Durga, identified as Adi Parashakti, is a principal and popular form of Hindu Goddess. She is the warrior goddess, whose mythology centres around combating evils and demonic forces that threaten peace and dharma of the good, she is the fierce form of the protective mother goddess, willing to unleash her anger against wrong, violence for liberation and destruction to empower creation. Durga is depicted in the Hindu pantheon as a Goddess riding a lion or tiger, with many arms each carrying a weapon defeating Mahishasura; the three principle forms of Durga worshiped are Maha Durga and Aparajita. Of these, Chandika has two forms called Chandi, of the combined power and form of Saraswati and Parvati and of Chamunda, a form of Kali created by the goddess for killing demons Chanda and Munda. Maha Durga has three forms: Ugrachanda and Katyayani. Bhadrakali Durga is worshiped in the form of her nine epithets called Navadurga, she is a central deity in Shaktism tradition of Hinduism, where she is equated with the concept of ultimate reality called Brahman.
One of the most important texts of Shaktism is Devi Mahatmya known as Durgā Saptashatī or Chandi patha, which celebrates Durga as the goddess, declaring her as the supreme being and the creator of the universe. Estimated to have been composed between 400 and 600 CE, this text is considered by Shakta Hindus to be as important a scripture as the Bhagavad Gita, she has a significant following all over India and Nepal in its eastern states such as West Bengal, Jharkhand and Bihar. Durga is revered after autumn harvests, specially during the festival of Navratri; the word Durga means "impassable", "invincible, unassailable". It is related to the word Durg which means "fortress, something difficult to defeat or pass". According to Monier Monier-Williams, Durga is derived from the roots gam. According to Alain Daniélou, Durga means "beyond defeat"; the word Durga, related terms appear in the Vedic literature, such as in the Rigveda hymns 4.28, 5.34, 8.27, 8.47, 8.93 and 10.127, in sections 10.1 and 12.4 of the Atharvaveda.
A deity named Durgi appears in section 10.1.7 of the Taittiriya Aranyaka. While the Vedic literature uses the word Durga, the description therein lacks the legendary details about her, found in Hindu literature; the word is found in ancient post-Vedic Sanskrit texts such as in section 2.451 of the Mahabharata and section 4.27.16 of the Ramayana. These usages are in different contexts. For example, Durg is the name of an Asura who had become invincible to gods, Durga is the goddess who intervenes and slays him. Durga and its derivatives are found in sections 4.1.99 and 6.3.63 of the Ashtadhyayi by Pāṇini, the ancient Sanskrit grammarian, in the commentary of Nirukta by Yaska. Durga as a demon-slaying goddess was well established by the time the classic Hindu text called Devi Mahatmya was composed, which scholars variously estimate to between 400 and 600 CE; the Devi Mahatmya and other mythologies describe the nature of demonic forces symbolised by Mahishasura as shape-shifting and adapting in nature and strategy to create difficulties and achieve their evil ends, while Durga calmly understands and counters the evil in order to achieve her solemn goals.
There are many epithets for Durga in Shaktism and her nine appellations are: Shailaputri, Chandraghanta, Skandamata, Kaalratri and Siddhidatri. A list of 108 names of the goddess are recited in order to worship her and is popularly known as the "Ashtottarshat Namavali of Goddess Durga". One of the earliest evidence of reverence for Devi – the feminine nature of God, appears in chapter 10.125 of the Rig Veda, one of the scriptures of Hinduism. This hymn is called the Devi Suktam hymn: – Devi Sukta, Rigveda 10.125.3 – 10.125.8, Devi's epithets synonymous with Durga appear in Upanishadic literature, such as Kali in verse 1.2.4 of the Mundaka Upanishad dated to about the 5th century BCE. This single mention describes Kali as "terrible yet swift as thought" red and smoky colored manifestation of the divine with a fire-like flickering tongue, before the text begins presenting its thesis that one must seek self-knowledge and the knowledge of the eternal Brahman. Durga, in her various forms, appears as an independent deity in the Epics period of ancient India, the centuries around the start of the common era.
