The Toyota Supra is a sports car and grand tourer manufactured by Toyota Motor Corporation beginning in 1978. The initial four generations of the Supra were produced from 1978 to 2002; as of March 2019, the fifth generation is being produced, but not sold to the public yet. The styling of the Supra was derived from the Toyota Celica. Starting in mid-1986, the A70 Supra became a separate model from the Celica. In turn, Toyota stopped using the prefix Celica and began calling the car Supra. Owing to the similarity and past of the Celica's name, it is mistaken for the Supra, vice versa; the first and third generations of the Supra were assembled at the Tahara plant in Tahara, Aichi while the fourth generation was assembled at the Motomachi plant in Toyota City. The fifth generation Supra is assembled in Austria by Magna Steyr; the Supra traces much of its roots back to the 2000GT owing to an inline-6 layout. The first three generations were offered with a direct descendant to the Crown's and 2000GT's M engine.
Interior aspects were similar, as was the chassis code "A". Along with this name, Toyota included its own logo for the Supra, it is derived from the original Celica logo. This logo was used until January 1986; the new logo was similar in size, with orange writing on a red background, but without the dragon design. That logo, in turn, was on Supras until 1991. In 1998, Toyota ceased sales of the fourth generation of the Supra in the United States and in 2002 Toyota stopped production of the Supra in Japan. In January 2019, the fifth generation of the Supra, co-developed with the BMW Z4, was introduced. Generation names are A40, A60, A70, A80 and J29/DB. A trend started by American owners was to name the cars using Volkswagen Mark terms but this was never adopted by Toyota nor used in any of its publications; the official Toyota names refer to the chassis codes only. Toyota uses the name Mark II to refer to its X chassis platform cars that include the Mark II, Cressida and Cresta models; the Supra has appeared in numerous video games, music videos and TV shows.
Some of the most notable appearances include the Initial D Arcade Stage, Initial D, Gran Turismo, Forza Motorsport, Sega GT, Tokyo Xtreme Racer, Need for Speed, Midnight Club, Wangan Midnight, Forza Horizon and Assoluto Racing video games and The Fast and the Furious film series. The first generation of the Supra was based upon the Toyota Celica liftback, but was longer by 129.5 mm. The doors and rear section were shared with the Celica but the front panels were elongated to accommodate the Inline-6 instead of the Celica's 4-cylinder engine. Toyota's original plan for the Supra at this time was to make it a competitor to the popular Datsun Z-car. In April 1978 Toyota began production of the Supra in Japan, as the Celica XX, sold alongside the Celica at Japanese dealership sales channels called Toyota Corolla Store The Supra was offered with a 92 kW 2.0 L 12-valve SOHC inline-6 engine or the 82 kW 2,563 cc 12-valve SOHC inline-6 engine. The Japanese model was equipped with the smaller 2.0 L engine so that buyers would not incur an additional tax under vehicle size and engine displacement regulations.
Both engines were equipped with electronic fuel injection. The installation of the 2.0 litre engine did obligate Japanese buyers to pay a higher annual road tax, making owning the car more expensive than the smaller Celica. The Supra was first exported outside Japan in January 1979; the export model was equipped with a 82 kW 2,563 cc 12-valve SOHC inline-6 engine. Drive train options for the model were either a 5-speed manual or an optional 4-speed automatic transmission. Both transmissions featured an overdrive gear; the top gear in the 5-speed was its overdrive gear whereas the automatic transmission featured an overdrive gear that would engage at speeds over 56 km/h. The drive train for the Supra retained the T series solid rear axle configuration of the Celica in the Japanese MA45 version and a larger F series in the MA46 and MA47; the car came standard with 4-wheel disc brakes and featured a four-link rear suspension with coil springs, lateral track bar, stabilizer bar. The front suspension consisted of a stabilizer bar.
