The AN/ARC-164 is a aircraft station that operates in the aeronautical mobile service / B band. It might be found on B-52G/H, B-1B, C/EC/RC-26D, KC-135, C-23, C-130, C-141, F-15, A-10, F-16, UH-1D, CH-47, H-53, H-60 and S-3B aircraft; the ARC-164 is a military UHF AM aircraft station that operates between 225-399.975 MHz and transmits at 10 watts. It features a separate guard receiver for monitoring 243 MHz while monitoring the active channel selected, an ECCM slice capable of storing multiple Word-of-Day patterns for Havequick operation, can serve as a channel selector and audio demodulator for separate UHF DF systems. There are 2 common installations: panel. With a remote installation, the R/T is in a remote location, while the panel installation features an all-in-one R/T and control panel. List of military electronics of the United States Aircraft station, Radiocommunication service Description from manufacturer's site AN/ARC-232, a form-fit-function replacement for the 164, with wider frequency range and more modern ECCM
The Magnavox Odyssey is the first commercial home video game console. It was developed by a small team led by Ralph H. Baer at Sanders Associates and released by Magnavox in the United States in September 1972 and overseas the following year; the Odyssey consists of a white and brown box which connects to a television set, two rectangular controllers attached by wires. It is capable of displaying three square dots on the screen in monochrome black and white, with differing behavior for the dots depending on the game played, with no sound capabilities. Players place plastic overlays on the screen to create visuals, the one or two players for each game control their dots with the three knobs and one button on the controller in accordance with the rules given for the game; the Odyssey console came packaged with dice, paper money, other board game paraphernalia to go along with the games, a peripheral controller—the first video game light gun—was sold separately. The idea for a video game console was thought up by Baer in August 1966, over the next three years he, along with Bill Harrison and Bill Rusch, created seven successive prototype consoles.
The seventh, known as the Brown Box, was shown to several manufacturers before Magnavox agreed to produce it in January 1971. After releasing the console in September 1972 through their dealerships, Magnavox sold between 69,000 and 100,000 units by the end of the year, 350,000 by the time the console was discontinued in 1975; the console spawned the Magnavox Odyssey series of dedicated consoles, as well as the 1978 Magnavox Odyssey². One of the 28 games made for the system, a ping pong game, was an inspiration for Atari's successful Pong arcade game, in turn driving sales of the console. Baer's patents for the system and the games, including what was termed by a judge as "the pioneering patent of the video game art", formed the basis of a series of lawsuits spanning 20 years, earning Sanders and Magnavox over US$100 million; the release of the Odyssey marked the end of the early history of video games, the rise of the commercial video game industry along with the start of the first generation of video game consoles.
The Odyssey consists of a black and brown oblong box connected by wires to two rectangular controllers. The primary console box connects to the television set through an included switchbox, which allows the player to switch the television input between the Odyssey and the regular television input cable, presents itself like a television channel; the controllers, which are designed to sit on a flat surface, contain one button marked Reset on the top of the controller and three knobs: one on the right side of the controller, two on the left with one extending from the other. The reset button does not reset the game, but instead is used by different games to reset individual elements, such as making a player's dot visible after it is turned off during a game; the system can be powered by six C batteries. An optional AC power supply was sold separately; the Odyssey lacks sound capability and can only display monochrome white shapes on a blank black screen. Internally, the Odyssey architecture is composed of digital computing parts.
The circuitry is implemented in diode–transistor logic using discrete transistors and diodes, rather than the newly emerging transistor–transistor logic integrated circuits, due to cost concerns. The games themselves do not use ROM cartridges like consoles, but instead use "game cards" composed of printed circuit boards that plug into the console; these cards modify the internal circuitry like a set of switches or jumpers, causing the Odyssey to display different components and react to inputs differently. Multiple games use the same cards, with different instructions given to the player to change the style of game; the Odyssey is capable of displaying a vertical line on the screen. Two of the dots are controlled by the two players, the third by the system itself; the main console has two dials, one of which moves the vertical line across the screen, one which adjusts the speed of the computer-controlled dot. Different games direct the player to adjust the dials to different positions, for example to change the center line of a tennis game into the side wall of a handball game.