Both Yudhisthira and Arjuna characters of the Mahabharata invoke hymns to Durga. She appears in Harivamsa in the form of Vishnu's eulogy, in Pradyumna prayer. Various Puranas from the early to late 1st millennium CE dedicate chapters of inconsistent mythologies associated with Durga. Of these, the Markandeya Purana and the Devi-Bhagavata Purana are the most significant texts on Durga; the Devi Upanishad and other Shakta Upanishads dated to have been composed in or after the 9th century, present the philosophical and mystical speculations related to Durga as Devi and other epithets, identifying her to be the same as the Brahman and Atman. The historian Ramaprasad Chanda stated in 1916 that Durga evolved over time in the Indian subcontinent. A primitive form of Durga, according to Chanda, was the result of "syncretism of a mountain-goddess worshiped by the dwellers of the Himalaya and the Vindhyas", a deity of the Abhiras conceptualized as a war-goddess. Durga transformed into Kali as the personification of the all-destroying time, while aspects of her emerged as the primordial energy integrated into the samsara concept and this idea was built
Karma means action, work or deed. Good intent and good deeds contribute to good karma and happier rebirths, while bad intent and bad deeds contribute to bad karma and bad rebirths; the philosophy of karma is associated with the idea of rebirth in many schools of Indian religions as well as Taoism. In these schools, karma in the present affects one's future in the current life, as well as the nature and quality of future lives - one's saṃsāra. Karma is the executed "deed", "work", "action", or "act", it is the "object", the "intent". Wilhelm Halbfass explains karma by contrasting it with another Sanskrit word kriya; the word kriya is the activity along with the steps and effort in action, while karma is the executed action as a consequence of that activity, as well as the intention of the actor behind an executed action or a planned action. A good action creates good karma. A bad action creates bad karma. Karma refers to a conceptual principle that originated in India descriptively called the principle of karma, sometimes as the karma theory or the law of karma.
In the context of theory, karma is difficult to define. Different schools of Indologists derive different definitions for the karma concept from ancient Indian texts. Other Indologists include in the definition of karma theory that which explains the present circumstances of an individual with reference to his or her actions in past; these actions may be those in a person's current life, or, in some schools of Indian traditions actions in their past lives. The law of karma operates any process of divine judgment. Difficulty in arriving at a definition of karma arises because of the diversity of views among the schools of Hinduism. Buddhism and Jainism have their own karma precepts, thus karma has not multiple definitions and different meanings. It is a concept whose meaning and scope varies between Hinduism, Buddhism and other traditions that originated in India, various schools in each of these traditions. O'Flaherty claims that, there is an ongoing debate regarding whether karma is a theory, a model, a paradigm, a metaphor, or a metaphysical stance.
Karma theory as a concept, across different Indian religious traditions, shares certain common themes: causality and rebirth. A common theme to theories of karma is its principle of causality. One of the earliest association of karma to causality occurs in the Brihadaranyaka Upanishad of Hinduism. For example, at 4.4.5-6, it states: The relationship of karma to causality is a central motif in all schools of Hindu and Buddhist thought. The theory of karma as causality holds that executed actions of an individual affects the individual and the life he or she lives, the intentions of an individual affects the individual and the life he or she lives. Disinterested actions, or unintentional actions do not have the same positive or negative karmic effect, as interested and intentional actions. In Buddhism, for example, actions that are performed, or arise, or originate without any bad intent such as covetousness, are considered non-existent in karmic impact or neutral in influence to the individual.
Another causality characteristic, shared by Karmic theories, is that like deeds lead to like effects. Thus good karma produces good effect on the actor; this effect may be material, moral or emotional — that is, one's karma affects one's happiness and unhappiness. The effect of karma need not be immediate; the consequence or effects of one's karma can be described in two forms: samskaras. A phala is the visible or invisible effect, immediate or within the current life. In contrast, samskaras are invisible effects, produced inside the actor because of the karma, transforming the agent and affecting his or her ability to be happy or unhappy in this life and future ones; the theory of karma is presented in the context of samskaras. Karmic principle can be understood, suggests Karl Potter, as a principle of psychology and habit. Karma seeds habits, habits create the nature of man. Karma seeds self perception, perception influences how one experiences life events. Both habits and self perception affect the course of one's life.
