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Magdeburg

Magdeburg is the capital city and the second largest city of the state of Saxony-Anhalt, Germany. It is situated on the Elbe River. Otto I, the first Holy Roman Emperor and founder of the archbishopric of Magdeburg, was buried in the town's cathedral after his death. Magdeburg's version of German town law, known as Magdeburg rights, spread throughout Central and Eastern Europe; until 1631, Magdeburg was one of the largest and most prosperous German cities and a notable member of the Hanseatic League. Magdeburg has been destroyed twice in its history; the Catholic League sacked Magdeburg in 1631, resulting in the death of 25,000 non-combatants, the largest loss of the Thirty Years' War. Allies bombed the city in 1945. Magdeburg is the site of two universities, the Otto-von-Guericke University and the Magdeburg-Stendal University of Applied Sciences. Magdeburg is situated on autobahn route 2, hence is at the connection point of the East with the West of Europe, as well as the North and South of Germany.

As a modern manufacturing center, the production of chemical products, steel and textiles are of particular economic significance, along with mechanical engineering and plant engineering and life-cycle management, health management and logistics. In 2005 Magdeburg celebrated its 1200th anniversary. In June 2013 Magdeburg was hit by record breaking flooding. Founded by Charlemagne in 805 as Magadoburg, the town was fortified in 919 by King Henry the Fowler against the Magyars and Slavs. In 929 King Otto I granted the city to his English-born wife Edith as dower. Queen Edith loved the town and resided there. In 937, Magdeburg was the seat of a royal assembly. Otto I visited Magdeburg and was buried in the cathedral, he granted the abbey the right to income from various tithes and to corvée labour from the surrounding countryside. The Archbishopric of Magdeburg was founded in 968 at the synod of Ravenna; the archbishopric under Adalbert included the bishoprics of Havelberg, Merseburg and Naumburg-Zeitz.

The archbishops played a prominent role in the German colonisation of the Slavic lands east of the Elbe river. In 1035 Magdeburg received a patent giving the city the right to hold trade exhibitions and conventions, which form the basis of the family of city laws known as the Magdeburg rights; these laws were modified throughout Central and Eastern Europe. Visitors from many countries began to trade with Magdeburg. In the 13th century, Magdeburg became a member of the Hanseatic League. With more than 20,000 inhabitants Magdeburg was one of the largest cities in the Holy Roman Empire; the town had active maritime commerce on the west, with the countries of the North Sea, maintained traffic and communication with the interior. The citizens struggled against the archbishop, becoming nearly independent from him by the end of the 15th century. Around Easter 1497, the twelve-year-old Martin Luther attended school in Magdeburg, where he was exposed to the teachings of the Brethren of the Common Life.

In 1524, he was called to Magdeburg, where he preached and caused the city's defection from Roman Catholicism. The Protestant Reformation had found adherents in the city, where Luther had been a schoolboy. Emperor Charles V outlawed the unruly town, which had joined the League of Torgau and the Schmalkaldic League; as it had not accepted the Augsburg Interim decree, the city, by the emperor's commands, was besieged by Maurice, Elector of Saxony, but it retained its independence. The rule of the archbishop was replaced by that of various administrators belonging to Protestant dynasties. In the following years, Magdeburg gained a reputation as a stronghold of Protestantism and became the first major city to publish the writings of Martin Luther. In Magdeburg, Matthias Flacius and his companions wrote their anti-Catholic pamphlets and the Magdeburg Centuries, in which they argued that the Roman Catholic Church had become the kingdom of the Antichrist. In 1631, during the Thirty Years' War, imperial troops under Johann Tserclaes, Count of Tilly, stormed the city and massacred the inhabitants, killing about 20,000 and burning the town.

The city had withstood the first siege in 1629 by Albrecht von Wallenstein, a Protestant convert to Catholicism. After the war, a population of only 4,000 remained. Under the Peace of Westphalia, Magdeburg was to be assigned to Brandenburg-Prussia after the death of the administrator August of Saxe-Weissenfels, as the semi-autonomous Duchy of Magdeburg; this occurred in 1680. In the course of the Napoleonic Wars, the fortress surrendered to French troops in 1806; the city was annexed to the French-controlled Kingdom of Westphalia in the 1807 Treaty of Tilsit. King Jérôme appointed Count Heinrich von Blumenthal as mayor. In 1815, after the Napoleonic Wars, Magdeburg was made the capital of the new Prussian Province of Saxony. In 1912, the old fortress was dismantled, in 1908, the municipality Rothensee became part of Magdeburg. Magdeburg was bombed by British and American air forces during the Second World War; the RAF bombing raid on the night of 16 January 1945, destroyed much of the city. The death toll is estimated at 2,000–2,500.