The games include plastic overlays which stick to the television via static cling, to create visuals for the game. Different games that use the same game card can have different overlays, which can change a game with the same controls from, for example, a mountain ski path to a movement-based Simon Says game. In addition to the overlays, the Odyssey came with dice, poker chips, score sheets, play money, game boards much like a traditional board game. One peripheral controller was released for the first video game light gun. Named the Shooting Gallery, the rifle-shaped device registered a hit when pointed at a light source such as a dot on the television screen. Four shooting-based games were included with the light gun. In 1951, while working for military contractor Loral Electronics, engineer Ralph H. Baer was assigned to build a television set. Baer did not pursue the idea. Baer the head of the Equipment Design Division at military contractor Sanders Associates, came up with the concept of using a television to play games, the next morning wrote up a four-page proposal for a US$20 "game box" that would plug into a television screen and play games on it.
While the commercial video game industry did not yet exist at that point, the first electronic computer gam
Ingeniøren is a Danish weekly newspaper specialising in engineering topics. The paper has covered science and technology issues as well as political topics and debate related to engineering since 1892, maintains an online archive of these; the online version began 2 December 1994, as the first Danish internet media. Corresponding publications are Ny Teknik in Sweden, Teknisk Ukeblad in Norway and Technisch Weekblad in the Netherlands. Official website
Video game console
A video game console is a computer device that outputs a video signal or visual image to display a video game that one or more people can play. The term "video game console" is used to distinguish a console machine designed for consumers to use for playing video games, in contrast to arcade machines or home computers. An arcade machine consists of a video game computer, game controller and speakers housed in large chassis. A home computer is a personal computer designed for home use for a variety of purposes, such as bookkeeping, accessing the Internet and playing video games. While arcades and computers are expensive or “technical” devices, video game consoles were designed with affordability and accessibility to the general public in mind. Unlike similar consumer electronics such as music players and movie players, which use industry-wide standard formats, video game consoles use proprietary formats which compete with each other for market share. There are various types of video game consoles, including home video game consoles, handheld game consoles and dedicated consoles.
Although Ralph Baer had built working game consoles by 1966, it was nearly a decade before the Pong game made them commonplace in regular people's living rooms. Through evolution over the 1990s and 2000s, game consoles have expanded to offer additional functions such as CD players, DVD players, Blu-ray disc players, web browsers, set-top boxes and more; the first video games appeared in the 1960s. They were played on massive computers connected to vector displays, not analog televisions. Ralph H. Baer conceived the idea of a home video game in 1951. In the late 1960s, while working for Sanders Associates, Baer created a series of video game console designs. One of these designs, which gained the nickname of the 1966 "Brown Box", featured changeable game modes and was demonstrated to several TV manufacturers leading to an agreement between Sanders Associates and Magnavox. In 1972, Magnavox released the Magnavox Odyssey, the first home video game console which could be connected to a TV set. Ralph Baer's initial design had called for a huge row of switches that would allow players to turn on and off certain components of the console to create different games like tennis, volleyball and chase.
Magnavox replaced the switch design with separate cartridges for each game. Although Baer had sketched up ideas for cartridges that could include new components for new games, the carts released by Magnavox all served the same function as the switches and allowed players to choose from the Odyssey's built-in games; the Odyssey sold about 100,000 units, making it moderately successful, it was not until Atari's arcade game Pong popularized video games that the public began to take more notice of the emerging industry. By autumn 1975, bowing to the popularity of Pong, canceled the Odyssey and released a scaled-down version that played only Pong and hockey, the Odyssey 100. A second, "higher end" console, the Odyssey 200, was released with the 100 and added on-screen scoring, up to four players, a third game—Smash. Released with Atari's own home Pong console through Sears, these consoles jump-started the consumer market. All three of the new consoles used simpler designs than the original Odyssey did with no board game pieces or extra cartridges.
In the years that followed, the market saw many companies rushing similar consoles to market. After General Instrument released their inexpensive microchips, each containing a complete console on a single chip, many small developers began releasing consoles that looked different externally, but internally were playing the same games. Most of the consoles from this era were dedicated consoles playing only the games that came with the console; these video game consoles were just called video games because there was little reason to distinguish the two yet. While a few companies like Atari and newcomer Coleco pushed the envelope, the market became flooded with simple, similar video games. Fairchild released the Fairchild Video Entertainment System in 1976. While there had been previous game consoles that used cartridges, either the cartridges had no information and served the same function as flipping switches or the console itself was empty and the cartridge contained all of the game components.