Breaking bad habits is not easy: it requires conscious karmic effort. Thus psyche and habit, according to Potter and others, link karma to causality in ancient Indian literature; the idea of karma may be compared to the notion of a person's "character", as both are an assessment of the person and determined by that person's habitual thinking and acting. The second theme common to karma theories is ethicization; this begins with the premise that every action has a consequence, which will come to fruition in either this or a future life.
Ganesha known as Ganapati, Vinayaka or by numerous other names, is one of the best-known and most worshipped deities in the Hindu pantheon. His image is found throughout India, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Bali and Nepal. Hindu denominations worship him regardless of affiliations. Devotion to Ganesha is diffused and extends to Jains and Buddhists. Although he is known by many attributes, Ganesha's elephant head makes him easy to identify. Ganesha is revered as the remover of obstacles, the patron of arts and sciences and the deva of intellect and wisdom; as the god of beginnings, he is honoured at the start of ceremonies. Ganesha is invoked as patron of letters and learning during writing sessions. Several texts relate mythological anecdotes associated with his birth and exploits. Ganesha emerged as a deity as early as the 2nd century CE, but most by the 4th and 5th centuries CE, during the Gupta period, although He inherited traits from Vedic and pre-Vedic precursors. Hindu mythology identifies him as the restored son of Parvati and Shiva of the Shaivism tradition, but he is a pan-Hindu god found in its various traditions.
In the Ganapatya tradition of Hinduism, Ganesha is the supreme deity. The principal texts on Ganesha include the Ganesha Purana, the Mudgala Purana, the Ganapati Atharvashirsa. Brahma Purana and Brahmanda Purana are other two Puranic genre encyclopedic texts that deal with Ganesha. Ganesha has been ascribed many other epithets, including Ganapati and Vighneshvara; the Hindu title of respect Shri is added before his name. The name Ganesha is a Sanskrit compound, joining the words gana, meaning a group, multitude, or categorical system and isha, meaning lord or master; the word gaṇa when associated with Ganesha is taken to refer to the gaṇas, a troop of semi-divine beings that form part of the retinue of Shiva, Ganesha's father. The term more means a category, community, association, or corporation; some commentators interpret the name "Lord of the Gaṇas" to mean "Lord of Hosts" or "Lord of created categories", such as the elements. Ganapati, a synonym for Ganesha, is a compound composed of gaṇa, meaning "group", pati, meaning "ruler" or "lord".
Though the earliest mention of the word Ganapati is found in hymn 2.23.1 of the 2nd-millennium BCE Rigveda, it is however uncertain that the Vedic term referred to Ganesha. The Amarakosha, an early Sanskrit lexicon, lists eight synonyms of Ganesha: Vinayaka, Vighnarāja, Dvaimātura, Gaṇādhipa, Heramba and Gajanana. Vinayaka is a common name for Ganesha that appears in Buddhist Tantras; this name is reflected in the naming of the eight famous Ganesha temples in Maharashtra known as the Ashtavinayak. The names Vighnesha and Vighneshvara refers to his primary function in Hinduism as the master and remover of obstacles. A prominent name for Ganesha in the Tamil language is Pillaiyar. A. K. Narain differentiates these terms by saying that pillai means a "child" while pillaiyar means a "noble child", he adds that the words pallu and pell in the Dravidian family of languages signify "tooth or tusk" "elephant tooth or tusk". Anita Raina Thapan notes that the root word pille in the name Pillaiyar might have meant "the young of the elephant", because the Pali word pillaka means "a young elephant".
