A wet nurse is a woman who breast feeds and cares for another's child. Wet nurses are employed if the mother dies, or if she is unable or elects not to nurse the child herself. Wet-nursed children may be known as "milk-siblings", in some cultures the families are linked by a special relationship of milk kinship. Mothers who nurse each other's babies are engaging in a reciprocal act known as cross-nursing or co-nursing. Wetnursing existed in cultures around the world until the invention of reliable formula milk in the 20th century. A wet nurse can help when a mother is unwilling to feed her baby. Before the development of infant formula in the 20th century, when a mother was unable to breastfeed, a wetnurse was the only way to save the baby's life. There are many reasons why a mother is unable to produce sufficient breast milk, or in some cases to lactate at all. Reasons include the serious or chronic illness of the mother and her treatment which creates a temporary difficulty to nursing. Additionally, a mother's taking drugs may necessitate a wet nurse if a drug in any way changes the content of the mother's milk.
There was an increased need for wetnurses when the rates of infant abandonment by mothers, maternal death during childbirth, were high. Some women choose not to breastfeed for social reasons. Many of these women were found to be of the upper class. For them, breastfeeding was considered unfashionable, in the sense that it not only prevented these women from being able to wear the fashionable clothing of their time but it was thought to ruin their figures. Mothers lacked the support of their husbands to breastfeed their children, since hiring a wet nurse was less expensive than having to hire someone else to help run the family business and/or take care of the family household duties in their place; some women chose to hire wet nurses purely to escape from the confining and time-consuming chore of breastfeeding. Wet nurses have been used when a mother cannot produce sufficient breast milk, i.e. the mother feels incapable of adequately nursing her child following multiple births. A woman can only act as a wet-nurse.
It was once believed that a wet-nurse must have undergone childbirth. This is not the case, as regular breast suckling can elicit lactation via a neural reflex of prolactin production and secretion; some adoptive mothers have been able to establish lactation using a breast pump so that they could feed an adopted infant. Dr Gabrielle Palmer states: There is no medical reason why women should not lactate indefinitely or feed more than one child simultaneously... some women could theoretically be able to feed up to five babies. Wet nursing is common to many cultures, it has been linked to social class, where monarchies, the aristocracy, nobility or upper classes had their children wet-nursed for the benefit of the child's health, sometimes in the hope of becoming pregnant again quickly. Exclusive breastfeeding inhibits ovulation in some women. Poor women those who suffered the stigma of giving birth to an illegitimate child, sometimes had to give their baby up temporarily to a wet nurse, or permanently to another family.
The woman herself might in turn become wet nurse to a wealthier family, while using part of her wages to pay her own child's wet nurse. From Roman times and into the present day and thinkers alike have held the view that the important emotional bond between mother and child is threatened by the presence of a wet nurse. Many cultures feature stories, historical or mythological, involving superhuman, human and in some instances animal wet-nurses; the Bible refers to Deborah, a nurse to Rebekah wife of Isaac and mother of Jacob and Esau, who appears to have lived as a member of the household all her days. Midrashic commentaries on the Torah hold that the Egyptian princess Bithiah attempted to wet-nurse Moses, but he would take only his biological mother's milk. In Greek mythology, Eurycleia is the wet-nurse of Odysseus. In Roman mythology, Caieta was the wet-nurse of Aeneas. In Burmese mythology, Myaukhpet Shinma is the nat representation of the wet nurse of King Tabinshwehti. In Hawaiian mythology, Nuakea is a beneficent goddess of lactation.
In ancient Rome, well-to-do households would have had wet-nurses among their slaves and freedwomen, but some Roman women were wet-nurses by profession, the Digest of Roman law refers to a wage dispute for wet-nursing services. The landmark known as the Columna Lactaria may have been a place, it was considered admirable for upperclass women to breastfeed their own children, but unusual and old-fashioned in the Imperial era. Women of the working classes or slaves might have their babies nursed, the Roman-era Greek gynecologist Soranus offers detailed advice on how to choose a wet-nurse. Inscriptions such as religious dedications and epitaphs indicate that a nutrix would be proud of her profession. One records a nutritor lactaneus, a male "milk nurse" who used a bottle. Greek nurses were preferred, the Romans believed that a baby who had a Greek nutrix could imbibe the language and grow up speaking Greek as fluently as Latin; the importance of the wet nurse to ancient Roman culture is indicated by the founding myth of Romulus and Remus, who were abandoned as infants but nursed by the she-wolf, as portrayed in the famous Capitoline Wolf bronze sculpture.
Code Lyoko: Quest for Infinity is a 2007 video game for the Wii console based on the animated television series Code Lyoko. It is the second game based on the French animated television series Code Lyoko. PlayStation 2 and PlayStation Portable ports of the game were released in 2008; the PlayStation 3 and Xbox 360 versions were planned for release in 2009, but were cancelled for unknown reasons despite being nearly finished for release. It is the only Code Lyoko video game released on home consoles, as well as the only game for the Sony consoles; the game loosely follows Season 4 of the original series. After finishing the Skidbladnir in Carthage, the Lyoko Warriors set off to explore the Digital Sea, they discover numerous Replikas. After discovering that the Replikas are connected to supercomputers on Earth, Jeremie creates a process where the gang can transform into specters on Earth and keep their powers; this is on used to destroy the five supercomputers. At the end of the game and Odd destroy the Volcano Replika's supercomputer and rescue William from XANA's clutches.
