkins, an officer in both the American Revolutionary War and War of 1812, and a Kentucky legislator and U. S. Congressman. The Madisonville, KY Micropolitan Statistical Area includes all of Hopkins County, the topography ranges from flatlands along the broad river valleys of the Pond River, Tradewater River, and Green River, to hilly and rolling land in the southern and central parts of the county. Coal mines operate in the part of Hopkins County and agriculture is a mainstay in the northern part. Major crops are soybeans and tobacco, along with coal, resources include oil and natural gas. Hopkins County ranks second in the state both in terms of coal extracted and in total coal reserves remaining. The earliest inhabitants were prehistoric Native Americans who lived, one of their settlements was a rough stone structure on Fort Ridge, which has since been destroyed by strip mining for coal.
Some of the settlers were Revolutionary War veterans who received land grants for their service from Virginia in the area southwest of the Green River. Among these was Baron Von Steuben, a Prussian general who had trained George Washingtons Continental Army at Valley Forge during the winter of 1776-77 and he had received a grant of several thousand acres in the northwest part of the county. According to tradition, Von Steuben was wounded in an Indian attack on his first visit to Kentucky, nevertheless, a salt spring on his grant came to be known as Steubens Lick. By the 1880s, the community grew up around the lick was known as Manitou. Roads in the county often followed animal trails that led to salt, the major traces were those which connected the county seat at Madisonville with Henderson to the north, Hopkinsville to the south, and Russellville to the southeast. Numerous other trails led to the mills and ferries on the Pond and Tradewater Rivers, on January 3,1829, Ashbyburg in the northeastern part of the county was incorporated.
Located on the Green River, it thrived as a landing during the 19th century. Hopkins County was divided by the American Civil War, the harsh policies imposed by the occupying Union armies caused much more resentment and served to increase the sympathy for the Confederate cause. Ever since then, local politics have been dominated by the Democratic party. Farming was the occupation in Hopkins County for most of the 19th century. Around 1837 local blacksmith James Woolfolk found an outcropping of coal on his land, john Bayless Earle, for whom the town of Earlington, Kentucky was named, opened the first coal mine in the county in 1869
Union (American Civil War)
The Union was opposed by 11 southern slave states that formed the Confederate States, or the Confederacy. All of the Unions states provided soldiers for the U. S. Army, the Border states played a major role as a supply base for the Union invasion of the Confederacy. The Northeast provided the resources for a mechanized war producing large quantities of munitions and supplies. The Midwest provided soldiers, horses, financial support, Army hospitals were set up across the Union. Most states had Republican governors who energetically supported the war effort, the Democratic Party strongly supported the war in 1861 but in 1862 was split between the War Democrats and the anti-war element led by the Copperheads. The Democrats made major gains in 1862 in state elections. They lost ground in 1863, especially in Ohio, in 1864 the Republicans campaigned under the National Union Party banner, which attracted many War Democrats and soldiers and scored a landslide victory for Lincoln and his entire ticket.
The war years were quite prosperous except where serious fighting and guerrilla warfare took place along the southern border, prosperity was stimulated by heavy government spending and the creation of an entirely new national banking system. The Union states invested a great deal of money and effort in organizing psychological and social support for soldiers wives, widows and for the soldiers themselves. Most soldiers were volunteers, although after 1862 many volunteered to escape the draft, Draft resistance was notable in some larger cities, especially New York City with its massive anti-draft riots of 1863 and in some remote districts such as the coal mining areas of Pennsylvania. In the context of the American Civil War, the Union is sometimes referred to as the North and now, as opposed to the Confederacy, which was the South. The Union never recognized the legitimacy of the Confederacys secession and maintained at all times that it remained entirely a part of the United States of America, in foreign affairs the Union was the only side recognized by all other nations, none of which officially recognized the Confederate government.
The term Union occurs in the first governing document of the United States, the subsequent Constitution of 1787 was issued and ratified in the name not of the states, but of We the People of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union. Union, for the United States of America, is repeated in such clauses as the Admission to the Union clause in Article IV. Even before the war started, the preserve the Union was commonplace. Using the term Union to apply to the non-secessionist side carried a connotation of legitimacy as the continuation of the political entity. In comparison to the Confederacy, the Union had a large industrialized and urbanized area, the Union states had a manpower advantage of 5 to 2 at the start of the war. Year by year, the Confederacy shrank and lost control of increasing quantities of resources, the Union turned its growing potential advantage into a much stronger military force
United States Census Bureau
The United States Census Bureau is a principal agency of the U. S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy. The Census Bureaus primary mission is conducting the U. S. Census every ten years, in addition to the decennial census, the Census Bureau continually conducts dozens of other censuses and surveys, including the American Community Survey, the U. S. Economic Census, and the Current Population Survey, furthermore and foreign trade indicators released by the federal government typically contain data produced by the Census Bureau. The Bureaus various censuses and surveys help allocate over $400 billion in federal funds every year and help states, local communities, the Census Bureau is part of the U. S. Department of Commerce and its director is appointed by the President of the United States. The Census Bureau now conducts a population count every 10 years in years ending with a 0. Between censuses, the Census Bureau makes population estimates and projections, the Census Bureau is mandated with fulfilling these obligations, the collecting of statistics about the nation, its people, and economy.
