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Magadha

Magadha was an ancient Indian kingdom in southern Bihar, was counted as one of the sixteen Mahajanapadas,'Great Countries' of ancient India. Magadha played an important role in the development of Jainism and Buddhism, two of India's greatest empires, the Maurya Empire and Gupta Empire, originated in Magadha; the Mauryan Empire and Gupta Empire, both of which originated in Magadha, saw advancements in ancient India's science, astronomy and philosophy and were considered the Golden Age of India. The Magadh kingdom included republican communities such as the community of Rajkmura. Villages had their own assemblies under their local chiefs called Gramakas, their administrations were divided into executive and military functions. The kingdom of the Magadh, before its expansion, corresponded to the modern districts of Patna, Nalanda, Arwal Nawada and Gaya in southern Bihar, it was bounded on the north by the river Ganges, on the east by the river Champa, on the south by the Chota Nagpur Plateau, on the west by the Son River.

This region of Greater Magadha had a belief system of its own that predated Hinduism. Much of the second urbanisation took place here from c. 500 BCE onwards and it was here that Jainism became strong and Buddhism arose. The importance of Magadha's culture can be seen in that Buddhism and Hinduism adopted some of its features, most a belief in rebirth and karmic retribution. Kikata was an ancient kingdom in, it is believed that they were the forefathers of Magadhas because Kikata is used as synonym for Magadha in the texts. It lay to the south of Magadha Kingdom in a hilly landscape. A section in the Rigveda refers to the Kīkaṭa, a tribe which most scholars have placed in Bihar such as Weber and Zimmer while some scholars such as Oldenburg and Hillebrandt dispute that. According to Puranic literature Kikata is placed near Gaya, it is described as extending from Caran-adri to Rajgir. Some scholar such as A. N. Chandra place Kikata in a hilly part of Indus valley based on argument that countries between magadh and indus valley are not mentioned such as kuru, kosala etc.

Kikatas were said to be Anarya or non vedic people who didn't practice vedic rituals like soma, According to Sayana, Kikatas didn't perform worship, were infidels and nastikas. The leader of Kikatas has been called a usurer, it is unclear whether Kikatas were present in Magadh during rigvedic period or they migrated there later. Like Rigveda attributes of Kikatas, Atharvaveda speaks about south eastern tribes like Magadhas and Angas as hostile tribe who lived on the borders of Brahmanical India. Bhagvata Purana mentions about the birth of Buddha among Kikatas; the existence of Magadha is recorded in Vedic texts much earlier in time than 600 BCE. The earliest reference to the Magadha people occurs in the Atharvaveda, where they are found listed along with the Angas and Mujavats; the core of the kingdom was the area of Bihar south of the Ganges. Rajagriha was known as'Girivrijja' and came to be known as so during the reign of Ajatashatru. Magadha expanded to include most of Bihar and Bengal with the conquest of Vajji confederation and Anga, respectively.

The kingdom of Magadha came to encompass Bihar, Orissa, West Bengal, eastern Uttar Pradesh, the areas that are today the nations of Bangladesh and Nepal. The ancient kingdom of Magadha is mentioned in Jain and Buddhist texts, it is mentioned in the Ramayana, the Mahabharata and the Puranas. There is little certain information available on the early rulers of Magadha; the most important sources are the Jain Agamas and the Hindu Puranas. Based on these sources, it appears that Magadha was ruled by the Haryanka dynasty for some 200 years, c. 543 to 413 BCE. Gautama Buddha, the founder of Buddhism, lived much of his life in the kingdom of Magadha, he attained enlightenment in Bodh Gaya, gave his first sermon in Sarnath and the first Buddhist council was held in Rajgriha. The Hindu Mahabharata calls Brihadratha the first ruler of Magadha. King Bimbisara of the Haryanka dynasty led an active and expansive policy, conquering the Kingdom of Anga in what is now West Bengal. King Bimbisara was killed by Prince Ajatashatru.

King Pasenadi, king of neighbouring Kosala and brother-in-law of King Bimbisara, promptly retook the gift of the Kashi province. Accounts differ as to the cause of King Ajatashatru's war with the Licchavi, an area north of the river Ganges, it appears that Ajatashatru sent a minister to the area who worked for three years to undermine the unity of the Licchavis. To launch his attack across the Ganges River, Ajatashatru built a fort at the town of Pataliputra. Torn by disagreements the Licchavis fought with Ajatashatru, it took fifteen years for Ajatashatru to defeat them. Jain texts tell how Ajatashatru used two new weapons: a catapult, a covered chariot with swinging mace, compared to a modern tank. Pataliputra began to grow as a centre of commerce and became the capital of Magadha after Ajatashatru's death; the Haryanka dynasty was overthrown by the Shishunaga dynasty. The last Shishunaga ruler, was assassinated by Mahapadma Nanda in 345 BCE, the first of the so-called "Nine Nandas", i. e. Mahapadma and his eight sons.

In 326 BCE, the army of Alexander approached the western boundaries of Magadha. The army and frightened at the prospect of facing another giant Indian army at the Ganges, mutinied at the Hyphasis and refused to march further east. A

List of villages in Vestland

This is a list of villages in Vestland, a county of Norway. The rows highlighted in blue represent the administrative centers of the municipality; the list excludes cities located in Sogn og Fjordane. For other counties, see the lists of villages in Norway Statens kartverk. Kunnskapsforlagets store Norgesatlas. Oslo, Norway: Kunnskapsforlaget. ISBN 978-82-573-0746-2. "Directory of Cities and Towns in Sogn og Fjordane Fylke, Norway". Global Gazetteer Version 2.1. Falling Rain Genomics, Inc. 2004. Retrieved 29 May 2006. "Directory of Cities and Towns in Hordaland Fylke, Norway". Global Gazetteer Version 2.1. Falling Rain Genomics, Inc. 2004. Retrieved 29 July 2006. "Urban settlements. Population and area, by municipality". Statistics Norway. 1 January 2005. Statens kartverk. "Map service". Retrieved 29 May 2006. Støverud, Henning. "Postal code search". Archived from the original on 29 November 2002. Retrieved 17 March 2006. "Kart over tettsteder og sentrumsområder". Statistics Norway. 1 January 2005

Rukku Nahar

Rukku Nahar is an English actress, known for her roles as Selina Khan on the CBBC series Wolfblood and Habiba Ahmed on the BBC soap opera EastEnders. Rukku Nahar was born on 28 February 1996 in England, she is of Punjabi descent. Whilst growing up, Nahar attended Hastingsbury Upper School, trained at the Identity School of Acting. In 2014, Nahar made her professional acting debut in an episode of the YouTube comedy series Corner Shop Show, as Meena. In 2016, she began portraying the role of Selina Khan in the CBBC drama series Wolfblood, a role she played for two series. In 2016, she appeared in an episode of the BBC medical drama Casualty. In 2017, she made her film debut in the adventure film. In 2018, Nahar made an appearance as Rana Khan; that year, she starred in nine episodes of the Channel 4 soap opera Hollyoaks, as Asha Kaur. In February 2019, Nahar began appearing in the BBC soap opera EastEnders as Habiba Ahmed. Rukku Nahar on IMDb Rukku Nahar on Twitter