Mehrauli is a neighbourhood in the South West district of Delhi in India. It represents a constituency in the legislative assembly of Delhi; the area is located close to next to Vasant Kunj. Naresh Yadav of Aam Aadmi Party is the current MLA from Mehrauli. Mehrauli is one of the seven ancient cities. Mehrauli is derived from a Sanskrit word Mihira-awali, it signifies the town- ship where the well known astronomer Varaha-Mihira of Vikramaditya’s court lived along with his helpers and technicians. The Lal Kot fort was constructed by the Tanwar chief Anangpal I around 731 AD and expanded by AnangPal II in the 11th century, who shifted his capital to Lal Kot from Kannaujs The Tanwars were defeated by the Chauhans in the 12th century. Prithviraj Chauhan further called it Qila Rai Pithora, he was defeated and killed in 1192 by Mohammed Ghori, who put his general Qutb-ud-din Aybak in charge and returned to Afghanistan. Subsequently in 1206, after the death of Mohammed Ghori, Qutubuddin enthroned himself as the first Sultan of Delhi.
Thus Delhi became the capital of the Mamluk dynasty of Delhi, the first dynasty of Muslim sultans to rule over northern India. Mehrauli remained the capital of the Mamluk dynasty which ruled until 1290. During the Khalji dynasty, the capital shifted to Siri. TheAHBasicCompany In 12th-century Jain scriptures, the location is mentioned as Yogninipura, now noticeable by the presence of the "Yogmaya Temple", near the Qutub Minar complex, believed to have been built by the Pandavas. Martyr Place of Great Sikh Saint-Soldier Baba Banda Singh Bahadur. Mehrauli lies in the South district of Delhi at 28°30′57″N 77°10′39″E. To its north lies Malviya Nagar. Vasant Kunj lies to Tughlakabad to its south. Like the rest of Delhi, Mehrauli has a semi-arid climate with high variation between summer and winter temperatures. While the summer temperatures may go up to 46 °C, the winters can seem freezing to people used to a warm climate with near 0 °C; the soil of Mehrauli consists of sandy loam to loam texture. The water level has gone down in the recent past hovering between 45 m to 50 m due to rise in population.
Though Mehrauli is like any ordinary neighbourhood today, its past is what distinguishes it in terms of architecture. Ahinsa Sthal is a Jain temple located in Delhi; the main deity of the temple is Mahavira, the 24th and last Tirthankara of a present half cycle of time. A magnificent statue of Tirthankara Mahāvīra is installed here. Though the capital shifted from Mehrauli after the Slave dynasty rule came to an end, many other dynasties contributed to Mehrauli's architecture; the most visible piece of architecture remains the, initiated by Qutub ud din Aybak with subsequent additions by Iltutmish and Alauddin Khalji. The Qutb complex is today a UNESCO world heritage site, the venue for the annual Qutub Festival. There are several pillars of temples adjacent to Qutb Minar. Mausoleum of a 13th century, Sufi saint, Khwaja Qutbuddin Bakhtiar Kaki is situated near the Qutub Minar Complex and the venue for the annual Phoolwalon-ki-sair Festival; the dargah complex houses graves of Mughal emperors, Bahadur Shah I, Shah Alam II, Akbar II, in an adjacent marble enclosure.
To the left of the dargah, lies Moti Masjid, a small mosque, built for private prayer by the son of Aurangzeb, Bahadur Shah I. Balban's tomb belonging to Balban, Slave dynasty ruler of Delhi Sultanate was constructed here in the 13th century can still be seen though in a dilapidated condition; the architecturally important structure as it is the first true arch in Indo-Islamic architecture, Another tomb, that of Balban's son, Khan Shahid, who died before he could be crowned, is located nearby in Mehrauli Archeological Park. A baoli or stepwell known as Rajon Ki Baoli was constructed in 1506 during Sikandar Lodhi's reign, it was used to store water though it is now dried and is now known as Sukhi Baoli. The Jamali Kamali mosque was built in 1528, in honour of the Sufi saint Shaikh Hamid bin Fazlullah known as Dervish Shaikh Jamali Kamboh Dihlawi or Jalal Khan; the saint's tomb built in 1536 upon his death is adjacent to the mosque. The Adham Khan's Tomb was constructed by Emperor Akbar in memory of his foster brother and general Adham Khan in 1566.