Near the end of World War II, the city of about 340,000 became capital of the Province of Magdeburg. Brabag's Magdeburg/Rothensee plant that produced synthetic oil from

Edward John Carnell

Edward John Carnell was a prominent Christian theologian and apologist, was an ordained Baptist pastor, served as President of Fuller Theological Seminary in Pasadena, California. He was the author of nine major books, several of which attempted to develop a fresh outlook in Christian apologetics, he wrote essays that were published in several other books, was a contributor of articles to periodicals such as The Christian Century and Christianity Today. Carnell was born in Antigo, Wisconsin on June 28, 1919, was the third of four children born to Herbert Carnell and Fannie Carstens, he was married to a school teacher from Wisconsin. Carnell began his tertiary education at Wheaton College, where he majored in philosophy and received his B. A. degree. His philosophical mentor at Wheaton was the Calvinist apologist Gordon Clark. Carnell commenced theological studies at Westminster Theological Seminary where he was awarded the Th. B and Th. M degrees. John Murray and Cornelius Van Til were two of his lecturers.

He proceeded to doctoral studies in history and the philosophy of religion at Harvard Divinity School. During his candidacy at Harvard, Carnell enrolled as a doctoral candidate in philosophy at Boston University under the tutelage of Edgar S. Brightman. Carnell's theological dissertation at Harvard was on Reinhold Niebuhr, while his philosophical dissertation at Boston was on Søren Kierkegaard. During the period of his doctoral studies, Carnell composed a work in Christian apologetics that he submitted to William Eerdmans in a competition for the Evangelical Book Award. Carnell's manuscript won the five thousand dollar prize, which in 1948 was a considerable sum of money, it was hailed in Evangelical circles as a masterly new work in apologetics, established a reputation for Carnell as a brilliant young and rising theologian. The book, released as An Introduction to Christian Apologetics, reflected the apologetic influences of his mentors Gordon Clark and Cornelius Van Til, the philosophical influence of Edgar Sheffield Brightman.

In the book he sought to show that Christian faith was systematically logical and rationally satisfying as it best fitted the facts as an explanation for the human condition. His apologetic gambits dealt with topics such as Biblical criticism, the problem of miracles and the existential problem of soul-sorrow in an effort to show that Christianity offers a coherent view of reality. In many respects his apologetic approach represented an attempt at combining the deductive rationalist and presuppositionalist methods of Clark and Van Til, with a test for truth he called "systematic consistency". Analysts of Evangelical apologetics have dubbed his apologetic method as either a "combinationalist" or "verificational" approach. Irving Hexham has noted in his survey of apologetic responses to New Age spirituality that Carnell's approach had some influence on the way in which Francis Schaeffer developed his apologetic writings. Hexham states, "Another source for Schaeffer's ideas was the evangelical philosopher E. J. Carnell, although Schaeffer was reluctant to admit this unless directly asked.".

Carnell's second apologetic text, A Philosophy of the Christian Religion, explored questions of value that are and existentially satisfying. This study is technically known as axiology. Two further apologetic works Christian Commitment and The Kingdom of Love and the Pride of Life delved into subjective issues of introspective meaning. Both texts reflected his deep appreciation of the work of Søren Kierkegaard. Carnell emphasised the meaning of authentic discipleship and commitment to the way of Christ as grounded in God's love. After graduating from Harvard, Carnell joined the faculty of the founded Fuller Seminary. Carnell was attracted to this seminary as it was part of an emerging movement of reform within Protestant Fundamentalism; the background to this new movement of reform lies in the nineteenth century and the early twentieth century. In the nineteenth century Evangelicalism had been the major expression of Protestant theology and church life in North America. Towards the end of that century a major division occurred in Protestant thought in Europe and America that transcended denominational affiliations.

The division comprised two broad camps: Liberal Christianity and Evangelical Christianity. The tensions between these two camps arose over developments in Enlightenment based philosophy where theistic or supernatural explanations of reality were brought into question; the questioning of theism was not confined to abstract concerns in philosophy, but developed as modern historical consciousness dawned. This new historical consciousness was presaged in the seventeenth century controversies of Deism where Biblical miracles, Christ's resurrection, were called into doubt. Alongside the debates about miracles came new conjectures about the authorship of the Biblical books, investigations into possible sub-documents and written sources undergirding the present biblical texts. A further element of controversy for Christians at that time arose in the wake of the theory of evolution as propounded in 1859 by Charles Darwin; the Genesis narratives of the creation and Noah's Flood were brought into doubt, the science versus religion debates accelerated.