In the Burmese language, Ganesha is known as Maha Peinne, derived from Pali Mahā Wināyaka. The widespread name of Ganesha in Thailand is Phra Phikanet; the earliest images and mention of Ganesha names as a major deity in present-day Indonesia, Thailand and Vietnam date from the 7th- and 8th-centuries, these mirror Indian examples of the 5th century or earlier. In Sri Lankan Singhala Buddhist areas, he is known as Gana deviyo, revered along with Buddha, Vishnu and others. Ganesha is a popular figure in Indian art. Unlike those of some deities, representations of Ganesha show wide variations and distinct patterns changing over time, he may be portrayed standing, heroically taking action against demons, playing with his family as a boy, or sitting down on an elevated seat, or engaging in a range of contemporary situations. Ganesha images were prevalent in many parts of India by the 6th century; the 13th-century statue pictured is typical of Ganesha statuary from 900–1200, after Ganesha had been well-established as an independent deity with his own sect.
This example features some of Ganesha's common iconographic elements. A identical statue has been dated between 973–1200 by Paul Martin-Dubost, another similar statue is dated c. 12th century by Pratapaditya Pal. Ganesha has the head of a big belly; this statue has four arms, common in depictions of Ganesha. He holds his own broken tusk in his lower-right hand and holds a delicacy, which he samples with his trunk, in his lower-left hand; the motif of Ganesha turning his trunk to his left to taste a sweet in his lower-left hand is a archaic feature. A more primitive statue in one of the Ellora Caves with this general form has been dated to the 7th century. Details of the other hands are difficult to make out on the statue shown. In the standa
Kashmir Shaivism or more Trika Shaivism refers to a nondualist tradition of Śaiva-Śakta Tantra which originated sometime after 850 CE. Though this tradition was influential in Kashmir and is thus called Kashmir Shaivism, it was a pan-Indian movement termed "Trika" by its great exegete Abhinavagupta, which flourished in Oḍiśā and Mahārāṣṭra. Defining features of the Trika tradition is its idealistic and monistic Pratyabhijnā philosophical system, propounded by Utpaladeva and Abhinavagupta, the centrality of the three goddesses Parā, Parāparā, Aparā. While Trika draws from numerous Śaiva texts, such as the Shaiva Agamas and the Śaiva and Śakta Tantras, its major scriptural authorities are the Mālinīvijayottara Tantra, the Siddhayogeśvarīmata and the Anāmaka-tantra, its main exegetical works are those of Abhinavagupta, such as the Tantrāloka, Mālinīślokavārttika, Tantrasāra which are formally an exegesis of the Mālinīvijayottara Tantra, although they drew on the Kali-based Krama subcategory of the Kulamārga.
Kashmir Shaivism claimed to supersede Shaiva Siddhanta, a dualistic tradition which scholars consider normative tantric Shaivism. The Shaiva Siddhanta goal of becoming an ontologically distinct Shiva was replaced by recognizing oneself as Shiva who, in Kashmir Shaivism's monism, is the entirety of the universe. Dating from around 850-900 CE, the Shiva Sutras and Spandakārikā were the first attempt from the Śākta Śaiva domain to present a non-dualistic metaphysics and gnostic soteriology in opposition to the dualistic exegesis of the Shaiva Siddhanta; the Shiva Sutras appeared to Vasugupta according to tradition. The Spandakārikā was either composed by his student Bhatta Kallata. Somananda, the first theologian of monistic Shaivism, was the teacher of Utpaladeva, the grand-teacher of Abhinavagupta, who in turn was the teacher of Ksemaraja; the Tantrāloka, Mālinīślokavārttika, Tantrasāra of the Kashmirian Abhinavagupta are formally an exegesis on the Mālinīvijayottara Tantra, although they drew on the Kali-based Krama tradition of the Kulamārga.
Jayaratha wrote a commentary on the Tantrāloka. There were no major writers or publications after the 14th century. In the 20th century Swami Lakshman Joo, a Kashmiri Brahmin, helped revive both the scholarly and yogic streams of Kashmir Shaivism, his contribution is enormous. He inspired a generation of scholars who made Kashmir Shaivism a legitimate field of inquiry within the academy. Acharya Rameshwar Jha, a disciple of Joo, is credited with establishing the roots of Kashmir Shaivism in the learned community of Varanasi. Rameshwar Jha with his creativity, familiarity with the ancient texts and personal experiences provided access to concepts of non-dualistic Kashmir Shaivism, his writings of Sanskrit verses have been published as the books Purnta Pratyabhijna and Samit Swatantram. Swami Muktananda, although not belonging to the direct lineage of Kashmir Shaivism, felt an affinity for the teachings, validated by his own direct experience, he encouraged Motilal Banarsidass to publish Jaideva Singh's translations of Shiva Sutras, Pratyabhijnahrdayam, Spanda Karikas and Vijnana Bhairava.
