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Magdeburg rights

Magdeburg rights were a set of town privileges first developed by Otto I, Holy Roman Emperor and based on the Flemish law, which regulated the degree of internal autonomy within cities and villages granted by the local ruler. Named after the German city of Magdeburg, these town charters were the most important set of medieval laws in Central Europe, they became the basis for the German town laws developed during many centuries in the Holy Roman Empire. The Magdeburg rights were adopted and adapted by numerous monarchs, including the rulers of Bohemia and Poland, a milestone in the urbanization of the region which prompted the development of thousands of villages and cities; as with most medieval city laws, the rights were targeted at regulating trade to the benefit of the local merchants and artisans, who formed the most important part of the population of many such cities. In medieval Poland, Jews were invited along with German merchants to settle in cities as part of the royal city development policy.

Jews and Germans were sometimes competitors in those cities. Jews lived under privileges that they negotiated with the king or emperor, they were not subject to city jurisdiction. These privileges guaranteed that they could maintain communal autonomy, live according to their laws, be subjected directly to the royal jurisdiction in matters concerning Jews and Christians. One of the provisions granted to Jews was that a Jew could not be made Gewährsmann, that is, he could not be compelled to tell from whom he acquired any object, sold or pledged to him and, found in his possession. Other provisions mentioned were a permission to sell meat to Christians, or employ Christian servants. External merchants coming into the city were not allowed to trade on their own, but instead forced to sell the goods they had brought into the city to local traders, if any wished to buy them. Being a member of the Hanseatic League, Magdeburg was one of the most important trade cities, maintaining commerce with the Low countries, the Baltic states, the interior.

Among the most advanced systems of old Germanic law of the time, in the 13th and 14th centuries, Magdeburg rights were granted to more than a hundred cities, in Central Europe apart from Germany, including Schleswig, Poland, Ukraine in Pomerania, the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, Moldavia. In these lands they were known as German or Teutonic law. Since the local tribunal of Magdeburg became the superior court for these towns, together with Lübeck defined the law of northern Germany and Lithuania for centuries, being the heart of the most important "family" of city laws; this role remained until the old Germanic laws were successively replaced with Roman law under the influence of the Reichskammergericht, in the centuries after its establishment during the Imperial Reform of 1495. The Law of Magdeburg implemented in Poland was different from its original German form, it was combined with a set of civil and criminal laws, adjusted to include the urban planning popular across Western Europe –, based on the ancient Roman model.

Polish land owners used the location privilege known as "settlement with German law" across the country with no German settlers present. Meanwhile, the country people ignorant of the actual German text, practiced the old common law of Poland in private relations. Notable Polish and today's Belarus and Ukraine towns governed on the basis of the location privilege known as the "settlement with German law" issued by Polish and Grand Duchy of Lithuania landlords included Biecz, Sandomierz, Kraków, Kurów, Polotsk, Poznań, Ropczyce, Łódź, Wrocław, Szczecin, Złotoryja, Trakai, Hrodna, Lviv, Brody, Volodymyr-Volynskyi, Sniatyn, Nizhyn among many hundreds of others; the advantages were not only economic, but political. Members of noble families were able to join the city patriciate unchallenged. In the medieval Kingdom of Hungary, the first town to receive the Magdeburg rights was Székesfehérvár in 1237, followed by, i.a. Trnava, Levoča and Žilina. Towns and cities including Bardejov, Bratislava and Košice adopted the Southern German Nuremberg town rights, rather than the Magdeburg rights.

German town law Kulm law Lübeck law Danzig law

Escuela Nacional de Bellas Artes (Honduras)

The Escuela Nacional de Bellas Artes is the main centre of education and training of artists in the republic of Honduras. On 15 April 1878, the first antecedent was registered in this field with the establishment of a Drawing School and Paint located in Tegucigalpa; the National Academy of Drawing Claroscuro al Natual was created in 1934, under the direction of Carlos Zúñiga Figueroa, by 1938 the School of Arts and Crafts emerges, in this same year, the section of Artistic Drawing is opened, that suggested the creation of the National School of Fine Arts. The National School of Fine Arts was founded in 1940 by the President of the Republic and General, Tiburcio Carias Andino. Carias Andino awarded the artists Arturo López Rodezno, Maximiliano Ramírez Euceda, Samuel Salgado, Salvador Posadas, since a year before through a government mandate, the creation of a School of Arts; the same year they were located in the arts building of the ENBA, street 6, Avenue 2 and 3, in front of La Libertad park in Comayagüela, Central District.