The tomb known as Bhulbhulaiyan, as one could get lost in the labyrinth of its passages, it was used by the British as a residence, rest house and as a police station. Close to Adham Khan's tomb, lies that of another Mughal General, Muhammad Quli Khan it served as the residence of Sir Thomas Metcalfe, Governor-General’s Agent at the Mughal court; the Mehrauli Archaeological Park spread over 200 acres, adjacent to Qutb Minar site was redeveloped in 1997. In the 2013 Delhi Assembly Elections, Parvesh Verma of BJP was elected as the MLA of Mehrauli, he succeeded Yoganand Shastri, former Delhi Assembly Speaker affiliated to the Indian National Congress Mehrauli Assembly Constituency comprises four municipal wards, ward 169 Lado Sarai, ward 170 Mehrauli, ward 171 Vasant Kunj and ward 172 Kishangarh. All four wards are represented by women councillors in the Municipal Corporation. St. John's School Baba Banda Singh Bahadur Memorial School Lareesa Public School I. G. Delhi Public School Saraswati Bal Vidya Mandir Ramanujan Sarvodiya Kanya Vidalaya Government Boys' Senior Secondary School-2 Government Boys' Senior Secondary School-3 Suryathan Play School Concealed in a black polythene bag, a bomb was dropped by two unidentified persons riding a motorcycle In Sarai Electronic Market in New Delhi on September 27, 2008.
A fortnight after th
Madrasa is the Arabic word for any type of educational institution, secular or religious, whether for elementary instruction or higher learning. The word is variously transliterated madrasah, madrassa, medrese, etc. In the West, the word refers to a specific type of religious school or college for the study of the Islamic religion, though this may not be the only subject studied; the word madrasah derives from the triconsonantal Semitic root د-ر-س D-R-S'to learn, study', through the wazn مفعل. Therefore, madrasah means "a place where learning and studying take place"; the word is present as a loanword with the same innocuous meaning in many Arabic-influenced languages, such as: Urdu, Pashto, Persian, Azeri, Indonesian and Bosnian. In the Arabic language, the word مدرسة madrasah means the same as school does in the English language, whether, private, public or parochial school, as well as for any primary or secondary school whether Muslim, non-Muslim, or secular. Unlike the use of the word school in British English, the word madrasah more resembles the term school in American English, in that it can refer to a university-level or post-graduate school as well as to a primary or secondary school.
For example, in the Ottoman Empire during the Early Modern Period, madaris had lower schools and specialised schools where the students became known as danişmends. The usual Arabic word for a university, however, is جامعة; the Hebrew cognate midrasha connotes the meaning of a place of learning. However, in English, the term madrasah refers to the Islamic institutions. A typical Islamic school offers two courses of study: a ḥifẓ course teaching memorization of the Qur'an. A regular curriculum includes courses in Arabic, sharīʻah, hadiths and Muslim history. In the Ottoman Empire, during the Early Modern Period, the study of hadiths was introduced by Süleyman I. Depending on the educational demands, some madaris offer additional advanced courses in Arabic literature and other foreign languages, as well as science and world history. Ottoman madaris along with religious teachings taught "styles of writing, syntax, composition, natural sciences, political sciences, etiquette."People of all ages attend, many move on to becoming imams.
The certificate of an ʻālim, for example, requires twelve years of study. A good number of the ḥuffāẓ are the product of the madaris; the madaris resemble colleges, where people take evening classes and reside in dormitories. An important function of the madaris is to admit orphans and poor children in order to provide them with education and training. Madaris may enroll female students; the term "Islamic education" means education in the light of Islam itself, rooted in the teachings of the Qur'an - the holy book of the Muslims. Islamic education and Muslim education are not the same; because Islamic education has epistemological integration, founded on Tawhid - Oneness or monotheism. The first institute of madrasa education was at the estate of Zaid bin Arkam near a hill called Safa, where Muhammad was the teacher and the students were some of his followers. After Hijrah the madrasa of "Suffa" was established in Madina on the east side of the Al-Masjid an-Nabawi mosque. Ubada ibn as-Samit was appointed there by Muhammad among the students.