The interior of the Supra had optional power windows and power locks as part of the convenience package. The convenience package included cruise control and special door trim with door pull straps with an optional sunroof; as for standard features, in the centre console there was an extendable map light and a flip-top armrest, which provided storage. Some other features were the tilt steering wheel, deep zippered pockets on the backs of the front seats, a tonneau cover under the liftback; the dashboard contained a state of the art AM/FM/MPX 4-speaker stereo radio, analog clock, tachometer as part of the instrument panel. The mid 1979, changes for the 1980 model year US model were cosmetic; the interior received a digital quartz clock. On the exterior were redesigned side view mirrors and 14x51⁄2 inch aluminum
The Jaguar I-Pace is a battery-electric crossover SUV produced by British automotive company Jaguar Land Rover under their Jaguar marque. The I-Pace was announced in March 2018, deliveries started in the second half of 2018, it is the first electric SUV from a premium European automaker. On March 4, 2019, the I-Pace won the European Car of the Year award, the first Jaguar to win in the prize's more than 50 year history; the Jaguar I-Pace was designed by Ian Callum. The concept version of the car, described as a five-seater sports car, was unveiled by JLR at the 2016 Los Angeles Motor Show and shown on-road in London in March 2017; the I-Pace is built by contract manufacturer Magna Steyr in Graz and the production version of the I-Pace was revealed in Graz on 1 March 2018. Some of the electric drive technology has come out of the Jaguar I-Type electric Formula E racing car programme, the concentric motors were developed by JLR engineer Dr. Alex Michaelides; the Jaguar I-Pace has an EPA-rated range of 234 miles.
The car has a wade depth of 500 mm. The rear boot holds 720 litres, along with 28 litres of front boot space; the drag coefficient is 0.29. The car has all-wheel drive via two motors powered by a 90kWh LG Chem lithium-ion battery comprising 40% of the car's cost, the battery management system is developed by JLR; each motor delivers 197 hp and 258 lb⋅ft of torque, for a total power of 395 hp and total torque of 516 lb⋅ft. The car is able to sprint from 0-62 mph in 4.8 seconds, to an electronically limited top speed of 124 mph. The battery contains 432 pouch cells, it can charge from 0 to 80 percent in 85 minutes using 50kW DC charging, or 45 minutes using a 100kW charger. Home charging with an AC wall box achieves the same state of charge in 10 hours; as the I-Pace has a single-phase AC charger, it is slow to charge outside fast charge areas. The car comes with a smartphone app which can locate the car, report on its locking and charging status, start it preheating; the app can not switch on rear window heaters.
In its first year, the Jaguar I-Pace received some 55 international awards from automotive industry groups and media publishers in the areas of automotive design, handling/performance, technological innovation, environmental consideration, passenger safety, with half a dozen+ international "Car/SUV of the Year" selections including Germany, United Kingdom, Sweden, Ireland, 2019 European Car of the Year. Arab Wheels "2018 EV of the Year" What Car? 2018 Reader Award - "Most Anticipated Car of 2018" Selected for AutoCar Awards "2018 Game Changer" 2018 Auto Express "Car of the Year" and "Premium EV of the Year" "2018 Car of the Year" by Sunday Times 2019 "German Car of the Year" T3 Technology Awards: "Best Car of 2018" Robb Report "October 2018 Car of the Month" Motor Authority "Best Car to Buy 2019" Finalist "Swiss Car of the Year 2019" Overall Winner - Irish Times "Top 100 Cars of 2019" Overall "Car of the Year" and "Best Alternative Fuel Car" at the 2018 Scottish Car of the Year awards 2019 "Car of the Year" by ExtremeTech "Best Premium Electric Car" - Sunday Express Winner - "European Car of the Year 2019" award Finalist in Motor Trend "SUV of the Year" China's "2019 Green Car of the Year" "2019 Scottish Car of the Year" Green Car Reports "Best Car to Buy 2019" Finalist "Best Car of the Year 2018" by Pocket Lint "Best Luxury Compact SUV 2019" by U.
