A searchlight is an apparatus that combines an luminous source with a mirrored parabolic reflector to project a powerful beam of light of parallel rays in a particular direction constructed so that it can be swiveled about. The first use of searchlights using carbon arc technology occurred during the Siege of Paris during the Franco-Prussian War; the Royal Navy used searchlights in 1882 to prevent Egyptian forces from manning artillery batteries at Alexandria. That same year, the French and British forces landed troops under searchlights. By 1907 the value of searchlights had become recognized. One recent use was to assist attacks by torpedo boats by dazzling gun crews on the ships being attacked. Other uses included detecting enemy ships at greater distances, as signaling devices, to assist landing parties. Searchlights were used by battleships and other capital vessels to locate attacking torpedo boats and were installed on many coastal artillery batteries for aiding night combat, they saw use in the Russo-Japanese War from 1904–05.
Searchlights were installed on most naval capital ships from the late 19th century through WWII, both for tracking small, close-in targets such as torpedo boats, for engaging enemy units in nighttime gun battles. The Imperial Japanese Navy was known for its intensive development of nighttime naval combat tactics and extensive training; the War in the Pacific saw a number of nocturnal engagements fought by searchlight the Battle of Savo Sound at Guadalcanal. Although searchlights remained in use throughout the war, the newly developed radar proved to be a far more effective locating device, Japanese radar development lagged far behind that of the US. Searchlights were first used in the First World War to create "artificial moonlight" to enhance opportunities for night attacks by reflecting searchlight beams off the bottoms of clouds, a practice which continued in the Second World War; the term "artificial moonlight" was used to distinguish illumination provided by searchlights from that provided by natural moonlight, referred to as "movement light" in night-time manoeuvers.
Searchlights were heavily used in the defense of the UK against German nighttime bombing raids using Zeppelins. Searchlights were used extensively in defense against nighttime bomber raids during the Second World War. Controlled by sound locators and radars, searchlights could track bombers, indicating targets to anti-aircraft guns and night fighters and dazzling crews. Searchlights were used tactically in ground battles. One notable occasion was the Red Army use of searchlights during the Battle of the Seelow Heights in April 1945. 143 searchlights were directed at the German defence force, with the aim of temporarily blinding them during a Soviet offensive, begun with the largest artillery bombardment the world had seen until that point. However, the morning fog diffused the light and silhouetted the attacking Soviet forces, making them visible to the Germans; the Soviets were forced to delay their invasion of the city. Second World War-era searchlights include models manufactured by General Electric and by the Sperry Company.
These were of 60 inch diameter with rhodium plated parabolic mirror, reflecting a carbon arc discharge. Peak output was 800,000,000 candela, it was powered by a 15 kW generator and had an effective beam visibility of 28 to 35 miles in clear low humidity. The searchlight found a niche for use by night fighters and anti-submarine warfare aircraft; the Turbinlite was a powerful searchlight mounted under the wing of an RAF Douglas Boston light bomber, converted into a night fighter to shoot down Luftwaffe night bombers. The aircraft would be directed in the general direction of the enemy by ground-based or metre-wave airborne radar, the pilot would switch on the Turbinlite, illuminating the enemy aircraft, which would be shot down by accompanying RAF day fighters such as the Hawker Hurricane; this never proved successful, as the light made the emitting aircraft a big target for rear gunners, who would have to shoot into the light and be guaranteed to hit something eventually. During the Battle of the North Atlantic, RAF aircraft such as the Vickers Wellington were assigned to patrol for surfaced German U-boats at night, when they would be on the surface, charging their batteries.
A large searchlight called a Leigh light was suspended from the bottom of the wing or fuselage, would be used to illuminate the surfaced U-boat while it was being attacked with bombs and depth charges. The Leigh light was somewhat more successful than the Turbinlite, but in both cases the development of centimeter-wave radar proved to be the far more effective answer. Today, searchlights are used in advertising, fairs and other public events, their use was once common for movie premieres. The world's most powerful searchlight today beams from the top of the pyramid-shaped Luxor Hotel in Las Vegas; the beam concentrates about 13,650,000 lumens from 39 7 kW xenon lamps into its beam of about 9,129,000,000 candela. The brightness emanating from the Luxor lamp room is about twice that which emanates from an equal area of the sun's surface; the Tribute in Light is an art installation that uses two columns of searchlights to represent the former Twin Towers of the World Trade Center in remembrance of the September 11 attacks, produced annually in Lower Manhattan.
