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The magnetopause is the abrupt boundary between a magnetosphere and the surrounding plasma. For planetary science, the magnetopause is the boundary between the planet's magnetic field and the solar wind; the location of the magnetopause is determined by the balance between the pressure of the dynamic planetary magnetic field and the dynamic pressure of the solar wind. As the solar wind pressure increases and decreases, the magnetopause moves inward and outward in response. Waves along the magnetopause move in the direction of the solar wind flow in response to small-scale variations in the solar wind pressure and to Kelvin–Helmholtz instability; the solar wind is supersonic and passes through a bow shock where the direction of flow is changed so that most of the solar wind plasma is deflected to either side of the magnetopause, much like water is deflected before the bow of a ship. The zone of shocked solar wind plasma is the magnetosheath. At Earth and all the other planets with intrinsic magnetic fields, some solar wind plasma succeeds in entering and becoming trapped within the magnetosphere.

At Earth, the solar wind plasma which enters the magnetosphere forms the plasma sheet. The amount of solar wind plasma and energy that enters the magnetosphere is regulated by the orientation of the interplanetary magnetic field, embedded in the solar wind; the Sun and other stars with magnetic fields and stellar winds have a solar magnetopause or heliopause where the stellar environment is bounded by the interstellar environment. Prior to the age of space exploration, interplanetary space was considered to be a vacuum; the coincidence of the Carrington super flare and the super geomagnetic event of 1859 was evidence that plasma was ejected from the Sun during a flare event. Chapman and Ferraro proposed that a plasma was emitted by the Sun in a burst as part of a flare event which disturbed the planet's magnetic field in a manner known as a geomagnetic storm; the collision frequency of particles in the plasma in the interplanetary medium is low and the electrical conductivity is so high that it could be approximated to an infinite conductor.

A magnetic field in a vacuum cannot penetrate a volume with infinite conductivity. Chapman and Bartels illustrated this concept by postulating a plate with infinite conductivity placed on the dayside of a planet's dipole as shown in the schematic; the field lines on the dayside are bent. At low latitudes, the magnetic field lines are pushed inward. At high latitudes, the magnetic field lines are pushed over the polar regions; the boundary between the region dominated by the planet's magnetic field and the plasma in the interplanetary medium is the magnetopause. The configuration equivalent to a flat, infinitely conductive plate is achieved by placing an image dipole at twice the distance from the planet's dipole to the magnetopause along the planet-Sun line. Since the solar wind is continuously flowing outward, the magnetopause above, below and to the sides of the planet are swept backward into the geomagnetic tail as shown in the artist's concept; the region which separates field lines from the planet which are pushed inward from those which are pushed backward over the poles is an area of weak magnetic field or day-side cusp.

Solar wind particles can enter the planet's magnetosphere through the cusp region. Because the solar wind exists at all times and not just times of solar flares, the magnetopause is a permanent feature of the space near any planet with a magnetic field; the magnetic field lines of the planet's magnetic field are not stationary. They are continuously joining or merging with magnetic field lines of the interplanetary magnetic field; the joined. In the tail, the field lines from the planet's magnetic field are re-joined and start moving toward night-side of the planet; the physics of this process was first explained by Dungey. If one assumed that magnetopause was just a boundary between a magnetic field in a vacuum and a plasma with a weak magnetic field embedded in it the magnetopause would be defined by electrons and ions penetrating one gyroradius into the magnetic field domain. Since the gyro-motion of electrons and ions is in opposite directions, an electric current flows along the boundary.