The VES, contained a programmable microprocessor so its cartridges only needed a single ROM chip to store microprocessor instructions. RCA and Atari soon released their own cartridge-based consoles, the RCA Studio II and the Atari 2600, respectively; the first handheld game console with interchangeable cartridges was the Microvision designed by Smith Engineering, distributed and sold by Milton-Bradley in 1979. Crippled by a small, fragile LCD display and a narrow selection of games, it was discontinued two years later; the Epoch Game Pocket Computer was released in Japan in 1984. The Game Pocket Computer featured an LCD screen with 75 X 64 resolution and could produce graphics at about the same level as early Atari 2600 games; the system sold poorly, as a result, only five games were made for it. Nintendo's Game & Watch series of dedicated game systems proved more successful, it helped to establish handheld gaming as popular and lasted until 1991. Many Game & Watch games were re-released on Nintendo's subsequent handheld systems.
The VES continued to be sold at a profit after 1977, both Bally and Magnavox brought their own programmable cartridge-based consoles to the market. However, i
Greeneville is a town in, the county seat of Greene County, United States. The population as of the 2010 census was 15,062; the town was named in honor of Revolutionary War hero Nathanael Greene. It is the only town with this spelling in the United States, although there are numerous U. S. towns named Greenville. The town was the capital of the short-lived State of Franklin in the 18th-century history of the Tennessee region. Greeneville is notable as the town where United States President Andrew Johnson began his political career when elected from his trade as a tailor, he and his family lived there most of his adult years. It was an area of strong abolitionist and Unionist views and yeoman farmers, an environment which influenced Johnson's outlook; the Greeneville Historic District was established in 1974. The U. S. Navy Los Angeles-class submarine USS Greeneville was named in honor of the town. Greeneville is part of the Johnson City-Kingsport- Bristol TN-VA Combined Statistical Area – known as the "Tri-Cities" region.
Greeneville is located at 36°10′6″N 82°49′21″W. It lies in the foothills of the Appalachian Mountains; these hills are part of the Appalachian Ridge-and-Valley Province, characterized by fertile river valleys flanked by narrow, elongate ridges. Greeneville is located halfway between Bays Mountain to the northwest and the Bald Mountains— part of the main Appalachian crest— to the southeast; the valley in which Greeneville is situated is part of the watershed of the Nolichucky River, which passes a few miles south of the town. Several federal and state highways now intersect in Greeneville, as they were built to follow old roads and trails. U. S. Route 321 follows Main Street through the center of the town and connects Greeneville to Newport to the southwest. U. S. Route 11E, which connects Greeneville with Morristown to the west, intersects U. S. 321 in Greeneville and the merged highway proceeds northeast to Johnson City. Tennessee State Route 107, which follows Main Street and Andrew Johnson Hwy, Greeneville to Erwin to the east and to the Del Rio area to the south.
Tennessee State Route 70 connects Greeneville with Interstate 81, Rogersville to the north and Asheville, North Carolina to the south. Tennessee State Route 172 connects Baileyton to the north. Tennessee State Route 93 connects Greeneville to Interstate 81, Fall Branch and Kingsport to the north. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 17.01 square miles, all land. Buckingham Heights Cherrydale Oak Hills Windy Hills Harrison Hills Native Americans were hunting and camping in the Nolichucky Valley as early as the Paleo-Indian period. A substantial Woodland period village existed at the Nolichucky's confluence with Big Limestone Creek. By the time the first Euro-American settlers arrived in the area in the late 18th century, the Cherokee claimed the valley as part of their hunting grounds; the Great Indian Warpath passed just northwest of modern Greeneville, the townsite is believed to have once been the juncture of two lesser Native American trails. Permanent European settlement of Greene County began in 1772.
Jacob Brown, a North Carolina merchant, leased a large stretch of land from the Cherokee, located between the upper Lick Creek watershed and the Nolichucky River, in what is now the northeastern corner of the county. The "Nolichucky Settlement" aligned itself with the Watauga Association as part of Washington County, North Carolina. After voting irregularities in a local election, however, an early Nolichucky settler named Daniel Kennedy led a movement to form a separate county, granted in 1783; the county was named after Nathanael Greene, reflecting the loyalties of the numerous Revolutionary War veterans who settled in the Nolichucky Valley from Pennsylvania and Virginia. The first county court sessions were held at the home of Robert Kerr, who lived at "Big Spring". Kerr donated 50 acres for the establishment of the county seat, most of, located in the area bounded by Irish, College and Summer streets. "Greeneville" was recognized as a town in 1786. In 1784, North Carolina attempted to resolve its debts by giving the U.