He introduced Kashmir Shaivism to a wide audience of western meditators through his writings and lectures on the subject. The Vijnana Bhairava Tantra, a chapter from the Rudrayamala Tantra, was introduced to the West by Paul Reps, a student of Joo, by including an English translation in his book Zen Flesh, Zen Bones. Cast as a discourse between the god Shiva and his consort Devi or Shakti, it presents 112 meditation methods or centering techniques. Since it is a Tantric tradition, a necessary prerequisite for Trika yogic practice is tantric initiation or diksa; the Mālinīvijayottara Tantra, a major source for the tradition, states: "Without initiation there is no qualification for Saiva yoga."Although domesticated into a householder tradition, Kashmir Shaivism recommended a secret performance of Kaula practices in keeping with its tantric heritage. This was to be done in seclusion from public eyes, therefore allowing one to maintain the appearance of a typical householder; the Mālinīvijayottara Tantra outlines several major preconditions conferring the authority to practice Yoga:The Yogin who has mastered posture the mind, controlled the vital energy, subdued the senses, conquered sleep, overcome anger and agitation and, free from deceit, should practise Yoga in a quiet, pleasant cave or earthen hut free from all obstructions.
Numerous texts such as the Mālinīvijayottara Tantra outline six “varieties of the goal” or “targets” of yogic practices, mainly: Contemplation of void, which bestows all Perfections and liberation. Contemplation of body, which bestows the coercion of deities like Visnu or Rudra Contemplation of drop, which bestows sovereignty over Yogins Contemplation of phoneme, which bestows the Perfection of mantra Contemplation of world, which bestows regency of a world Contemplation of resonance, which leads to isolation and liberation; each of the goals is given specific practices. For example, in the Mālinīvijayottara Tantra, perfecting the Void is said to be reached by moving the mind and vital energy through two groups of three voids located along the central channel, reaching to the region above the head. Different scriptures outline their location in the body; the practice of resonance deals with various sounds, how the yogin is to focus on a specific sound and its resonance within the central channe
The Siddhar refers to intellectual people in Tamil language, from ancient Tamilakam, was written only in Tamil language. A siddhan obtains intellectual powers called siddhi by constant practice of certain educational disciplines. Siddhar refers to the people who were early age wandering adepts that dominated ancient Tamil teaching and philosophy, they were knowledgeable in science, astronomy, fine arts, drama and provided solutions to common people in their illness and advice for their future. Some of their ideologies are considered to have originated during the First Sangam period. Siddhars were saints, doctors and mystics all in one, they wrote their findings in the form of poems in the Tamil language, on palm leaves which are collected and stored in what are known as the "Palm leaf manuscripts". These are still owned by some families in Tamil Nadu and handed down through the generations, as well as being kept in public institutions such as universities in India, Great Britain and the United States.
In this way Siddhars developed, among other branches of a vast knowledge-system, what is now known as Siddha medicine, practised in Tamil Nadu as a type of traditional native medicine. A rustic form of healing, similar to Siddha medicine has since been practised by experienced elders in the villages of Tamil Nadu.. Siddhars are believed to be the founders of Varmam - a martial art for self-defence and medical treatment at the same time. Varmam are specific points located in the human body which when pressed in different ways can give various results, such as disabling an attacker in self-defence, or balancing a physical condition as an easy first-aid medical treatment. Tamil Siddhars were the first to develop pulse-reading to identify the origin of diseases; this method was copied and used in Ayurveda. Siddhars have written many religious poems, it is believed that most of them have lived for ages, in a mystic mountain called Sathuragiri, near Thanipparai village in Tamil Nadu. The Abithana Chintamani encyclopedia states that the Siddhars are either of the 9 or 18 persons listed below, but sage Agathiyar states that there are many who precede and follow these.