The actual magnetopause is much more complex. If the pressure from particles within the magnetosphere is neglected, it is possible to estimate the distance to the part of the magnetosphere that faces the Sun; the condition governing this position is that the dynamic ram pressure from the solar wind is equal to the magnetic pressure from the Earth's magnetic field: s w ≈ m where ρ and v are the density and velocity of the solar wind, B is the magnetic field strength of the planet in SI units. Since the dipole magnetic field strength varies with distance as 1 / r 3 the magnetic field strength can be written as B = B 0 / r 3, where B 0 {\disp

Farrelly brothers

Peter Farrelly and Bobby Farrelly, collectively referred to as the Farrelly brothers, are American screenwriters and directors. They have made eleven films, including Dumb and Dumber, Hall Pass, Me, Myself & Irene, Shallow Hal, Stuck on You, Osmosis Jones, There's Something About Mary, Fever Pitch, the 2007 remake of The Heartbreak Kid, The Three Stooges, Dumb and Dumber To; the brothers were raised in Cumberland, Rhode Island, are of Irish descent. Following college they pursued careers as television writers, notably for Seinfeld; each of the brothers' first four films has a plot centering around a road trip. These trips all originate except for Kingpin which begins in Pennsylvania, their films make frequent use of slapstick and toilet humor, are populated with blunt, profane working-class characters in small roles. Many of their films contain flashback scenes that show how a character was affected by a traumatic event; the brothers are noted for their soundtracks, which feature distinctive selections of classic and contemporary power pop and folk rock songs.

Sports are a common feature of their films and they have cast sports stars for bit parts and cameo appearances including Cam Neely, Johnny Damon, Roger Clemens, Brett Favre, Anna Kournikova and Tom Brady. The brothers have been praised and critiqued for the way they use the subject of disability in their films. Peter Farrelly has commented: "The problem is not that we look down on these people, but rather that we look up at them and feel that they are better than us.... We revere them." They depict able-bodied people as stupid, while disabled people are either more aspirational or gifted. Peter Farrelly has published books including Outside The Comedy Writer. Peter Farrelly on IMDb Bobby Farrelly on IMDb

9-1-1: Lone Star

9-1-1: Lone Star is an American action procedural drama television series focusing on the fire and ambulance departments of the fictional company 126, set in Austin, Texas. Texas being "The Lone Star State." It was created for Fox by Ryan Murphy, Brad Falchuk, Tim Minear. The series is a spin-off of the television series 9-1-1, was ordered by Fox in May 2019, it premiered on January 19, 2020. From 9-1-1 co-creators Ryan Murphy, Brad Falchuk and Tim Minear, 9-1-1: Lone Star follows a sophisticated New York firefighter who, along with his son, relocates from Manhattan to Austin, Texas, he must try to balance the duties of saving those who are at their most vulnerable and solving the problems in his own life. Series star Rob Lowe serves as co-executive producer. Rob Lowe as Owen Strand, firefighter captain from New York City, father to TK, he is diagnosed with lung cancer as a result of being a first responder on 9/11 Twin Tower attacks where he lost his entire firehouse. Liv Tyler as Michelle Blake, the paramedic Emergency Medical Services captain.

She is trying to locate her sister Iris, missing for three years. Ronen Rubinstein as Tyler Kennedy "TK" Strand, a firefighter and Owen's son, he is a recovering opioid addict. TK suffered an overdose just prior to his arrival in Austin. Sierra McClain as Grace Ryder, a 9-1-1 operator and Judd's wife. Jim Parrack as Judson "Judd" Ryder and Grace's husband, he is the sole survivor of 126's previous team’s fire disaster. Natacha Karam as Marjan Marwani, a firefighter/paramedic, a devout Muslim. Brian Michael Smith as Paul Strickland, a firefighter, a trans man. Rafael Silva as Carlos Reyes, a police officer with the Austin Police Department, who begins a romantic relationship with TK. Julian Works as Mateo Chavez, he is dyslexic, is a DREAM-er who must keep his job or be deported. Kyle Secor as Deputy Fire Chief Alden Radford: A fire chief who convinces Owen to come to Austin to rebuild Station 126. Brianna Baker as Nancy Gillian: A paramedic, a member of Michelle Blake's EMS crew. Mark Elias as Tim Rosewater: A paramedic, a member of Michelle Blake's EMS crew.