Those in the Liberal camp sought to reconcile their faith and theology in light of the modern historical consciousness and evolutionary thought. Some within the Liberal camp began to redefine the message of Christ in light of socialist criticism, the Social Gospel develope

Westridge School (Pasadena, California)

Westridge School is an independent day school for girls in grades 4-12. Founded in 1913, Westridge is located in California. Westridge founder Mary Lowther Ranney moved to Pasadena in 1904. A trained architect and educator, she had graduated from Kemper Hall Academy in Kenosha, attended classes at the newly established University of Chicago, taught at the University School for Girls in Chicago. Soon after arriving in Pasadena, Ranney's family purchased a lot at 440 Arroyo Terrace, where they would build a house designed by Ranney herself. Ranney worked for many years with the Greene and Greene architectural firm, taught in Pasadena. Before long, two Pasadena mothers—Margaret Brackenridge and Alexander Duer—began planning a school for girls near the Arroyo Seco, Ranney was their choice of headmistress. From day one, Ranney intended for Westridge to be a school that prepared girls for college—a novel idea in 1913, when most girls did not attend college. Enrollment exceeded expectations. Ranney intended for Westridge to be located at the home she shared with her parents on State Street, but as a result of the overwhelming registration of 21 students during the summer of 1913, the Ranneys acquired a larger house on Madeline Drive and opened the doors of Westridge.

Today, the Westridge campus provides an idyllic park-like setting in a residential neighborhood. The campus is distinguished not only by its welcoming beauty, but by an unusually rich architectural heritage; the main building, designed by Marston, VanPelt & Maybury and built in 1923 on the site of the original school, houses classrooms, administrative offices, one of the school's four technology centers. The Burgess Exhibition Gallery in the main hall features student art exhibits throughout the year. Herrick Quadrangle, behind the main building, is bordered with both historic and contemporary architecture. Adjoining the main building are the Joan Irvine Smith'36 Academic Research Center and Braun Music Center, home to the Howard S. Swan Choral Hall; the Braun Music Center was designed in 1909 by architect Frederick L. Roehrig known for designing the Green Hotel and the Tournament of Roses House in Pasadena, as a private gymnasium and theatre for a family living on Orange Grove Boulevard. In 1958, Westridge parent Henry Dreyfuss added a larger and more functional stage to Braun Music Center.

Three other significant buildings on the Quad were designed by Pasadena architect Whitney R. Smith: the Seeley G. Mudd Science Building, with three equipped Upper School laboratories and a computer technology center, the Laurie and Susan Frank Art Studio and the Hoffman Gymnasium; the Richard N. Frank Athletic Field and Ranney Lawn provide recreational spaces for all grades. In 1997, the school began a building program to enable the campus to better serve the needs of Westridge students and the space demands of an expanded, modern curriculum. Pica & Sullivan Architects designed the Marjorie May Braun'36 Science Building and the Karsh Family Science Garden that contain science classrooms and outdoor study spaces designed for Lower and Middle School students. In April 2000, Westridge dedicated James F. Rothenberg Humanities Center; the three-building complex designed by Pica & Sullivan Architects, contains humanities classrooms and faculty offices, Upper School art studios and photography labs and photography exhibition space, the school's largest technology lab, the Herrick Commons dining room.

In 2004, Westridge unified the south campuses with the creation of Madeline Court. The following year brought the addition of the Rokus Athletic Complex where Tiger soccer and softball teams host games on new regulation fields. Dance is taught in Brown Studio and athletes take advantage of the Studenmund weight-training room. In 2005, the Fran Norris Scoble Performing Arts Center opened; the facility includes a 600-seat auditorium, the Wagener Black Box Theater and the Seiter Family Amphitheater. The oldest and most architecturally significant building sits on the southeast corner of the campus. Pitcairn House, built in 1906 by the architectural firm of Greene and Greene, is a classic example of the California Bungalow style and is pictured in books on the architecture of that period. Pitcairn House is the location of the school's business and advancement offices, it was the location of the art department. Elizabeth J. McGregor became the school's 11th head of school on July 1, 2008. There are two academic division directors on the administrative team: a director of Upper School and a director of Lower & Middle School.

Westridge has 75 faculty members, more than half of them have over ten years of teaching experience. Two-thirds of Westridge faculty hold advanced degrees; the college counseling office is staffed by four counselors. Westridge has seen a number of traditions go throughout its century of existence; some of the most beloved are: All School Day. All School Day is a day that occurs in the spring during which the Associated Student Body organizes activities, a movie for the entire school to relax and have fun; the day's theme is announced at a special assembly that morning. Previous themes have been "Disneyridge," "All Around the World," "British Invasion," and "Time Warp Westridge." Greek and Roman. At the beginning of each school year, all new students and staff are initiated in Westridge’s longstanding tradition of either becoming a Greek or a Roman. If a relation of a student attended the school earlier, the student will be placed in whichever group her relation wa