The Census Bureaus legal authority is codified in Title 13 of the United States Code, the Census Bureau conducts surveys on behalf of various federal government and local government agencies on topics such as employment, health, consumer expenditures, and housing. Within the bureau, these are known as surveys and are conducted perpetually between and during decennial population counts. The Census Bureau conducts surveys of manufacturing, service. Between 1790 and 1840, the census was taken by marshals of the judicial districts, the Census Act of 1840 established a central office which became known as the Census Office. Several acts followed that revised and authorized new censuses, typically at the 10-year intervals, in 1902, the temporary Census Office was moved under the Department of Interior, and in 1903 it was renamed the Census Bureau under the new Department of Commerce and Labor. The department was intended to consolidate overlapping statistical agencies, but Census Bureau officials were hindered by their role in the department.
An act in 1920 changed the date and authorized manufacturing censuses every 2 years, in 1929, a bill was passed mandating the House of Representatives be reapportioned based on the results of the 1930 Census. In 1954, various acts were codified into Title 13 of the US Code, by law, the Census Bureau must count everyone and submit state population totals to the U. S. President by December 31 of any year ending in a zero. States within the Union receive the results in the spring of the following year, the United States Census Bureau defines four statistical regions, with nine divisions. The Census Bureau regions are widely used. for data collection, the Census Bureau definition is pervasive. Title 13 of the U. S. Code establishes penalties for the disclosure of this information, all Census employees must sign an affidavit of non-disclosure prior to employment. The Bureau cannot share responses, addresses or personal information with anyone including United States or foreign government, only after 72 years does the information collected become available to other agencies or the general public
Tobacco is a product prepared from the leaves of the tobacco plant by curing them. The plant is part of the genus Nicotiana and of the Solanaceae family, while more than 70 species of tobacco are known, the chief commercial crop is N. tabacum. The more potent variant N. rustica is used around the world, Tobacco contains the alkaloid nicotine, which is a stimulant. Dried tobacco leaves are used for smoking in cigarettes, pipe tobacco. They can be consumed as snuff, chewing tobacco, dipping tobacco. Tobacco use is a factor for many diseases, especially those affecting the heart, liver. In 2008, the World Health Organization named tobacco as the single greatest preventable cause of death. The English word tobacco originates from the Spanish and Portuguese word tabaco, the precise origin of this word is disputed, but it is generally thought to have derived at least in part, from Taino, the Arawakan language of the Caribbean. In Taino, it was said to either a roll of tobacco leaves or to tabago. Tobacco has long used in the Americas, with some cultivation sites in Mexico dating back to 1400–1000 BC.
Many Native American tribes have traditionally grown and used tobacco, tobacco is seen as a gift from the Creator, with the ceremonial tobacco smoke carrying ones thoughts and prayers to the Creator. Following the arrival of the Europeans to the Americas, tobacco became popular as a trade item. Hernández de Boncalo, Spanish chronicler of the Indies, was the first European to bring seeds to the Old World in 1559 following orders of King Philip II of Spain. These seeds were planted in the outskirts of Toledo, more specifically in a known as Los Cigarrales named after the continuous plagues of cicadas. Before the development of lighter Virginia and white burley strains of tobacco, small quantities were smoked at a time, using a pipe like the midwakh or kiseru or smoking newly invented waterpipes such as the bong or the hookah. The alleged benefits of tobacco account for its considerable success, Tobacco smoking and snuffing became a major industry in Europe and its colonies by 1700. Tobacco has been a major crop in Cuba and in other parts of the Caribbean since the 18th century.
In the late 19th century, cigarettes became popular, James Bonsack created a machine that automated cigarette production
Kentucky, officially the Commonwealth of Kentucky, is a state located in the east south-central region of the United States. Kentucky is one of four U. S. states constituted as a commonwealth, originally a part of Virginia, in 1792 Kentucky became the 15th state to join the Union. Kentucky is the 37th most extensive and the 26th most populous of the 50 United States, Kentucky is known as the Bluegrass State, a nickname based on the bluegrass found in many of its pastures due to the fertile soil. One of the regions in Kentucky is the Bluegrass Region in central Kentucky. In 1776, the counties of Virginia beyond the Appalachian Mountains became known as Kentucky County, the precise etymology of the name is uncertain, but likely based on an Iroquoian name meaning the meadow or the prairie. Kentucky is situated in the Upland South, a significant portion of eastern Kentucky is part of Appalachia. Kentucky borders seven states, from the Midwest and the Southeast, West Virginia lies to the east, Virginia to the southeast, Tennessee to the south, Missouri to the west and Indiana to the northwest, and Ohio to the north and northeast.