Mangin mirror Cathedral of light Tribute in Light M
Malta known as the Republic of Malta, is a Southern European island country consisting of an archipelago in the Mediterranean Sea. It lies 80 km south of Italy, 284 km east of Tunisia, 333 km north of Libya. With a population of about 475,000 over an area of 316 km2, Malta is the world's tenth smallest and fifth most densely populated country, its capital is Valletta, the smallest national capital in the European Union by area at 0.8 km.2 The official languages are Maltese and English, with Maltese recognised as the national language and the only Semitic language in the European Union. Malta has been inhabited since 5900 BC, its location in the centre of the Mediterranean has given it great strategic importance as a naval base, with a succession of powers having contested and ruled the islands, including the Phoenicians and Carthaginians, Greeks, Normans, Knights of St. John and British. Most of these foreign influences have left some sort of mark on the country's ancient culture. Malta became a British colony in 1815, serving as a way station for ships and the headquarters for the British Mediterranean Fleet.
It played an important role in the Allied war effort during the Second World War, was subsequently awarded the George Cross for its bravery in the face of an Axis siege, the George Cross appears on Malta's national flag. The British Parliament passed the Malta Independence Act in 1964, giving Malta independence from the United Kingdom as the State of Malta, with Queen Elizabeth II as its head of state and queen; the country became a republic in 1974. It has been a member state of the Commonwealth of Nations and the United Nations since independence, joined the European Union in 2004. Malta has a long Christian legacy and its Archdiocese is claimed to be an apostolic see because Paul the Apostle was shipwrecked on "Melita", according to Acts of the Apostles, now taken to be Malta. While Catholicism is the official religion in Malta, Article 40 of the Constitution states that "all persons in Malta shall have full freedom of conscience and enjoy the free exercise of their respective mode of religious worship."Malta is a popular tourist destination with its warm climate, numerous recreational areas, architectural and historical monuments, including three UNESCO World Heritage Sites: Hypogeum of Ħal-Saflieni and seven megalithic temples which are some of the oldest free-standing structures in the world.
The origin of the name Malta is uncertain, the modern-day variation is derived from the Maltese language. The most common etymology is that the word Malta is derived from the Greek word μέλι, meli, "honey"; the ancient Greeks called the island Μελίτη meaning "honey-sweet" for Malta's unique production of honey. The Romans called the island Melita, which can be considered either a latinisation of the Greek Μελίτη or the adaptation of the Doric Greek pronunciation of the same word Μελίτα; this spelling is found in the New Testament. Another conjecture suggests that the word Malta comes from the Phoenician word Maleth, "a haven", or'port' in reference to Malta's many bays and coves. Few other etymological mentions appear in classical literature, with the term Malta appearing in its present form in the Antonine Itinerary. Malta has been inhabited from around 5900 BC, since the arrival of settlers from the island of Sicily. A significant prehistoric Neolithic culture marked by Megalithic structures, which date back to c. 3600 BC, existed on the islands, as evidenced by the temples of Mnajdra and others.
The Phoenicians colonised Malta between 800 -- 700 BC, bringing their Semitic culture. They used the islands as an outpost from which they expanded sea explorations and trade in the Mediterranean until their successors, the Carthaginians, were ousted by the Romans in 216 BC with the help of the Maltese inhabitants, under whom Malta became a municipium. After a period of Byzantine rule and a probable sack by the Vandals, the islands were invaded by the Aghlabids in AD 870; the fate of the population after the Arab invasion is unclear but it seems the islands may have been depopulated and were to have been repopulated in the beginning of the second millennium by settlers from Arab-ruled Sicily who spoke Siculo-Arabic. The Muslim rule was ended by the Normans who conquered the island in 1091; the islands were re-Christianised by 1249. The islands were part of the Kingdom of Sicily until 1530, were controlled by the Capetian House of Anjou. In 1530 Charles I of Spain gave the Maltese islands to the Order of Knights of the Hospital of St John of Jerusalem in perpetual lease.