S. News & World Report ALG's "2019 Residual Value Award" for Electric Category Popular Science "Best of 2018 Innovations" - Grand Award Winner Driving Electric's 2019 "Best Large Electric Car" "Luxury Green Car of the Year" - LA's 14th Annual Green Car Awards "18 Best Rides of 2018" - Chicago Tribune Professional Driver magazine "2018 Car of the Year" "Top 10 Car of the Year" - The National Forbes "Best Car Designs of 2018" Stuff Magazine "Car of the Year 2018" Top Gear magazine "EV of the Year 2018" "Norwegian Car of the Year 2019" CleanTechnica "2019 Car of the Year" Finalist GQ 2019 Car Awards: "Best Electric Car You'd Actually Drive" WhichCar "Style Awards 2019" - Finalist "2019 North American Utility Vehicle of the Year" Runner Up MotorWeek "Best of the Year 2019" "Best Executive UK Car of the Year 2019" CarBuyer "Safest Cars to Buy 2019" "Canada Utility Vehicle of the Year 2019" Finalist - 2019 World Car Awards: "World Green Car", "World Car Design of the Year" AutoWeek Magazine "2019 Quietest Cars on Sale" "2019 UK Car of the Year - Overall Winner" "Canada Green Utility Vehicle of the Year 2019" Best EV - Business Motoring Awards 2019 AutoTrader - Best New Cars for 2019 In December 2018, the European New Car Assessment Programme awarded the Jaguar I-Pace a 5-star safety rating.
In September 2017, Jaguar announced their single-make racing series for the I-Pace, called eTrophy. On August 24, 2018, Jaguar I-Pace set a new EV lap record at Laguna Seca Racetrack In California. In 2018, Eva Green starred in a series of TV advertisements for Jaguar I-Pace as part of a global campaign. In 2018, Waymo selected the Jaguar I-Pace for use in its autonomous ride-hailing service, placing an order for 20,000 vehicles. Official website
The Peugeot RCZ was a sports coupé manufactured by the French car company Peugeot. It was launched in April 2010 and is available in 80 countries as of 2013, but not the US, it was introduced at the Frankfurt Auto Show in 2009 and was announced as the 308 RCZ concept car at the 2007 Frankfurt show. It is assembled by a subsidiary of Magna International. Petrol engines are based on Prince platform. RCZ was developed under code name "T75"; the Peugeot RCZ attained many international awards such as five successive'Best Sports Car' awards from Diesel Car magazine or the Top Gear'2010 Coupe of the Year award'. The 30,000th RCZ came off the assembly line on 21 June 2011; the 50,000th RCZ was built on 14 February 2013 and was painted in Moroccan Red, a new red on the facelifted vehicle. After a production period of six years, the last Peugeot RCZ rolled off the assembly line in the Magna Steyr Graz plant at 18 September 2015; the RCZ was planned as a simple concept car but it received critical acclaim, capturing the imagination of the public and professionals.
Peugeot began production. The car's lines and style have remained close to the original concept so as not to disappoint public opinion, however a series of changes were made to the central dual exhaust system, replaced by a dual exhaust to the left of the rear bumper; the RCZ has double-bubble roof inspired by Zagato. The RCZ is 4.287 m long, 1.845 m wide and 1.359 m in height and a wheelbase of 2.612 m. The RCZ can be specified including features such as electric heated and adjustable seating with driver's memory, leather seats and dashboard and hill assist function. Options include 19-inch alloy wheels and a JBL sound system. An Elan or Sportif Kit option pack can be selected to change the colour finish of the roof, door mirrors and front grille; the RCZ Hybrid4 concept was announced with a 2.0 l HDi FAP 120 kW engine and a 27 kW electric motor connected to a 6-speed electronically controlled gearbox. The predicted fuel consumption was 3.7 litres per 100 kilometres in mixed cycle, emitting 95 g/km of CO2.
In November 2012, Peugeot announced their intention of building a more powerful, performance oriented RCZ. In July 2013, the first official pictures of the car were released; the RCZ R has a turbocharged 1.6l engine capable of producing 270 bhp and 330NM of torque, allowing it a 0-62 time of 5.9 seconds and a top speed limited to 155 mph. It features uprated 380mm Alcon brakes and suspension, a reduced curb weight and a Torsen front differential, like that found on the mk2 Ford Focus RS, to reduce the inevitable torque steer faced by a front-wheel-drive car with this level of power output; the RCZ R went on sale in January 2014 at £31,995. The RCZ Allure is a special edition of the 1.6 THP156 with 6-speed Tiptronic transmission and 18-inch wheels. The Asphalt is limited edition version of the RCZ, it includes 19-inch black and silver alloy wheels, black leather sport seats. The RCZ Brownstone is a limited edition available in Germany in metallic brown paint with silver racing strips. Inside, the special version is in brown, with Cohiba leather and Alcantara trim.