Only Missouri and Tennessee, both of which border eight states, touch more, Kentuckys northern border is formed by the Ohio River and its western border by the Mississippi River. The official state borders are based on the courses of the rivers as they existed when Kentucky became a state in 1792, for instance, northbound travelers on U. S.41 from Henderson, after crossing the Ohio River, will be in Kentucky for about two miles. Ellis Park, a racetrack, is located in this small piece of Kentucky. Waterworks Road is part of the land border between Indiana and Kentucky. Kentucky has a part known as Kentucky Bend, at the far west corner of the state. It exists as an exclave surrounded completely by Missouri and Tennessee, Road access to this small part of Kentucky on the Mississippi River requires a trip through Tennessee. The epicenter of the powerful 1811–12 New Madrid earthquakes was near this area, much of the outer Bluegrass is in the Eden Shale Hills area, made up of short and very narrow hills.
The Jackson Purchase and western Pennyrile are home to several bald cypress/tupelo swamps, located within the southeastern interior portion of North America, Kentucky has a climate that can best be described as a humid subtropical climate. Temperatures in Kentucky usually range from daytime summer highs of 87 °F to the low of 23 °F. The average precipitation is 46 inches a year, Kentucky experiences four distinct seasons, with substantial variations in the severity of summer and winter. The highest recorded temperature was 114 °F at Greensburg on July 28,1930 while the lowest recorded temperature was −37 °F at Shelbyville on January 19,1994, due to its location, Kentucky has a moderate humid subtropical climate, with abundant rainfall
Hylan B. Lyon
Hylan Benton Lyon was a career officer in the United States Army until the start of the American Civil War, when he resigned rather than fight against the South. Lyon was born in what is now Lyon County, Kentucky and he was a grandson of Congressman Matthew Lyon. Both of his parents died when was very young, and he inherited the estate, Lyons guardian secured a good education for him, and he attended the Masonic University of Kentucky and Cumberland College. He was appointed to the United States Military Academy at the age of sixteen and he was brevetted as a second lieutenant in the 2nd U. S. Artillery Regiment and was assigned to duty at Fort Myers during the Third Seminole War, after hostilities with the Seminoles waned, Lyon was promoted to the permanent rank of second lieutenant in 3rd Artillery and sent to Fort Yuma in California. The following year, he was ordered to the Washington Territory, assigned to Fort Vancouver, he secured a leave of absence and returned home to Kentucky. When the Civil War began in April 1861, Lyon was promoted to first lieutenant, his sympathies were with the Confederacy and he resigned from the United States Army.
He raised Company F, 3rd Kentucky Infantry, which became part of the 1st Kentucky Artillery. Lyon equipped the unit, which initially was known as Lyons Battery, in January 1862 Lyon was promoted to lieutenant colonel of the 8th Kentucky Infantry and exercised command in the absence of the colonel. Lyons regiment was part of the garrison of Fort Donelson, after fighting off three attacks by the Union Army, the fort finally surrendered to Ulysses S. Grant. Lyon was sent as a prisoner of war, first to Camp Morton, at Indianapolis and to Camp Chase, Ohio. He and other captured officers were sent taken to Fort Warren and his regiment was soon reorganized as the 8th Kentucky, now re-enlisted for three years, with Lyon appointed as its colonel. He fought in the forces of Earl Van Dorn and John C and he and 250 of his men managed to avoid surrendering to Grant, and Lyon led them to Jackson, where they joined the Confederate forces there. Later, Braxton Bragg appointed Lyon as commander of two regiments of cavalry under Joseph Wheeler, and he served under James Longstreet during the Siege of Knoxville.
Following the Third Battle of Chattanooga, Lyon was placed in charge of Braggs artillery, Lyon returned to commanding cavalry in 1864, this time in Mississippi as a brigadier general under Nathan B. His men burned seven county courthouses that were being used to house Union troops, including those at Princeton, Kentucky Marion and Hopkinsville and he retreated south after the Confederate defeat at the Battle of Nashville to rejoin Forrest in Mississippi. In January 1865, Lyon was surprised while sleeping in a home in Red Hill, Alabama. After he was captured, he shot and killed the Union sergeant who captured him, Arthur Lyon, by asking to retrieve his clothes and grabbing a hidden pistol, escaped in his nightgown