S. Congress its lands west of the Appalachian Mountains, including Greene County, abandoning responsibility for the area to the federal government. In response, delegates from Greene and neighboring counties convened at Jonesborough and resolved to break away from North Carolina and establish an independent state; the delegates agreed to meet again that year to form a constitution, rejected when presented to the general delegation in December. Reverend Samuel Houston had presented a draft constitution which restricted the election of lawyers and other professionals. Houston's draft met staunch opposition from Reverend Hezekiah Balch. John Sevier was elected governor, other executive offices were filled. A petition for statehood for what would have become known as the State of Franklin was drawn at the delegates session in May 1785; the delegates submitted a petition for statehood to Congress, which failed to gain the requisite votes needed for admission to the Union. The first state legislature of Franklin met in December 1785 in a crude log courthouse in Greeneville, named the capital city t
A sonobuoy is a small buoy expendable sonar system, dropped/ejected from aircraft or ships conducting anti-submarine warfare or underwater acoustic research. Sonobuoys are ejected from aircraft in canisters and deploy upon water impact. An inflatable surface float with a radio transmitter remains on the surface for communication with the aircraft, while one or more hydrophone sensors and stabilizing equipment descend below the surface to a selected depth, variable, depending on environmental conditions and the search pattern; the buoy relays acoustic information from its hydrophone via UHF/VHF radio to operators on board the aircraft. With the technological improvement of the submarine in modern warfare, the need for an effective tracking system was born. Sound Navigation And Ranging was developed by the British—who called it ASDIC—in the waning days of World War I. At the time the only way to detect submarines was by listening for them, or visually by chance when they were on the surface recharging their battery banks.
Air patrols could spot surfaced submarines and when conditions were right submerged ones as the diving depth of submarines of the era was so limited. If contact was made, they would follow the submarine while summoning surface ships by radio to attack it. Sonar saw limited use and was tested in the Atlantic Ocean with few naval officers seeing any merit in the system. With the end of World War I came the end to serious development of sonar in the United States, a fact, to be fatal in the early days of World War II. However, considerable development of ASDIC took place in the United Kingdom, including integration with a plotting table and weapon. While the United Kingdom pursued the development of sonar during the interwar period, the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey during the 1920s developed the radio acoustic ranging method of fixing the position of survey ships during hydrographic survey operations by detonating a small explosive at the location of the ship, recording the time it took for the sound of the explosion to reach distant hydrophones mounted at shore stations or aboard manned station ships, radioing the time of receipt of the sound to the ship, allowing the crew to make precise position fixes by using triangulation.
In 1931, the Coast and Geodetic Survey proposed the replacement of manned station ships with "radio-sonobuoys", placed the new buoys in service beginning in July 1936. These buoys weighed 700 pounds, could be deployed or recovered by Coast and Geodetic Survey ships in five minutes, were equipped with subsurface hydrophones and radio transmitters that automatically sent a radio signal when their hydrophones detected the sound of a ranging explosion; these "radio-sonobuoys" were the ancestors of the sonobuoys. The damage inflicted upon the Allies by German U-boats during World War II made the need for sonar a priority. With millions of tons of shipping being sunk in the Atlantic, there was a need to locate submarines so that they could be sunk or prevented from attacking. Sonar was installed on a number of ships along with radar and high-frequency direction finding to detect surfaced submarines. While sonar was a primitive system, it was improved. Modern anti-submarine warfare methods evolved from the techniques devised for the movement of convoys and battle groups through hostile waters during World War II.
It was imperative that submarines be detected and neutralized long before the task group came within range of an attack. Aircraft-based submarine detection was the obvious solution; the maturity of radio communication and sonar technology made it possible to combine a sonar transducer, batteries, a radio transmitter and whip antenna, within a self-contained air-deployed floating buoy. Early sonobuoys had limited range, limited battery life and were overwhelmed by the noise of the ocean, they first appeared during World War II, in which they first were used in July 1942 by RAF Coastal Command under the code name'High Tea', the first squadron to use them operationally being No. 210 Squadron RAF, operating Sunderlands. They were limited by the use of human ears to discriminate man-made noises from the oceanic background. However, they demonstrated. With the development of better hydrophones, the transistor and miniaturization, the realization that low frequency sound was important, more effective acoustic sensors followed.