Jon Foster as Dustin Shepard: An ex-boyfriend of Michelle Blake's missing sister Iris who Michelle believes is connected to Iris's disappearance. Brett Rice as Wayne Gettinger: An elderly man, receiving chemotherapy treatments at the same time as Owen, he offers Owen advice on how to deal with his cancer. Billy Burke as Captain Billy Tyson: A former firefighter for the 126 who plots to take Owen's job as captain of the 126. Alex Carter as Captain: The former captain of the 126, killed in the explosion. Jesse Luken as Jake Harkes: One of the former members of the 126, killed in the explosion. Matt McTighe as Chuck Parkland: One of the former members of the 126, killed in the explosion. Graham Shiels as Cory Garrity: One of the former members of the 126, killed in the explosion. Mary Kay Place as Theresa Blake: Michelle's mother who wants Michelle to move on from what happened to Iris, Theresa's younger daughter who went missing. Natalie Zea as Zoe: A psychology professor at the University of Texas at Austin.

She meets Owen at a beauty supply store and begins dating him. Angel Parker as Josie: A woman who Paul meets at a call, they date until she learns he is trans. Tamala Jones as Det. Sarina Washington: the detective investigating Iris's disappearance. On May 12, 2019, it was announced that Fox had given the production a series order for a 9-1-1 spin-off. 9-1-1 creator Ryan Murphy, Brad Falchuk and Tim Minear would serve as executive producers along with cast member Rob Lowe. Serving as an exeuctive producer is Angela Bassett, who stars in the original 9-1-1. On May 12, 2019, it was announced. On September 11, 2019, Liv Tyler was announced to star opposite of Lowe. Jim Parrack joined the cast on September 18, 2019. Two days Ronen Rubinstein and Sierra McClain were announced to have joined the cast. On September 23, 2019, Natacha Karam, Brian Michael Smith, Rafael Silva, Julian Works joined the cast. On Rotten Tomatoes, the series has an approval rating of 75% based on eight reviews, with an average rating of 7.67/10.

The website's critical consensus reads, "If not as outlandishly fun as its predecessor, 9-1-1: Lone Star still packs an entertaining punch and is a great showcase for the handsomely self-aware Rob Lowe". On Metacritic, it has a weighted average score of 69 out of 100, based on six critics, indicating "generally favorable reviews". Texas Monthly criticized the show for its stereotypical portrayal of Texas in the first two episodes, as well as "baffling" choice of Austin for a conservative Texas setting. Official website 9-1-1: Lone Star on IMDb

Hemlock Farms Community Association

Hemlock Farms Community Association is a census-designated place located in Lords Valley, Blooming Grove and Dingman Townships in Pike County in the state of Pennsylvania. The community is located south of Interstate 84, surrounds its namesake Hemlock Lake; as of the 2010 census the population was 3,271 residents. HFCA is a 4,500-acre gated community that spans from Pennsylvania State Routes 402 and 739, it is the largest community within Lords Valley. In 1927 William Brewster began acquiring the land that would become HFCA. In 1963 Home Smith International purchased 4,500 acres for $700,000 in order to convert it from a private estate to a community with 3,726 lots. Individual property owners now own 95 percent of the lots on which more than 3,000 homes have been constructed, with 1,000 occupied on a permanent basis, the rest by weekend or summer residents. All property owners are members of the HFCA, incorporated as a nonprofit corporation, which holds title to the roads, ponds, green belt and other common areas within the community.

Within HFCA there are four lakes, each contains a beach areas with bathhouses. Boat racks are available for rent to members at 5 different locations. There are two outdoor swimming pools with bathhouses, ten tennis courts, two baseball fields, two basketball courts, a volleyball court, two bocce courts, a children’s playground and a Teen Center; the Steer Barn Clubhouse, features an indoor pool, steam room, kiddy pool, locker rooms, fitness center and craft rooms, game room and an auditorium/theater. Additionally HFCA has a private skating rink in the winter, their own summer camp, private hiking trails in the development; the Hemlock Farms Volunteer Fire and Rescue has provided fire and ambulance services to HFCA since 1969. The Public Safety Department is HFCA's private police department. In addition to providing guards at 2 of the 3 entrances to the community, they have a minimum of 2 other patrol officers on at all times; the Hemlock Farms Conservancy, a 501 entity, established in December 2009, maintains the forested areas within HFCA.