The RCZ Magnetic is available in Britain, with production limited to 170 units. Models are available in pearlescent black with Flame Red leather sports seats or white with black leather sports seats, with matte black roof arches and a black grille, brake calipers and door mirrors, they feature a soft touch leather sports steering wheel and a short shift gear lever. The Peugeot RCZ has been well received, gaining the Top Gear'2010 Coupe of the Year award', three times in a row the Auto Express'Best Coupé of the Year', the Auto Express readers'Special Design Award 2010' and the'Best of the Best' Red Dot Award for its design. From 2010 to 2014, the Peugeot RCZ has been awarded five successive times'Best Sports Car' by Diesel Car magazine, beating off strong opposition from the Mercedes-Benz SLK and others to retain this title undefeated. According to Ian Robertson, editor of DieselCar:'The Peugeot RCZ offers a rewarding driving experience, agile handling and a well sorted ride, frugal diesel power.
It is the icing on the cake for the sexily styled sports coupé'. The Peugeot RCZ has been cited as a return to form for Peugeot's lines of higher performance vehicles. Autocar magazine described the Peugeot RCZ R as'Things look pretty good when you compare it to its rivals, too; the Audi TT is dull to drive and quite aged now, while the Mini Coupé JCW 1.6 is nowhere near as finessed as the Peugeot.'. A modified version of the RCZ is used in the Peugeot RCZ Racing Cup Italy one make race; the car used is known as the RCZ Peugeot Sport, which features an increased power output from 200 to 250 bhp, uprated brakes and an adjustable rear spoiler amongst standard motorsport preparations such as weight reduction and a roll cage. Racing versions of the RCZ have competed in the 24 Hours of Nurburgring, claiming class victories with diesel based variants in 2010 and 2011 and with the RCZ Peugeot Sport in 2012. Official Peugeot page Official UK RCZ website
The Haflinger is a small, four wheel drive, high mobility vehicle about 3.5 m long and 1.5 m wide, powered by a 643 cc flat twin horizontally opposed, rear mounted, air-cooled engine. Weighing around 600 kg, the Haflinger can be lifted by four strong people and yet can carry a load of 500 kg; this truck falls into the category of the light utility vehicle. After WWII, the newly organized Austrian Army was equipped with the surplus US Army Willys MB and Ford GPW Jeep. A decade after hostilities ended, the Austrian Army was considering the retirement of the aging Jeeps in favor of something more contemporary as well as locally designed and produced; the design genius of Erich Ledwinka was utilized by the Austrian firm Steyr-Daimler-Puch to produce and field test prototypes. Its extensive similarities with the larger Tatra all wheel drive trucks are obvious, it has been referred to as'A little Tatra'. Once the production model design was finalized, the trucks were manufactured between 1959 and 1975 and were exported all over the world.
The manufacturer designated the trucks as "Type Multipurpose Passenger Vehicle". A total of 16,647 were made; the majority of the Haflinger trucks entered directly into the hands of private owners around the world with a small number being placed into municipal and fire brigade services. Like its predecessor, the US Army Jeep, Haflinger trucks are at home both on road, they have been licensed for on-road use throughout Europe and South America, Asia and Australia. During their 16-year production run they were sold in Austria and exported to thirty-five other countries; the first trucks to see use in the United States arrived in 1960. In 1983 one was driven from Vermont to California, while Austrian travel journalist Ernst Wiese in his book 10,000 Miles Through Arabia described his four-month return journey from Vienna to the southern tip of the Arabian peninsula, its multi-functional capabilities meant it was described as a car, a truck and the "Austrian Jeep". 7,000 Haflingers were recruited into military service by the Swiss and Australian armies and the Royal Navy.