The sonobuoy went from being an imposing six feet tall, two feet diameter sensor to the compact suite of electronics it is today. The advancement in sonobuoy technology aided the development of aircraft such as the P-2 Neptune, S-2 Tracker, S-3B Viking and P-3 Orion for anti-submarine warfare. Sonobuoys are classified into three categories: active and special purpose. Active sonobuoys emit sound energy into the water and listen for the returning echo before transmitting information—usually range and bearing—via UHF/VHF radio to a receiving ship or aircraft; the original active sonobuoys pinged continuously after deployment for a predetermined period of time. Command Activated Sonobuoy System sonobuoys allowed the aircraft to trigger pings via a radio link; this evolved into DICASS in which the return echo contained bearing as well as range data. Passive sonobuoys emit nothing into the water, but rather listen, waiting for sound waves from ships or sub
A typewriter is a mechanical or electromechanical machine for writing characters similar to those produced by printer's movable type. A typewriter has an array of keys, pressing one causes a different single character to be produced on the paper, by causing a ribbon with dried ink to be struck against the paper by a type element similar to the sorts used in movable type letterpress printing. A separate type element corresponds to each key, but the mechanism may use a single type element with a different portion of it used for each possible character. At the end of the nineteenth century, the term typewriter was applied to a person who used a typing machine; the first commercial typewriters were introduced in 1874, but did not become common in offices until after the mid-1880s. The typewriter became an indispensable tool for all writing other than personal handwritten correspondence, it was used by professional writers, in offices, for business correspondence in private homes. Typewriters were a standard fixture in most offices up to the 1980s.
Thereafter, they began to be supplanted by the computer. Typewriters remain common in some parts of the world, are required for a few specific applications, are popular in certain subcultures. In many Indian cities and towns, type writers are still used in road side and legal offices due to a lack of continuous reliable electricity; the asdf QWERTY keyboard continues to be the standard used in computers too. Notable typewriter manufacturers included E. Remington and Sons, IBM, Imperial Typewriter Company, Oliver Typewriter Company, Royal Typewriter Company, Smith Corona, Underwood Typewriter Company, Adler Typewriter Company and Olympia Werke. Although many modern typewriters have one of several similar designs, their invention was incremental, developed by numerous inventors working independently or in competition with each other over a series of decades; as with the automobile and telegraph, a number of people contributed insights and inventions that resulted in more commercially successful instruments.
Historians have estimated that some form of typewriter was invented 52 times as thinkers tried to come up with a workable design. Some early typing instruments include: In 1575, an Italian printmaker, Francesco Rampazetto, invented the scrittura tattile, a machine to impress letters in papers. In 1714, Henry Mill obtained a patent in Britain for a machine that, from the patent, appears to have been similar to a typewriter; the patent shows that this machine was created: " hath by his great study and paines & expence invented and brought to perfection an artificial machine or method for impressing or transcribing of letters, one after another, as in writing, whereby all writing whatsoever may be engrossed in paper or parchment so neat and exact as not to be distinguished from print. In 1802, Italian Agostino Fantoni developed a particular typewriter to enable his blind sister to write. In 1808, Italian Pellegrino Turri invented a typewriter, he invented carbon paper to provide the ink for his machine.
In 1823, Italian Pietro Conti di Cilavegna invented a new model of typewriter, the tachigrafo known as tachitipo. In 1829, American William Austin Burt patented a machine called the "Typographer" which, in common with many other early machines, is listed as the "first typewriter"; the London Science Museum describes it as "the first writing mechanism whose invention was documented", but that claim may be excessive, since Turri's invention pre-dates it. In the hands of its inventor, this machine was slower than handwriting. Burt and his promoter John D. Sheldon never found a buyer for the patent, so the invention was never commercially produced; because the typographer used a dial, rather than keys, to select each character, it was called an "index typewriter" rather than a "keyboard typewriter". Index typewriters of that era resemble the squeeze-style embosser from the 1960s more than they resemble the modern keyboard typewriter. By the mid-19th century, the increasing pace of business communication had created a need for mechanization of the writing process.
Stenographers and telegraphers could take down information at rates up to 130 words per minute, whereas a writer with a pen was limited to a maximum of 30 words per minute. From 1829 to 1870, many printing or typing machines were patented by inventors in Europe and America, but none went into commercial production. American Charles Thurber developed multiple patents, of which his first in 1843 was developed as an aid to the blind, such as the 1845 Chirographer. In 1855, the Italian Giuseppe Ravizza created a prototype typewriter called Cembalo scrivano o macchina da scrivere a tasti, it was an advanced machine. In 1861, Father Francisco João de Azevedo, a Brazilian priest, made his own typewriter with basic materials and tools, such as wood and knives. In that same year the Brazilian emperor D. Pedro II, presented a gold medal to Father Azevedo for this invention. Many Brazilian people as well as the Brazilian federal government recognize Fr. Azevedo as the inventor of the typewriter, a claim, the subject of some controversy.
In 1865, John Pratt, of Centre, built a machine called the Pterotype which appeared in an 1867 Scientific American article and inspired other inventors. Between 1864 and 1867