In its beginnings, the National School of Fine Arts, the students received drawing and sculpture classes. The ENBA is an educational institution that offers specialized services in the visual arts at middle level and non-formal; the ENBA considers itself as a leading institution in the artistic-visual formation in every level of the National Educational System, promoting at the same time the different manifestations of the visual arts and cultures through the activities of teaching and extension. Regarding their policies of cultural, academic growth and support for the teaching-learning process, the following are proposed goals in the short and long term: specify a process of reform that defines the administrative and academic regulations. Establish a mechanism of financial self-management to strengthen the academic process and cultural extension of the institution. To formulate and push a proposal for the creation of a bachelor's degree in the career of Visual Arts with different specialties.

To achieve the construction of a new building that houses the facilities of what will be the New School of Fine Arts and the creation of an interactive-didactic Museum of the visual arts. In 1940, the National School of Fine Arts is created, ascribed to the Ministry of Development and Industry, offering courses and diplomas to the graduates of the sixth grade in the modalities of: drawing, paint, ceramic, wood carving and religious sculpture, studied in five years. In 1953, the school became part of the Ministry of Education. In 1956, the Plan for Bachelors and Professors of Primary Education was created, granting the title of Teacher of Drawing and Modeling, done in two years; this plan of studies disappeared in 1965. In 1966, the Plan of Teacher of Plastic Arts initiated for graduates of the common cycle of General Culture; this modality replaced the one of Teacher of Drawing and Modeling and was extended until the year of 1975. In 1976, the National School of Fine Arts is created by law and that same year, the Master Plan in Plastic Arts is created, that worked until 2005.

In 1980, the bachelor's degree in graphic arts was created. In 1993, the Plastic Arts Plan for baccalaureates began, in place. In 2003, the Bachelor of Science with Orientation in Plastic Education was created within the framework of the Transformation of the National Schools, replacing the above mentioned Master Plan in Plastic Arts; the National School of Fine Arts is an educational public institution of plastic-artistic training of medium level, unique in its genre and academic degree. Depends on the Secretary of Education through the Departmental Direction of Education of Francisco Morazán, the District Direction No. 9. Its curricula was composed of three modalities of study at a diversified level: 1. Bachelor's degree in Plastic Arts. 2. Bachelor's degree in Graphic Arts. 3. Bachelor's degree in Cultural Management. In the framework of the non-formal education it offers the following modalities: 1. Free courses of Artistic Training. 2. Drawing courses and Infantile Painting; this educational center, in its trajectory, has been important in Honduran society because of its contribution to the development of visual arts and national culture.

It has formed more than 90% of the creators and educators of art. The formal academic activity is done through three modalities of study. Bachelor's degree in Plastic Arts: This plan of studies aims to endow its students of the basic and practical theoretical-artistic knowledge that allow them the elaboration of the work of art, aiming that the students become the representative artists of the national plastic arts. In addition to training them as professionals in this field, it prepares them to face their future personal challenges, of participation in society and to opt to higher studies; the aspects on which this plan is based are: aesthetic creativity, plastic artistic promoter, human relations and professional ethics, critical judgement, national identity. Bachelor's degree in Graphic Arts: This plan aims to provide to its students of technical-arti

Have at it, boys

"Have at it, boys" was a quote used by NASCAR to describe the philosophy that the Sprint Cup Series drivers used starting in the 2010 season to solve their disputes on the race track. This practice continued on in the 2012 season. NASCAR fans have jointly accused the people in charge of NASCAR for making racing "too sterile" and "too calm" during the past seasons of its existence. Robin Pemberton said those words during the 2010 pre-season Sprint Media Tour in Concord, North Carolina. Racing without significant penalties for the drivers seemed to be the definition of this catch phrase. People were beginning to follow the sport more thanks to this new "attitude" towards racing competition; the final laps of the 2011 Showtime Southern 500 saw Kyle Busch get tangled up with Kevin Harvick and Clint Bowyer. Many run-ins in the past have involved Jeff Gordon. With the fans' interest at heart and the increased safety of the new car, NASCAR refused to change the way which they policed the racing events.