Small numbers were in use in Katanga and the Democratic Republic of Congo in the 1960s. In Australian Army service the 46 Haflinger vehicles were each equipped with a dedicated trailer unit. Haflinger were allocated to RAEME units where an individual craftsman, like artillery artificers, would use the vehicle to carry tools and other equipment around the field attending to technical servicing of weapons platforms and fighting vehicles. Haflinger, Steyr Puch, is not listed in the table of Australian Army vehicles in Vietnam within the M Cecil book Mud & Dust, but a popular misconception may have occurred because of the US M274 Mechanical Mule which has a similar size and mechanical arrangement and was used to carry munitions and other equipment. Particular features that add to the off-road capability include: Exceptionally low centre of gravity due to the low placement of the chassis and the lack of upper bodywork Generous approach and departure angles The provision of both front and rear differential locks enables the vehicle to make progress if only one wheel is in firm contact with the ground.
The'portal' type design of the front and rear axles means that the centre of the axle is above the centre of the wheel, thus increasing ground clearance under the axle without the need to increase the wheel diameter. Power is transmitted from the axle to the wheel via drop gears in each wheel hub; the suspension is independent, of the swing axle type both front and rear, each half-axle having about 25 cm of free movement. Most enthusiasts are found in Austria, where there are thriving clubs. There are many owners/enthusiasts in the UK, USA, Canada and Asia. One of the more important club meetings is held every year at the village of Hafling in Italy. Haflingers feature in the 1971 Doctor Who story Colony in Space, the location filming for which took place in a clay pit in Cornwall. Steyr subsequently designed and produced a much larger vehicle of similar layout to the Haflinger, called the Pinzgauer, available in both 4x4 and 6x6 versions; the name originates from a horse breed of the same name.
Steyr Puch stood alone and had no input from the Daimler-Benz, i.e. Mercedes-Benz, until well after the production of Haflinger ceased. Steyr Puch was an important light motorcycle manufacturer, their expertise in 4WD attracted Mercedes-Benz and they built the first G Wagens that were intended as an alternative to the military specification Land Rover. When Mercedes invested in Steyr Puch they started building both Mercedes badged vehicles. G Wagens serve in the French Army albeit with Peugeot engines. Under Australian Department of Defence project Land 121 Mercedes-Benz G-Class have been introduced into Australian Army service to replace the ageing Land Rover PerentieNote: The term'G-Wagen' is only used in English-speaking parts of the world, it is called'G-Klasse', similar to the C-, E-, M-, R-, S-Klasse in MB's nomenclature. The links with Fiat were maintained as Steyr Puch made all the 4WD kit for the Panda and may still do to this day; the Haflinger changed little during its years of production, but there are some notable changes and variants along the way: Series 1: original model, 4-speed gearbox Series 2: 5-speed gearbox and a higher output motor Polycab: upper steel bodywork optionally replaced with a enclosed fibreglass cab SchneeWiesel: "Snow Weasel" with tires replaced by tracks for snow/ice operations Swiss Military: Se
Mercedes-Benz SLS AMG
The Mercedes-Benz SLS AMG is a front mid-engine, 2-seater, limited production sports car developed by the Mercedes-AMG division of German automotive manufacturer Mercedes-Benz, with the assistance of David Coulthard. The car, the successor to the Mercedes-Benz SLR McLaren and was described by Mercedes-Benz as a spiritual successor to the Mercedes-Benz 300SL Gullwing because it was inspired by the latter. SLS stands for "Super Leicht Sport"; the SLS was the first Mercedes-Benz automobile designed and built from scratch by AMG. Upon its introduction at the 2009 Frankfurt Motor Show, the SLS AMG's 571 PS M159 engine was according to AMG "the world's most powerful aspirated production series engine" produced. An electric version of the car, the SLS AMG Electric Drive, was presented at the 2012 Paris Motor Show. Production ended in 2014 with the introduction of the SLS AMG GT Final Edition; as compared to its predecessor, the SLS is per Mercedes-AMG head Tobias Moers, the faster car on the track, both in the hands of normal drivers as well as race car drivers.