Many of the great Siddhars are regarded to have powers spiritual. The 9 listed in "Abithana Chintamani" are as follows: Sathyanathar Sathoganathar Aadhinathar Anadhinathar Vegulinathar Madhanganathar Machaendranathar Gadaendranathar or Gajendranathar Korakkanathar There are 18 siddhars in the Tamil Siddha tradition, they are Nandeeswarar Tirumular Agathiyar Kalangi Nathar Pathanjali Korakkar Pulipaani Konganar Sattamuni Theraiyar Ramadevar Siva vaakiyar Edaikkadar Machamuni KaruvoorarThevar Bogar Pambatti KuthambaiApart from the 18 siddars listed above, there is another list of 18 siddars who represent the 9 navagrahas all navagraha doshas /pariharams are performed to the siddars as Siddar velvi. The details of the 18 siddars who represent the 9 navagrahas are given below 1.sri siva vakya siddar - Moon 2.sri kailaya kambili sattai muni siddar - Moon 3. Sri Bhogar siddar - Mars 4.sri Kagabhujanga siddar - Jupiter 5. Sri. Pullipanisiddar - Mars 6. Sri Sattai muni siddar- Kethu 7. Sri Agapaisiddar - Jupiter 8.sri Azhugani siddar -Raghu 9.
SriKudambai siddar - Kethu 10. Sri Vallalarsiddar - Mercury 11. Sri Edaikaddar siddar -Mercury 12. Sri Pattinathar siddar- Sun 13. Sri Kaduvelli siddar- Sun 14. Sri Kanjamalai siddar - Venus 15. Sri Sennimalai siddar- Venus 16. SriKapilar siddar -Saturn 17. SriKaruvoorar siddar-Saturn 18. Sri Pambatti siddar -Raghu There is an universal shrine for all the 18 siddars at madambakkam in Chennai called SriChakra Mahameru Sri Seshadri swamigal 18 siddars brindavana sakthi peedam built under divine instruction from Sathguru Sri Seshadri Swamigal by Guruji KVLN. SHARMAJI The siddhars are believed to have had both major and minor powers which are described in detail in various yogic and religious texts, they are said to have the power of converting their mass to energy and thereby travelling to different universes. Anima -- Power of becoming the size of an atom and entering the smallest beings Mahima -- Power of becoming mighty and co-extensive with the universe; the power of increasing one's size without limit Laghima -- Capacity to be quite light though big in size Garima -- Capacity to weigh a lot, though being small in size Prapti -- Capacity to enter all the worlds from Brahma Loga to the nether world.
It is the power of attaining everything desired Prakasysm -- Power of disembodying and entering into other bodies and going to heaven and enjoying what everyone aspires for from where he stays Ishtavam -- Have the creative power of God and control over the Sun and the elements Vashitavam -- Power of control over kings and gods. The power of changing the course of nature and assuming any formThese eight are the Great Siddhis, or Great Perfections. Abithana Chintamani Avvaiyar Ayyavazhi mythology Bogar Mahasiddha Nayanars Siddha Tirumandhiram Maruttuvar community 18 siddars who represent the 9 NAVAGRAHAS REFER WEBSITE www.seshadri.info Thamizh Siddhars Info Page Shaivism Home page
Vachana sahitya is a form of rhythmic writing in Kannada that evolved in the 11th century CE and flourished in the 12th century,as a part of the Sharana movement. The word "vachanas" means " said"; these are intelligible prose texts. Devara Dasimayya who lived in the mid 10th century is considered the first proponent of lingayatism. Poets, such as, the founder of Lingayatism, prime minister of, considered Chennaiah to be his literary father. Basavaadi Sharana's Vachanas are their experiences in the process of God realization. About 800 sharanas practiced the technique and wrote their experiences in terms of Guru, Jangama and Prasada; as per record, this form exchange of experience of the realization of the God in group discussion has happened only in Karnataka by the sharanas under the guidance of Basavanna the founder of Lingayth religion, Channa Basavanna Allama Prabhu and Siddarameshwar. This fact has been attributed to the popularity of the movement. More than 200 Vachana writers have been recorded and more than thirty of.