The French under Napoleon took hold of the Maltese islands in 1798, although with the aid of the British the Maltese were able to oust French control two years later. The inhabitants subsequently asked Britain to assume sovereignty over the islands under the conditions laid out in a Declaration of Rights, stating that "his Majesty has no right to cede these Islands to any power...if he chooses to withdraw his protection, abandon his sovereignty, the right of electing another sovereign, or of the governing of these Islands, belongs to us, the inhabitants and aborigines alone, without control." As part of the Treaty of Paris in 1814, Malta became a British colony rejecting an attempted integration with the United Kingdom in 1956. Malta became independent on 21 September 1964. Under its 1964 constitution
Limestone is a carbonate sedimentary rock, composed of the skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral and molluscs. Its major materials are the minerals calcite and aragonite, which are different crystal forms of calcium carbonate. A related rock is dolostone, which contains a high percentage of the mineral dolomite, CaMg2. In fact, in old USGS publications, dolostone was referred to as magnesian limestone, a term now reserved for magnesium-deficient dolostones or magnesium-rich limestones. About 10% of sedimentary rocks are limestones; the solubility of limestone in water and weak acid solutions leads to karst landscapes, in which water erodes the limestone over thousands to millions of years. Most cave systems are through limestone bedrock. Limestone has numerous uses: as a building material, an essential component of concrete, as aggregate for the base of roads, as white pigment or filler in products such as toothpaste or paints, as a chemical feedstock for the production of lime, as a soil conditioner, or as a popular decorative addition to rock gardens.
Like most other sedimentary rocks, most limestone is composed of grains. Most grains in limestone are skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as foraminifera; these organisms secrete shells made of aragonite or calcite, leave these shells behind when they die. Other carbonate grains composing limestones are ooids, peloids and extraclasts. Limestone contains variable amounts of silica in the form of chert or siliceous skeletal fragment, varying amounts of clay and sand carried in by rivers; some limestones do not consist of grains, are formed by the chemical precipitation of calcite or aragonite, i.e. travertine. Secondary calcite may be deposited by supersaturated meteoric waters; this produces speleothems, such as stalactites. Another form taken by calcite is oolitic limestone, which can be recognized by its granular appearance; the primary source of the calcite in limestone is most marine organisms. Some of these organisms can construct mounds of rock building upon past generations. Below about 3,000 meters, water pressure and temperature conditions cause the dissolution of calcite to increase nonlinearly, so limestone does not form in deeper waters.
Limestones may form in lacustrine and evaporite depositional environments. Calcite can be dissolved or precipitated by groundwater, depending on several factors, including the water temperature, pH, dissolved ion concentrations. Calcite exhibits an unusual characteristic called retrograde solubility, in which it becomes less soluble in water as the temperature increases. Impurities will cause limestones to exhibit different colors with weathered surfaces. Limestone may be crystalline, granular, or massive, depending on the method of formation. Crystals of calcite, dolomite or barite may line small cavities in the rock; when conditions are right for precipitation, calcite forms mineral coatings that cement the existing rock grains together, or it can fill fractures. Travertine is a banded, compact variety of limestone formed along streams where there are waterfalls and around hot or cold springs. Calcium carbonate is deposited where evaporation of the water leaves a solution supersaturated with the chemical constituents of calcite.
Tufa, a porous or cellular variety of travertine, is found near waterfalls. Coquina is a poorly consolidated limestone composed of pieces of coral or shells. During regional metamorphism that occurs during the mountain building process, limestone recrystallizes into marble. Limestone is a parent material of Mollisol soil group. Two major classification schemes, the Folk and the Dunham, are used for identifying the types of carbonate rocks collectively known as limestone. Robert L. Folk developed a classification system that places primary emphasis on the detailed composition of grains and interstitial material in carbonate rocks. Based on composition, there are three main components: allochems and cement; the Folk system uses two-part names. It is helpful to have a petrographic microscope when using the Folk scheme, because it is easier to determine the components present in each sample; the Dunham scheme focuses on depositional textures. Each name is based upon the texture of the grains. Robert J. Dunham published his system for limestone in 1962.