The Mercedes-McLaren SLR came in at 1,750 kg. The SLS, has a curb weight of 1,619 kg when equipped with the standard wheels; the SLS AMG was designed by Mark Fetherston to be a modern 300SL Gullwing revival from October 2006 to April 2007. The SLS AMG has adapted the feature of doors that swing open upwards on gas struts, must be closed manually as AMG engineers decided against the 41 kg of additional weight that auto-closing systems would have added to the car. In case of a roll-over, the doors can be detached to allow the occupants to leave the vehicle. Although there is some overlapping in price and performance, the lighter SLS AMG is considered more of a sporty track-oriented car, compared to the Mercedes-Benz SL, a grand tourer with its optional V12 engine. Compared to the SLS AMG Roadster, the SL is a hardtop convertible with technological and comfort amenities, it has available heated seats with a massage function; the SLS AMG has been said to be one of the cheapest cars on the market with an unusual door design.
The SLS AMG has won a number of design awards, including the 2010 red dot "best of the best" award, the iF product design award 2010 for the "Transportation Design" category, the Auto Bild Design Award 2010 as "Europe's most attractive car". It is the only automobile to have won the gold Design Award of the Federal Republic of Germany; the SLS AMG was assembled by hand, with its chassis and aluminum body shell produced by Magna Steyr in Graz and transferred to Sindelfingen, Germany for assembly, with its engine being hand built by AMG in Affalterbach, Germany. The SLS AMG was introduced at the 2009 Frankfurt Motor Show, sales commenced in mid-2010 in Europe and in mid-2011 in the United States; the 6.2-litre V8 engine was modified to such an extent that AMG gave it a separate engine code—M159—to signify the more than 120 different modifications done to the engine. AMG SPEEDSHIFT DCT 7-speed dual-clutch semi-automatic transmission is connected to engine through a lightweight carbon fiber driveshaft in a transaxle arrangement.
Selectable driving modes include "C", "S", "S+" or "M". A true manual transmission is not available. All SLS AMG models except the SLS AMG Electric Drive use the DCT, with the Electric Drive using a two single speed transmissions allowing individual distribution of torque to each wheel. Standard brakes are 390 mm and 360 mm cast iron disc brakes with 6-piston aluminium and 4-piston calipers. Optional on the SLS AMG are carbon-ceramic disc brakes. 402 mm discs with 6-piston aluminium calipers and 360 mm discs with 4-piston calipers. These brakes provide increased stopping power with a 40% weight reduction compared to the standard braking system; the fuel consumption of the SLS AMG is around 13 L/100 km combined driving according to. The SLS AMG is capable of accelerating from 0 to 100 km/h in 3.8 seconds, can reach a top speed of 315 km/h. The sports car can perform a quarter mile time of 11.7 seconds at 201 km/h. The SLS AMG achieves a lateral acceleration of 0.99. Improving upon the Mercedes-Benz SLR McLaren, which achieves a 0.97 figure.
In the June 2010 issue of Car and Driver magazine, safety specifications were revealed pertaining to the safety of the SLS AMG's gullwing doors. Ten to fifteen milliseconds after a detected rollover, explosive bolts situated at the top of the door frame fire and bell cranks separate the doors from the car for easy exit during a serious accident. An anti-lock braking system and a 3-stage Electronic stability program are standard equipment; the exterior aluminum body is supplied by Magna Steyr. The SLS and the CL65 AMG 40th Anniversary Edition are the only roadgoing Mercedes-Benz automobiles with the AMG Alubeam Silver exterior paint available, at an extra cost of €11,900 in Germany. Other colours include both metallic and matte colors, such as Designo Magno Kashmir, the matte paint known from the SL63 AMG IWC edition; the SLS AMG has a retractable rear wing which extends at a speed of 120 km/h for stability and handling and acts as an airbrake when braking. The first model introduced in the SLS lineage was the coupé with gull
The automotive industry is a wide range of companies and organizations involved in the design, manufacturing and selling of motor vehicles. It is one of the world's largest economic sectors by revenue; the automotive industry does not include industries dedicated to the maintenance of automobiles following delivery to the end-user, such as automobile repair shops and motor fuel filling stations. The word automotive is from the Greek autos, Latin motivus to refer to any form of self-powered vehicle; this term, as proposed by Elmer Sperry, first came into use with reference to automobiles in 1898. The automotive industry began in the 1860s with hundreds of manufacturers that pioneered the horseless carriage. For many decades, the United States led the world in total automobile production. In 1929, before the Great Depression, the world had 32,028,500 automobiles in use, the U. S. automobile industry produced over 90% of them. At that time the U. S. had one car per 4.87 persons. After World War II, the U.