Kannada: ಉಳ್ಳವರು ಶಿವಾಲಯ ಮಾಡುವರು ನಾನೇನು ಮಾಡಲಿ ಬಡವನಯ್ಯಾ ಎನ್ನ ಕಾಲೇ ಕಂಬ, ದೇಹವೇ ದೇಗುಲ, ಶಿರವೇ ಹೊನ್ನ ಕಳಸವಯ್ಯಾಕೂಡಲಸಂಗಮದೇವಾ ಕೇಳಯ್ಯಾ, ಸ್ಥಾವರಕ್ಕಳಿವುಂಟು ಜಂಗಮಕ್ಕಳಿವಿಲ್ಲ, uLLavaru shiválaya máduvaru nánénu mádali badavanayyá enna kále kambha dehavé degula shiravé honna kaLashavayyá Kúdala Sangama Devá keLayya sthavarakkaLivunTu jangamakaLivilla The rich will make temples for Shiva. What shall I, a poor man, do? My legs are pillars, The body the shrine, The head a cupola of gold. Listen, O lord of the meeting rivers, Things standing shall fall, But the moving shall stay.? Vachanas are brief paragraphs, they end with one or the other local names under which Shiva is invoked or offered Pooja. In style, they are epigrammatical and allusive, they dwell on the vanity of riches, the valuelessness of mere rites or book learning, the uncertainty of life and the spiritual privileges of Shiva Bhakta. The Vachanas call men to give up the desire for worldly wealth and ease, to live lives of sobriety and detachment from the world and to turn to Siva for refuge.
Authors of a particular Vachana can be identified by the style of invocation of God in the vachana. The existing readings of the vachanas are set by the European understanding of the Indian traditions. About 20,000 vachanas have been published; the government of Karnataka has published Samagra Vachana Samputa in 15 volumes. Karnataka University Dharwad has published collections of individual vachana poets. Jedara Dasimaiah is called the'Adya Vachanakara'. Kalachuris of Kalyani Kingdom Kannada literature Palkuriki Somanatha Narasimhacharya, R. History of Kannada Literature. New Delhi: Penguin Books. ISBN 81-206-0303-6. Sastri, Nilakanta K. A.. A history of South India from prehistoric times to the fall of Vijayanagar. New Delhi: Indian Branch, Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-560686-8. Rice, Edward P. A History of Kannada literature. New Delhi: Asian Educational Services,Oxford university press. Lingayata Dharmada Modalaneya Pustaka Kannada, 1982, PM Giriraju. Jatigala Huttu Kannada, 1982, PM Giriraju. Speaking of Siva, by A. K. Ramanujan.
Penguin. 1973. ISBN 9780140442700. Sadbhakta Charitra Kannada. PM Giriraju. Https://openlibrary.org/works/OL11062327W/Girirājanu_sērisida_sadbhakta_cāritrya Vachana Sahityha Vachanas by Basava, Dasimayya and Allama Vachana Sahitya Web Site Published by Government of Karnataka Vachana Sanchaya, Vachana Sahitya Digitization & Research Project
Rudraksha is a seed traditionally used as a prayer bead in Hinduism. Rudraksha seeds are covered by a blue outer shell when ripe, hence being called blueberry beads; the seeds are produced by several species of large evergreen broad-leaved tree in the genus Elaeocarpus, with Elaeocarpus ganitrus roxb being the principal species. They are associated with the Hindu deity Lord Shiva and are worn for protection and for chanting the Om Namah Shivaya mantra by devotees; the seeds are used in India and Nepal as beads for organic jewellery and malas and are valued to semi-precious stones. Various meanings and potencies are attributed to beads with different numbers of segments and rare or unique beads are prized and valuable. Rudraksha is a Sanskrit compound word consisting of akṣa. Rudra is one of Lord Shiva's vedic names and Akṣa means'teardrops'. Thus, the name means Lord Rudra's teardrops. There are sources like Satguru Sivaya Subramuniyaswami and Kamal Narayan Seetha who translate Akṣa as eye. In this case the meaning of rudraksha could mean "Eye of Lord Shiva" or "Eye of Rudra".