In the curriculum of the madrasa, there were teachings of The Qur'an, The Hadith, fara'iz, genealogy, treatises of first aid, etc. There were trainings of horse-riding, art of war and calligraphy, athletics and martial arts; the first part of madrasa based education is estimated from the first day of "nabuwwat" to the first portion of the Umayyad Caliphate. Established in 859, Jāmiʻat al-Qarawīyīn in the city of Fas, Morocco, is considered the oldest university in the world by some scholars, though the existence of universities in the medieval Muslim world is debated, it was founded by Fāṭimah al-Fihrī, the daughter of a wealthy merchant named Muḥammad al-Fihrī. This was followed by the establishment of al-Azhar in 959 in Cairo, Egypt. During the late ʻAbbāsid period, the Seljuk vizier Niẓām al-Mulk created one of the first major official academic institutions known in history as the Madrasah Niẓāmīyah, based on the informal majālis. Niẓām al-Mulk, who would be murdered by the Assassins, created a system of state madaris in various ʻAbbāsid cities at the end of the 11th century.
During the rule of the Fatimid and Mamluk dynasties and their successor states in the medieval Middle East, many of the ruling elite founded madaris through a religious endowment known as the waqf. Not only was the madrasa a potent symbol of status but it was an effective means of transmitting wealth and status to their descendants. During the Mamluk period, when only former slaves could assume power, the sons of the ruling Mamlūk elite were unable to inherit. Guaranteed positions within the new madaris thus allowed them to maintain status. Madaris
Khairul Manazil or Khair-ul-Manazil is a historical mosque built in 1561 in New Delhi, India. The mosque is situated in the opposite of Purana Qila on Mathura Road, south east to Sher Shah Gate; the gateway of the mosque was made by red sandstone following Mughal architecture, but the inside structure of the building was made in Delhi Sultanate pattern. This mosque was built by Maham Anga, Emperor Akbar's wet nurse cum foster mother, it is stated that in 1564, Akbar was attacked near the mosque by an assassin while he was returning from Nizamuddin Dargah. Latter it was used as Madrasa. Presently the building is under protection of Archaeological Survey of India; the epigraphy in Persian carved on the marble plaque above the arch of the central gate is a chronogram penned by Emperor Akbar's court historian and poet Maulana Shihabuddin Ahmad Khan, accredited as the composer of the eulogy on the tombstone of Amir Khusrau at the shrine of Hazrat Nizamuddin, some two hundred and ten years after Khusrau's death.
The letters forming the words "Khairul Manazil" in Arabic when translated in their numeric equivalent by the rule of ٲٻڄݚ and summed up to give the numerals of Hijri year equivalent to 1561 AD
India known as the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh largest country by area and with more than 1.3 billion people, it is the second most populous country as well as the most populous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, the Bay of Bengal on the southeast, it shares land borders with Pakistan to the west. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives, while its Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand and Indonesia; the Indian subcontinent was home to the urban Indus Valley Civilisation of the 3rd millennium BCE. In the following millennium, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism began to be composed. Social stratification, based on caste, emerged in the first millennium BCE, Buddhism and Jainism arose. Early political consolidations took place under the Gupta empires. In the medieval era, Zoroastrianism and Islam arrived, Sikhism emerged, all adding to the region's diverse culture.
Much of the north fell to the Delhi Sultanate. The economy expanded in the 17th century in the Mughal Empire. In the mid-18th century, the subcontinent came under British East India Company rule, in the mid-19th under British Crown rule. A nationalist movement emerged in the late 19th century, which under Mahatma Gandhi, was noted for nonviolent resistance and led to India's independence in 1947. In 2017, the Indian economy was the world's sixth largest by nominal GDP and third largest by purchasing power parity. Following market-based economic reforms in 1991, India became one of the fastest-growing major economies and is considered a newly industrialised country. However, it continues to face the challenges of poverty, corruption and inadequate public healthcare. A nuclear weapons state and regional power, it has the second largest standing army in the world and ranks fifth in military expenditure among nations. India is a federal republic governed under a parliamentary system and consists of 29 states and 7 union territories.
A pluralistic and multi-ethnic society, it is home to a diversity of wildlife in a variety of protected habitats. The name India is derived from Indus, which originates from the Old Persian word Hindush, equivalent to the Sanskrit word Sindhu, the historical local appellation for the Indus River; the ancient Greeks referred to the Indians as Indoi, which translates as "The people of the Indus". The geographical term Bharat, recognised by the Constitution of India as an official name for the country, is used by many Indian languages in its variations, it is a modernisation of the historical name Bharatavarsha, which traditionally referred to the Indian subcontinent and gained increasing currency from the mid-19th century as a native name for India. Hindustan is a Middle Persian name for India, it was introduced into India by the Mughals and used since then. Its meaning varied, referring to a region that encompassed northern India and Pakistan or India in its entirety; the name may refer to either the northern part of India or the entire country.