S. produced about 75 percent of world's auto production. In 1980, the U. S. was overtaken by Japan and became world's leader again in 1994. In 2006, Japan narrowly passed the U. S. in production and held this rank until 2009, when China took the top spot with 13.8 million units. With 19.3 million units manufactured in 2012, China doubled the U. S. production, with 10.3 million units, while Japan was in third place with 9.9 million units. From 1970 over 1998 to 2012, the number of automobile models in the U. S. has grown exponentially. Safety is a state that implies to be protected from any risk, damage or cause of injury. In the automotive industry, safety means that users, operators or manufacturers do not face any risk or danger coming from the motor vehicle or its spare parts. Safety for the automobiles themselves, implies that there is no risk of damage. Safety in the automotive industry is important and therefore regulated. Automobiles and other motor vehicles have to comply with a certain number of norms and regulations, whether local or international, in order to be accepted on the market.
The standard ISO 26262, is considered as one of the best practice framework for achieving automotive functional safety. In case of safety issues, product defect or faulty procedure during the manufacturing of the motor vehicle, the maker can request to return either a batch or the entire production run; this procedure is called product recall. Product recalls happen in every industry and can be production-related or stem from the raw material. Product and operation tests and inspections at different stages of the value chain are made to avoid these product recalls by ensuring end-user security and safety and compliance with the automotive industry requirements. However, the automotive industry is still concerned about product recalls, which cause considerable financial consequences. Around the world, there were about 806 million cars and light trucks on the road in 2007, consuming over 980 billion litres of gasoline and diesel fuel yearly; the automobile is a primary mode of transportation for many developed economies.
The Detroit branch of Boston Consulting Group predicts that, by 2014, one-third of world demand will be in the four BRIC markets. Meanwhile, in the developed countries, the automotive industry has slowed down, it is expected that this trend will continue as the younger generations of people no longer want to own a car anymore, prefer other modes of transport. Other powerful automotive markets are Iran and Indonesia. Emerging auto markets buy more cars than established markets. According to a J. D. Power study, emerging markets accounted for 51 percent of the global light-vehicle sales in 2010; the study, performed in 2010 expected this trend to accelerate. However, more recent reports confirmed the opposite. In the United States, vehicle sales peaked in 2000, at 17.8 million units. The OICA counts over 50 countries which assemble, manufacture or disseminate automobiles. Of that figure, only 13, boldfaced in the list below, possess the capability to design automobiles from the ground up; this is a list of the 15 largest manufacturers by production in 2016.
It is common for automobile manufacturers to hold stakes in other automobile manufacturers. These ownerships can be explored under the detail for the individual companies. Notable current relationships include: Daimler AG holds a 10.0% stake in KAMAZ. Daimler AG holds an 89.29% stake in Mitsubishi Fuso Truck and Bus Corporation. Daimler AG holds a 3.1% in the Renault-Nissan Alliance. Daimler AG holds a 12% stake in Beijing Automotive Group, Daimler AG holds an 85% stake in Master Motors. Dongfeng Motor holds a 12.23% stake and a 19.94% exercisable voting rights in PSA Groupe. FAW Group owns 49% of Haima Automobile. FCA holds a 10% stake in Ferrari. FCA holds a 67% stake in Fiat Automobili Srbija. FCA holds 37.8% of Tofaş with another 37.8% owned by Koç Holding. Fiat Automobili Srbija owns a 54% stake in Zastava Trucks. Fiat Industrial owns a 46% stake in Zastava Trucks. Fujian Motors Group holds a 15% stake in King Long. FMG, Beijing Automotive Group, China Motor, Daimler has a joint venture called Fujian Benz.