Dunham divides the rocks into four main groups based on relative proportions of coarser clastic particles. Dunham names are for rock families, his efforts deal with the question of whether or not the grains were in mutual contact, therefore self-supporting, or whether the rock is characterized by the presence of frame builders and algal mats. Unlike the Folk scheme, Dunham deals with the original porosity of the rock; the Dunham scheme is more useful for hand samples because it is based on texture, not the grains in the sample. A revised classification was proposed by Wright, it adds some diagenetic patterns and can be summarized as follows: See: Carbonate platform About 10% of all sedimentary rocks are limestones. Limestone is soluble in acid, therefore forms many erosional landforms; these include limestone pavements, pot holes, cenotes and gorges. Such erosion landscapes are known
Saint George's Tower
Saint George's Tower is a small watchtower in St. Julian's, Malta, it is one of the Lascaris towers. Today, it is located in the grounds of a hotel. Saint George's Tower is located at St. George's Bay, St. Julian's, its site was occupied by a medieval watch post. The tower remained in use during the British period but was converted to a Fire Control Station once Fort Pembroke was built; the tower served as a radio communications post in World War II. The tower appears in a 1916 painting with the British additions, it was listed by MEPA as a Grade I National Monument in 1995, in 1997 the fire control tower added by the British was demolished, which restored the tower to its original state. The tower is now incorporated within the grounds of the Corinthia Hotel St George's Bay. Lascaris towers List of monuments in St. Julian's National Inventory of the Cultural Property of the Maltese Islands
Madliena is an area in Swieqi, Malta part of the adjacent town of Għargħur. It takes its name from a chapel dedicated to St. Mary Magdalene, built in the area in 1490. Madliena was known as Ħal Samudi in Medieval times, is listed as such together with Għargħur in documents of the time; the chapel was used as a watch post by Maltese insurgents during the French blockade of 1798–1800. It was demolished by the British military in 1880 to make way for Fort Madalena, one of the forts of the Victoria Lines. A new chapel was built nearby to replace the one demolished. While up to the 1960s it was a rural area home to a number of farms, nowadays Madliena is a residential area, it is home to many villas, luxury apartments and maisonettes, it is close to the tourist area of St. Paul's Bay and Malta's main entertainment district of St. Julian's. A 17th-century tower known as the Madliena Tower is located on the coastline close to Madliena, although it falls within the limits of Pembroke not Swieqi; the red letter "M" on the coat of arms of Swieqi represents Madliena.
Church of St Mary Magdalene, Valletta St. Mary Magdalene Chapel, Dingli
Fort Pembroke is a polygonal fort in Pembroke, Malta. It was built between 1878 by the British to defend part of the Victoria Lines; the fort now houses the Verdala International School. Fort Pembroke was built by the British to defend the Grand Harbour as well as part of the Victoria Lines; the building of the fort was proposed in a defence committee recommendation in 1873, construction started on 24 January 1875 and was finished in December 1878. The fort has an elongated hexagonal shape, surrounded by glacis, it casemated garrison quarters. It was armed with three RML 11 inch 25 ton guns and one 64-pounder gun, which were mounted en barbette. By the mid-1890s, the fort's armament became obsolete, instead of upgrading the armaments, the nearby Pembroke Battery was built; the fort became an ammunition storage area for small arms ammunition. Its gate was widened and a fixed metal bridge replaced the original rolling bridge. In World War II, the fort was used as housing German prisoners; the British military establishments in Pembroke were closed in 1978 and the fort remained unused for nine years until 1987.
Verdala International School moved into the fort in 1987. Since the school has grown from 110 to 400 students. Due to this increase, the school has expanded to include some barrack blocks close to the fort; the campus is leased by the government to the school until the year 2072. The fort was scheduled by the Malta Environment and Planning Authority as a Grade 1 national monument in 1996; the protection status was revised to include the surviving glacis of the fort in 2009
Qawra Tower known as Qawra Point Tower or Fra Ben Tower, is a small watchtower in Qawra, limits of St. Paul's Bay, Malta, it was completed in 1638 as the fourth of the Lascaris towers. An artillery battery was built around the tower in 1715. Today, the battery are a restaurant. Qawra Tower was built in 1638 near the tip of Qawra Point, commanding the entrance to St. Paul's Bay to the west and Salina Bay to the east, it was built near the site of a medieval watch post. Since 1659, it has Għallis Tower in its line of sight; this linked Qawra Tower with the De Redin towers. The tower's design is similar to the other Lascaris towers, with two floors each having a single room. Access to the upper floor was by a wooden ladder or scala di corda. In 1715, a semi-circular gun battery was built around the seaward side of the tower; the battery had a low parapet, with guns being mounted en barbette. There were two blockhouses. Both the blockhouses and the redan were pierced with musketry loopholes. An entrenchment wall was built close to the tower and battery in the 1760s, parts of it can still be seen.
The tower was included on the Antiquities List of 1925. Before World War II, the battery was fitted with two concrete gun emplacements. A pillbox was built nearby. Today, the tower is a restaurant, while the altered battery serves as a swimming pool; the tower is dilapidated, having been plastered with cement at some time, now flaking away, has had water tanks and rough additional brickwork added to its roof. The Fougasses of Malta / M. B. H. Ritchie. AM. 65 National Inventory of the Cultural Property of the Maltese Islands