The earliest known human remains in South Asia date to about 30,000 years ago. Nearly contemporaneous human rock art sites have been found in many parts of the Indian subcontinent, including at the Bhimbetka rock shelters in Madhya Pradesh. After 6500 BCE, evidence for domestication of food crops and animals, construction of permanent structures, storage of agricultural surplus, appeared in Mehrgarh and other sites in what is now Balochistan; these developed into the Indus Valley Civilisation, the first urban culture in South Asia, which flourished during 2500–1900 BCE in what is now Pakistan and western India. Centred around cities such as Mohenjo-daro, Harappa and Kalibangan, relying on varied forms of subsistence, the civilization engaged robustly in crafts production and wide-ranging trade. During the period 2000–500 BCE, many regions of the subcontinent transitioned from the Chalcolithic cultures to the Iron Age ones; the Vedas, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism, were composed during this period, historians have analysed these to posit a Vedic culture in the Punjab region and the upper Gangetic Plain.
Most historians consider this period to have encompassed several waves of Indo-Aryan migration into the subcontinent from the north-west. The caste system, which created a hierarchy of priests and free peasants, but which excluded indigenous peoples by labeling their occupations impure, arose during this period. On the Deccan Plateau, archaeological evidence from this period suggests the existence of a chiefdom stage of political organisation. In South India, a progression to sedentary life is indicated by the large number of megalithic monuments dating from this period, as well as by nearby traces of agriculture, irrigation tanks, craft traditions. In the late Vedic period, around the 6th century BCE, the small states and chiefdoms of the Ganges Plain and the north-western regions had consolidated into 16 major oligarchies and monarchies that were known as the mahajanapadas; the emerging urbanisation gave rise to non-Vedic religious movements, two of which became independent religions. Jainism came into prominence during the life of Mahavira.
Buddhism, based on the teachings of Gautama Buddha, attracted followers from all social classes excepting the middle
Mecca spelled Makkah, is a city in the Hejazi region of the Arabian Peninsula, the plain of Tihamah in Saudi Arabia, is the capital and administrative headquarters of the Makkah Region. The city is located 70 km inland from Jeddah in a narrow valley at a height of 277 m above sea level, 340 kilometres south of Medina, its resident population in 2012 was 2 million, although visitors more than triple this number every year during the Ḥajj period held in the twelfth Muslim lunar month of Dhūl-Ḥijjah. As the birthplace of Muḥammad, the site of Muhammad's first revelation of the Quran, Mecca is regarded as the holiest city in the religion of Islam and a pilgrimage to it known as the Hajj is obligatory for all able Muslims. Mecca is home to the Kaaba, by majority description Islam's holiest site, as well as being the direction of Muslim prayer. Mecca was long ruled by Muhammad's descendants, the sharifs, acting either as independent rulers or as vassals to larger polities, it was conquered by Ibn Saud in 1925.
In its modern period, Mecca has seen tremendous expansion in size and infrastructure, home to structures such as the Abraj Al Bait known as the Makkah Royal Clock Tower Hotel, the world's fourth tallest building and the building with the third largest amount of floor area. During this expansion, Mecca has lost some historical structures and archaeological sites, such as the Ajyad Fortress. Today, more than 15 million Muslims visit Mecca annually, including several million during the few days of the Hajj; as a result, Mecca has become one of the most cosmopolitan cities in the Muslim world, although non-Muslims are prohibited from entering the city. "Mecca" is the familiar form of the English transliteration for the Arabic name of the city, although the official transliteration used by the Saudi government is Makkah, closer to the Arabic pronunciation. The word "Mecca" in English has come to be used to refer to any place that draws large numbers of people, because of this some English speaking Muslims have come to regard the use of this spelling for the city as offensive.
The Saudi government adopted Makkah as the official spelling in the 1980s, but is not universally known or used worldwide. The full official name is Makkah al-Mukarramah or Makkatu l-Mukarramah, which means "Mecca the Honored", but is loosely translated as "The Holy City of Mecca"; the ancient or early name for the site of Mecca is Bakkah. An Arabic language word, its etymology, like that of Mecca, is obscure. Believed to be a synonym for Mecca, it is said to be more the early name for the valley located therein, while Muslim scholars use it to refer to the sacred area of the city that surrounds and includes the Ka‘bah; this form is used for the name Mecca in the Quran in 3:96, while the form Mecca is used in 48:24. In South Arabic, the language in use in the southern portion of the Arabian Peninsula at the time of Muhammad, the b and m were interchangeable. Other references to Mecca in the Quran call it Umm al-Qurā, meaning "Mother of All Settlements"/"mother of villages". Another name of Mecca is Ṫihāmah.