FMG, China Motor, Mitsubishi Motors has a joint venture called Soueast, FMG holds a 50% stake, both China Motor and Mitsubishi Motors holds an equal 25% stake. Geely Automobile holds a 23% stake in The London Taxi Company. Geely Automobile holds a 49.9% stake in PROTON Holdings and a 51% stake in Lotus Cars. Geely Holding Group holds a 9.69% stake in Daimle
Fiat Bravo (2007)
The Fiat Bravo is a small family car produced by Italian manufacturer Fiat from 2007 to 2014. It was introduced to the press in January 2007 in Rome, to the public in March at the Geneva Motor Show. A minor facelift was available from 2010, with changes to the front grille, door handles and side mirrors, new colors, as well as interior improvements; the car was launched on 21 April 2007. European production, at the Cassino plant, ended in July 2014, being part of FCA's 5 Year Plan, presented by Sergio Marchionne on 7 May 2014, it was replaced by the Fiat Tipo and the sized Fiat 500X. The Bravo was the first car to bear Fiat Automobiles' current logo, introduced in October 2006, which contains a red background in a chrome frame; the car was designed at Centro Stile Fiat, while Austrian automotive company Magna Steyr engineered a large amount of the car's body. CAD engineering and computer simulations were used on a large scale with this model and the design was finished to a tight schedule. For markets in the EMEA, the Bravo was produced in Fiat's Piedimonte S. Germano plant.
Blue&Me is a new feature, first introduced with the Fiat Grande Punto, was fitted as standard on the Bravo Dynamic and Sport. Developed with Microsoft, this system offers Bluetooth hands free use with a mobile phone, it is capable of displaying SMS text on the dash screen, it has built in voice activation. Another part of the system is the inclusion of a USB connector so that an MP3 player or USB flashcard can be plugged in, giving the car's entertainment system access to MP3 files stored on the unit. In Australia, the Fiat Bravo was sold as the Fiat Ritmo, since Mazda Australia owns rights to the "Bravo" name, it was introduced there in February 2008, however, it was discontinued the following year, due to slow sales, only 463 units were sold in total. The Bravo was built in Brazil from 2010 to 2016, was sold there and throughout South America. In January 2007, What Car? reported that Fiat was working on a station wagon version, speculated to be marketed as the Bravo MultiWagon. Despite being a production ready version of the Bravo, it was never marketed.
Other sources claimed that this was a facelifted of the second generation Fiat Croma, launched in October 2007. The Brazilian built, its available with two engines and three trim levels, the Brazilian-built 1.8L 16V E.torQ fitted with a five speed manual transmission or Dualogic transmission and Italian built 1.4L engine with 152 PS and a six speed manual transmission. Trim levels are named as: Essence, Essence Wolverine Limited Edition, Absolute and T-Jet; the Bravo was powered by three different petrol and three diesel engines.'T-Jet' is the name of the new range of turbocharged petrol engines. Some models of the 150 PS T-Jet version have a Sport button to give an "overboost" function. At the end of 2007, the new 1.6 L Multijet diesel engine was launched, a more powerful 120 PS version in spring 2008. The 105 PS version was available with the so called "Eco" pack which features changes to the car's aerodynamics and ECU, taller gear ratios and lower rolling resistance tyres; this gives lower CO2 emissions when compared to the standard car.
This engine is Euro 5 rated. A new 2.0 Multijet diesel was added to lineup at the end of 2008, that replaced the 1.9 16v. In 2009, the Bravo got a new "eco" 90 PS variant of the Multijet diesel. In June 2010, two petrol engines were updated, the 1.4 T-Jet is fitted with the new Multiair technology, the base 1.4 T-Jet was updated to Euro 5 specification. The Fiat Bravo passed the Euro NCAP car safety tests, with following ratings: Official website