The characters are controlled through various motions with the Wii Remote: slashing controls Ulrich's sword, aiming Odd's arrows by pointing with the Wii Remote, Yumi's balance on narrow walkways is maintained by tilting the controller, both the Wii Remote and the Nunchuk are used in conjunction to make Aelita fly. The game features locations not seen in the show, including the volcano sector. Unlike the previous game, the player is able to change characters. Code Lyoko: Quest for Infinity received "mixed" reviews on all platforms according to the review aggregation website Metacritic. Code Lyoko: Quest for Infinity at MobyGames Europe Code Lyoko Wii Game Factory page American Code Lyoko Wii Game Factory page
Iron Man is an American heavy metal band from Maryland, United States. Iron Man evolved from earlier Alfred Morris III projects Rat Salad. In 1988 the band changed their name to Iron Man. In 1999 the band released Generation Void; each album has had a new line-up with Morris being the only constant throughout the years. In 2006, a bootleg recording of Iron Man surfaced entitled Iron Man: Live in Cincinnati; this concert was one of the few performed on the ill-fated 2000 U. S. Tour; the show was recorded on February 2000 at Annie's Saloon in Cincinnati, Ohio. It was the last show with Dan Michalak & Vic Tomaso. At the beginning of 2000 Iron Man embarked on a 20 city U. S. tour. Temporary bassist ViiX recruited two additional temps for the tour, she provided a van for the band to use & did various photography & artwork. They resumed touring up until April 2000; this line up played their last show on April 1, 2000 at the Emerson Theatre in Indianapolis, Indiana. In 2004 Michael Lindenauer helped Morris to revive Iron Man.
Morris had recruited new band members, one of which, Jon Owen, was from England. This caused problems when they tried to make their first comeback show on July 9, 2005 at the Templars of Doom Festival held in Indianapolis. Jon Owen was unable to secure a proper visa in time and was going through a series of personal problems as well, it took the combined efforts of both Lindenauer to put the band back together yet again. Ex-members of Maryland doom bands Wretched and Life Beyond were recruited for the rhythm section. After a long search Lindenauer secure Joe Donnelly of Sabbra Cadabra. Iron Man was booked for the Doom Or Be Doomed Festival to be held over three days in Baltimore, Maryland on the weekend of April 13-15th, 2007. Just a month before the show, Basilika left the band over musical differences. Former Force drummer Brian "Dex" Dexter filled Basilika's spot. With the new line up intact the band made their comeback show as planned on April 15 at the D. O. B. D. Festival. Soon after, the band released the self-produced CDEP Submission.
In 2007, Leaf Hound Records began re-released the first two albums released on Hellhound Records. Both albums have been remastered; the Passage was re-released on CD. In 2008, Black Night was released on LP with plans to re-release the CD version in the future, and in 2009, Al Morris III guided yet another new lineup of Iron Man into the studio to record the band's fourth album, I Have Returned, released by Shadow Kingdom Records. 2010 saw the departure of drummer Dex Dexter and vocalist Joseph Donnelly, who were replaced by drummer Mike Rix and vocalist "Screaming Mad" Dee Calhoun. This new lineup recorded and released the self-produced Dominance EP in early 2011. There are two releases on Doom Records. There is a self-titled Force album and A Double Dose of Doom, which features Rat Salad and Obstination. In 1979, during the early Force years, Larry Brown was offered a spot in the Bad Brains but declined thinking Force was the better prospect. Morris appears on the Scene Killer album on MeteorCity Records, a collaboration of musicians from New Jersey bands along with a few out-of-state guests.
Former vocalist Rob Levey is now better known for his work in organizing the Stoner Hands of Doom festivals. On January 15, 2012, Iron Man posted the following announcement on their Facebook page: "Iron Man are happy to announce Jason'Mot' Waldmann as the band's new permanent drummer. Mot, a longtime friend and fan of Iron Man performed with the band in a fill-in basis, based on his performance and his friendship and chemistry with the band, has been awarded the full-time position. Iron Man graciously thanks everyone; the evidence of the richness of the talent pool regarding drummers within the MD/VA/DC region was evident during these auditions. Everyone, please welcome Mot to the Iron Man family as we look forward to a successful 2012!" That summer, Iron Man released their att hålla dig över EP. On February 4, 2013, Iron Man announced that they were about to begin recording their fifth full-length album, that they would again be working with Frank Marchand, who engineered I Have Returned; the resulting album, South of the Earth, was released in the UK/Europe on September 30, 2013 via Rise Above Records, in North America on October 1, 2013 via Metal Blade Records.
On January 10, 2018, Morris died at the age of 60. Black Night CD The Passage CD Generation Void CD Submission EP I Have Returned CD Dominance EP att hålla dig över EP South of the Earth The Passage CD The Passage CD Black Night CD Black Night LP Generation Void CD