In this "have-at-it" era of racing, there were clear limits to what drivers can do to each other. "One of the limits is if drivers put each other into danger", Brian France explained in an interview after the Harvick-Busch incident at pit road. This applied to the Ron Hornaday Jr.-Kyle Busch incident at the 2011 WinStar World Casino 350K race. After Busch's one-weekend ban for the incident and after Dan Wheldon's death, the "have at it, boys" era came to an end. NASCAR took this action under rules that allow it to park a driver in order to ensure the "orderly conduct of the event," an action, not appealable. Since the drivers didn't solve this problem amongst themselves, the drivers did not "have at it. NASCAR's action mathematically eliminated Busch from contention for the Sprint Cup in 2011, though any realistic chance of him winning it ended earlier in the Chase

Food Tank

Food Tank: A Food Think Tank, is a 501 non-profit organization founded in 2013 by Danielle Nierenberg, Bernard Pollack, Ellen Gustafson to reform the food system. Its goal is to highlight environmentally and economically sustainable ways of alleviating hunger and poverty. In 2015, Food Tank launched its first Food Tank Summit in Washington, DC. Since Food Tank has been holding a series of summits in various cities, each with a different theme within the food system. Food Tank has hosted summits in Boston, New York City, California and Washington, D. C; these conferences gather dozens of experts across all sectors of the food industry, including business, nonprofit organizations, farmers and chefs. The organization's website is a publishing platform for news about the food industry and system, it provides research and analysis with the goal of building a science-based foundation for changing the food system. Topics covered include sustainable agriculture, climate change, food waste, urban agriculture, policy and organizing.

In 2014, Food Tank partnered with the James Beard Foundation to publish an annual "Good Food Org Guide", a comprehensive directory of nonprofit organizations that are working toward a better food system

Rainer (surname)

Rainer is a German surname. People with the Rainer family name include: Adam Rainer, Austrian dwarf and giant Alfred Rainer, Austrian Nordic combined skier Arnulf Rainer, Austrian painter Dachine Rainer, British poet and anarchist Francisc Rainer, Austrian-born Romanian physician Friedrich Rainer, Austrian National Socialist politician Gerhard Rainer, Austrian bobsledder Luise Rainer, German film actress Margrit Rainer, Swiss actress Marie-Louise Rainer, Italian luger Niklas Rainer, Swedish alpine skier Peter Rainer, German violinist Reinhold Rainer, Italian luger Roland Rainer, Austrian architect Thom S. Rainer, American Christian writer and speaker Wali Rainer, American football player Yvonne Rainer, American choreographer and filmmaker Rainer Rainer


Niki-Khita is a rural locality in Kurchaloyevsky District, Chechnya. Municipally, Niki-Khita is incorporated into Regitinskoye rural settlement, it is one of four settlements included in it. Niki-Khita is located in the upper reaches of the Bokh-Dzhaga River, it is located 11 kilometres south-east of the town of Kurchaloy and 60 kilometres south-east of the city of Grozny. The nearest settlements to Niki-Khita are Avtury in the north-west, Geldagana in the north, the city of Kurchaloy in the north-east, Dzhaglargi in the east, Marzoy-Mokhk and Regita in the south-east, Serzhen-Yurt in the west. In 1944, after the genocide and deportation of the Chechen and Ingush people and the Chechen-Ingush ASSR was abolished, the village of Niki-Khita was renamed and settled by people from the neighboring republic of Dagestan. From 1944 to 1957, it was a part of the Vedensky District of the Dagestan ASSR. In 1958, after the Vaynakh people returned and the Chechen-Ingush ASSR was restored, the village regained its old Chechen name, Niki-Khita.

1990 Census: 318 2002 Census: 320 2010 Census: 657 2019 estimate:? According to the results of the 2010 Census, the majority of residents of Niki-Khita were ethnic Chechens