Their mission is to maintain the natural beauty of HFCA. The Lords Valley Country Club, is a private club, limited to 400 members, offering: an 18 hole golf course, 10 tennis courts and dining facilities to its members. Although the country club is located within HFCA it is not associated with it, its history pre-dates HFCA. In 2014 it was added to the Platinum Clubs of America's list of Five Star country clubs, ranked number 31 of 125; the LVCC was chartered in 1945 as Pocono Skyline Golf Club and was located at the Monomonock Inn, Barrett Township, Monroe County, PA. In 1954, after facing several financial issues, the club was renamed to Mountain Resorts and went into inactive status. In 1963 when Western Heritage purchased the HFCA they signed a 20-year lease with Mountain Resorts, which changed its name to Lords Valley Country Club. In 1970 a fire broke out causing an estimated $100,000 of damages. In 1972 the LVCC exercised their right to purchase the land. In 1973, the club's owner Home Smith sold the club to its members.

The area of HFCA was part of the William Brewster estate. After the home was built in 1931 he added a pool, eight-hole golf course, two-lane bowling alley and a billiards room. Today these facilities have been renovated and are part of the LVCC. In 1964 additional holes were added bringing the total to eighteen; the par 72 golf course receives a 71.2 rating. The club's affiliations include USGA, PGA of America, Pennsylvania Golf Association, Audubon International Cooperative Sanctuary Program, Goldwater Guardian Green Sites Program, Philadelphia Golf Association

Polish Polar Station, Hornsund

Polish Polar Station, Hornsund is at Isbjørnhamna in Hornsund, on Spitsbergen in the Norwegian Svalbard archipelago, operated since 1957. The station was erected in July 1957 by the Polish Academy of Sciences Expedition within the framework of the International Geophysical Year; the expedition was led by Stanislaw Siedlecki, geologist and climber, a veteran of Polish Arctic expeditions in the 1930s. A reconnaissance group searching the area for the future station site had been working in Hornsund in the previous summer, selected the flat marine terrace in Isbjørnhamna; the research station was constructed during three summer months in 1957. The station was modernized in 1978. Since the Institute of Geophysics, Polish Academy of Sciences has been responsible for organising year-round and seasonal research expeditions to the station. South Spitsbergen, near the entrance to Hornsund fjord, on its northern shore, at Isbjørnhamna on a flat marine terrace, 10 m above sea level. Current full-year research: Meteorology - gathering data for synoptic purposes and to detect climatic changes.

In summers and winters, the station functions as a base for research on geology, geomorphology, glaciology and biology. On September 17, 2017, near the station, scientific researchers buried a 60-centimeter stainless steel tube containing samples designed to tell finders as long as half a million years into the future, about the current state of knowledge in such areas as geology and technology. List of research stations in the Arctic Hornsund Polish Polar Station

Bill Jennings (American football)

William Arlen Jennings was an American football player and coach. He served as the head football coach of the University of Nebraska–Lincoln from 1957 to 1961, he coached the Nebraska Cornhuskers for five losing seasons. His best seasons were 1960, when the Huskers were 4 -- 6 in each year, his conference record was 8–24 and his Husker teams never won more than two conference games in a season. Among Jennings's most notable upsets was the ending of Bud Wilkinson's 74-straight conference victories; the Cornhuskers beat 25 -- 21, at Nebraska's 1959 homecoming game on Halloween. Jennings followed up a second consecutive win the following year with a 17–14 victory in Norman; the 1959 win was the first for Nebraska since 1942, the 1959 and 1960 wins were the first consecutive victories over the Sooners since 1939 through 1942. After a 3–6–1 season in 1961, Jennings was succeeded by Bob Devaney, successful with Wyoming. Devaney turned the Nebraska program around, winning with numerous players recruited by Jennings.

The 1962 Huskers went 8–2 in the regular season and won the Gotham Bowl, Nebraska's first bowl game appearance in eight years and the first of 41 consecutive winning seasons. Jennings died on June 8, 2002 at the age of 84 at his home in Lawrence, Kansas after suffering from prostate cancer. Nebraska profile Bill Jennings at Find a Grave