Another name for Mecca, or the wilderness and mountains surrounding it, according to Arab and Islamic tradition, is Faran or Pharan, referring to the Desert of Paran mentioned in the Old Testament at Genesis 21:21. Arab and Islamic tradition holds that the wilderness of Paran, broadly speaking, is the Tihamah and the site where Ishmael settled was Mecca. Yaqut al-Hamawi, the 12th century Syrian geographer, wrote that Fārān was "an arabized Hebrew word, one of the names of Mecca mentioned in the Torah." Mecca is governed by the Municipality of Mecca, a municipal council of fourteen locally elected members headed by a mayor appointed by the Saudi government. As of May 2015, the mayor of the city was Dr. Osama bin Fadhel Al-Bar. Mecca is the capital of the Makkah Region; the provincial governor was prince Abdul Majeed bin Abdulaziz Al Saud from 2000 until his death in 2007. On 16 May 2007, prince Khalid bin Faisal Al Saud was appointed as the new governor; the early history of Mecca is still disputed, as there are no unambiguous references to it in ancient literature prior to the rise of Islam.
The Roman Empire took control of part of the Hejaz in 106 CE, ruling cities such as Hegra, located to the north of Mecca. Though detailed descriptions were established of Western Arabia by Rome, such as by Procopius, there are no references of a pilgrimage and trading outpost such as Mecca; the first direct mention of Mecca in external literature occurs in 741 CE, in the Byzantine-Arab Chronicle, though here the author places it in Mesopotamia rather than the Hejaz. Given the inhospitable environment and lack of historical references in Roman and Indian sources, historians including Patricia Crone and Tom Holland have cast doubt on the claim that Mecca was a major historical trading outpost; the Greek historian Diodorus Siculus writes about Arabia in his work Bibliotheca historica, describing a holy shrine: "And a temple has been set up there, holy and exceedingly revered by all Arabians". Claims have been made. However, the geographic location Diodorus describes is located in northwest Arabia, around the area of Leuke Kome, closer to Petra and within the form
Ashwini Kalsekar is an Indian actress best known for her role as Jigyasa Walia in Ekta Kapoor's soap opera Kasamh Se and as Varsha in Johnny Gaddar. Ashwini Kalsekar was born in a Konkani Deshastha Brahmin family of Goan Ancestry on 22 January 1970 in Mumbai, Maharashtra, her father Anil Kalsekar was a bank employee. Ashwini studied her B. A. from Mumbai and graduated in 1991. She pursued theatre from 1991 to 1994 after her studies. From 1992 to 1993 she was studying under actress Neena Gupta to pursue her dream to be an actress, she is trained under Muzammeel Vakil, a theatre acting coach from 1992 to 1995. Ashwini is a trained Kathak dancer. Ashwini was married to Nitesh Pandey in 1998; the duo fell apart due to various unknown reasons in 2002. She married film and television character actor Murali Sharma in 2009. In 1996, Ashwini played a role in the Marathi film Tula Jhapar La; this was followed by a number of films in Marathi. She started her television career in the mid-1990s with serials such as Shanti, C.
I. D. Anjaane, Siddhant and K. Street Pali Hill, her biggest break came when she was approached by Ekta Kapoor to play the antagonist in her soap opera Kasamh Se where she played the role of Jigyasa Walia. The role fetched her the Indian Television Academy Award for Best Actress in a Negative Role, the Indian Telly Award for Best Actress in a Negative Role and other major awards. In 2012, Ashwini was again approached by Ekta Kapoor to play the role of Maham Anga, a foster mother of Emperor Akbar in her historical drama series Jodha Akbar; the role fetched major awards. She went on to win the Indian Telly Award for Best Actress in a Negative Role, the Boroplus Gold Award for Best Actress in a Negative Role and other major awards. In 2014, Ashwini was offered a different and modern role as Pam Khanna in Ekta Kapoor's soap opera Itna Karo Na Mujhe Pyaar. Ashwini Khalsekar on IMDb
The Akbarnama which translates to Book of Akbar, is the official chronicle of the reign of Akbar, the third Mughal Emperor, commissioned by Akbar himself by his court historian and biographer, Abu'l-Fazl ibn Mubarak, one of the nine jewels in Akbar's court. It was written in Persian, the literary language of the Mughals, includes vivid and detailed descriptions of his life and times; the work was commissioned by Akbar, written by Abul Fazl, one of the Nine Jewels of Akbar’s royal court. It is stated; the original manuscripts contained many miniature paintings supporting the texts, thought to have been illustrated between c. 1592 and 1594 by at least forty-nine different artists from Akbar's studio, representing the best of the Mughal school of painting, masters of the imperial workshop, including Basawan, whose use of portraiture in its illustrations was an innovation in Indian art. After Akbar's death in 1605, the manuscript remained in the library of his son and Shah Jahan. Today, the illustrated manuscript of Akbarnma, with 116 miniature paintings, is at the Victoria and Albert Museum.