The term Rudraksha is used both for the berries themselves and in reference to the type of mala made from them. There is a long tradition of wearing rudraksha beads in India within Shaivism, due to their association with Lord Shiva. Lord Shiva; the mantra Om Namah Shivaya is repeated using the rudraksha beads. Rudraksha malas have been used by Hindus as rosaries from at least the 10th century for meditation purposes and to sanctify the mind and soul. Rudraksha beads may be strung together as a mala and used to count the repetition of a mantra or prayer, similar to the use of rosaries in Christianity. Most garlands contain 108 beads plus one, as 108 is considered sacred and a suitable number of times to recite a short mantra; the extra bead, called the "Meru", bindu, or "guru bead", helps mark the beginning and end of a cycle of 108, as well as having symbolic value as a'principle' bead. While counting the mala, the meru should not be overtaken but when it is reached the mala is recited in reverse order.
Recitation should be done after covering the mala and it should not touch the ground. After recitation, the mala should be kept in a cotton bag. Rudraksha malas contain beads in the following combination: 27+1, 54+1, or 108+1. 54+1 needs to be recited twice for one complete round. 27+1 needs to be recited four times for one complete round. It is possible to carry a single seed or several seeds strung on the same thread. Devi-Bhagavata Purana describes the preparation of rudraksha mala; the beads are strung on silk or on a black or red cotton thread. Less jewellers may use copper, silver, or gold wires, though the rudraksha may be damaged if strung too tightly. Elaeocarpus ganitrus roxb grow to a height of 60-80 feet and are found from the Gangetic plain in the foothills of the Himalayas to Southeast Asia, Nepal, New Guinea, to Australia, Hawaii, Taiwan, parts of Malaysia, Java. Out of 300 species of Elaeocarpus, 35 are found in India. Rudraksha seeds are covered by an outer husk of blue when ripe, for this reason are known as blueberry beads.
The blue color is structural. It is an evergreen tree; the rudraksha tree starts bearing fruit in three to four years from germination. As the tree matures, the roots form buttresses, rising up near the trunk and radiating out along the surface of the ground; the tree can be found from sea level up to 3000m. It tends to grow in narrow spaces, not on open ground, its leaves are longer. It yields one to two thousand fruits annually; these fruits are known as Amritphala. Rudraksha beads are found with a variety of much ranging from 1 to 21. A 27-mukhi rudraksha was found in Nepal. 80% of all rudrakshas have 4, 5, 6 mukhi. 1-mukhi is the rarest type of bead. Rudrakshas from Nepal are of bigger size and Indonesian rudrakshas are smaller. Rudrakshas are available in white, brown and black. There are special types of rudraksha available, such as Gauri Shankar, Sawar and other rare ones like Ved, etc. A rudraksha's surface should be hard and the projections should be well grooved, as found in most of the Nepalese Rudrakshas.
The Indonesian rudraksha has a different appearance. Rudrakshas from India show high and grooved projections resembling natural deep hills and valleys. Most fake rudrakshas exhibit 1 mukhi due to its rarity. A variety of rudrakshas called; the 1-mukhi rudraksha is faked using Areca nut. Some suppliers sell fake rudrakshas which have a serpent, Shiva-lingam, etc. carved on them. A real rudraksha does not have these markings. Fake rudrakshas are made by carving extra lines on lower-mukhi rudrakshas to obtain the rare and higher-priced higher-mukhi rudrakshas or by hiding lines to make a rarer lower-mukhi rudraksha. A fake Gauri Shankar rudraksha is made by gluing together two rudraksha beads. To recognize real rudrakshas, many techniques are used, such as sinking and floating of rudrakshas as well as revolving rudraksha