It was bought by the South Kensington Museum in 1896 from Mrs Frances Clarke, acquired by her husband upon his retirement from serving as Commissioner of Oudh. Soon after, the paintings and illuminated frontispiece were removed from the volume to be mounted and framed for display; the first volume of Akbarnama deals with the birth of Akbar, the history of Timur's family and the reigns of Babur and Humayun and the Suri sultans of Delhi. Volume one of Akbarnama encompasses his upbringings. According to the Abul Fazl Humayuan, the second Mughal emperor and Akbar's father, is praying to the Ka'ba, an islamic holy place, for a successor to the Mughal empire. After this prayer, Maryam Makani showcases different signs that she is pregnant with Akbar such as having a shining forehead that others believe to be a mirror on her face or the warmth and joy that enters her bosom when a light shines on her. Miryam believes the light to be God's Light blessing her unborn child. Nine months while Humayuan is away, Maryam gives birth to Akbar under what is considered an auspicious star and there is great celebration.
The second volume describes the detailed history of the reign of Akbar till 1602, records the events during Akbar's reign. It deals with that how Bairam Khan and Akbar won the battle of Panipat against Hemu an Indian warrior; the third volume is named Ā’īn-i-Akbarī, details the administrative system of the Empire as well as containing the famous "Account of the Hindu Sciences". It deals with Akbar's household, the revenues and the geography of the empire, it produces rich details about the traditions and culture of the people living in India. It is famous for its rich statistical details about things as diverse as crop yields, prices and revenues. Here Abu'l Fazl's ambition, in his own words, is: "It has long been the ambitious desire of my heart to pass in review to some extent, the general conditions of this vast country, to record the opinions professed by the majority of the learned among the Hindus. I know not whether the love of my native land has been the attracting influence or exactness of historical research and genuine truthfulness of narrative...".
In this section, he expounds the major beliefs of the six major Hindu philosophical schools of thought, those of the Jains, Nāstikas. He gives several Indian accounts of geography and some tidbits on Indian aesthetic thought. Most of this information is derived from Sanskrit texts and knowledge systems. Abu'l Fazl admits that he did not know Sanskrit and it is thought that he accessed this information through intermediaries Jains who were favoured at Akbar's court. In his description of Hinduism, Abu’l Fazl tries to relate everything back to something that the Muslims could understand. Many of the orthodox Muslims thought that the Hindus were guilty of two of the greatest sins and idolatry. On the topic of idolatry, Abu’l Fazl says that the symbols and images that the Hindus carry are not idols, but are there to keep their minds from wandering, he writes that only worshipping God is required. Abul Fazl describes the Caste system to his readers, he writes the name and duties of each caste. He goes on to describe the sixteen subclasses which come from intermarriage among the main four.
Abu’l Fazl next writes about Karma about which he writes, “This is a system of knowledge of an amazing and extraordinary character, in which the learned of Hindustan concur without dissenting opinion.” He places the actions. First, he writes many of the different ways in which a person from one class can be born into a different class in the next life and some of the ways in which a change in gender can be brought about, he sicknesses one suffers from. The third kind is the death of a child, and the fourth kind lack thereof. The Ain-i-Akbari is housed in the Hazarduari Palace, in West Bengal; the Akbarnama of Shaikh Illahdad Faiz Sirhindi is another contemporary biography of the Mughal emperor Akbar. This work is not original and a compilation from the Tabaqat-i-Akbari of Khwaja Nizam-ud-Din Ahmad and the more famous Akbarnama of Abu´l Fazl; the only original elements in this work are a few verses and so