In linguistics, cognates are words that have a common etymological origin. Cognates are inherited from a shared parent language, but they may involve borrowings from some other language. For example, the English words dish and desk and the German word Tisch are cognates because they all come from Latin discus, which relates to their flat surfaces. Cognates may have evolved similar, different or opposite meanings, but in most cases there are some similar sounds or letters in the words; some words don't come from the same root. The word cognate derives from the Latin noun cognatus, which means "blood relative". Cognates do not need to have the same meaning, which may have changed as the languages developed separately. For example English starve and Dutch sterven or German sterben all derive from the same Proto-Germanic root, *sterbaną. Discus is from Greek δίσκος. A and separate English reflex of discus through medieval Latin desca, is desk. Cognates do not need to have similar forms: English father, French père, Armenian հայր all descend directly from Proto-Indo-European *ph₂tḗr.
Examples of cognates in Indo-European languages are the words night, noche, nacht, nicht, nat, nátt, nótt, noc, ночь, noch, ноќ, noć, нощ, nosht, ніч, nich, ноч, noch/noč, noč, noć, νύξ, nox/nocte, nakt-, natë, nueche, notte, nit, nuèch/nuèit, nakts and Naach, all meaning "night" and being derived from the Proto-Indo-European *nókʷts "night". Another Indo-European example is star, str-, tora, astre/étoile, ἀστήρ, astro/stella, aster stea, astgh, ster, Schtähn, stjerne, stjärna, stjørna, setāre, seren, estel, estela estrella and astro Spanish, estrella Asturian and Leonese and astro and estêre or stêrk, from the Proto-Indo-European *h₂stḗr "star"; the Arabic سلام salām, the Hebrew שלום shalom, the Assyrian Neo-Aramaic shlama and the Amharic selam are cognates, derived from the Proto-Semitic *šalām- "peace". Cognates may be less recognised than the above examples, authorities sometimes differ in their interpretations of the evidence; the English word milk is a cognate of German Milch, Dutch melk, Russian молоко and Bosnian, Croatian, Slovenian mleko Montenegrin mlijeko.
On the other hand, French lait, Catalan llet, Italian latte, Romanian lapte, Spanish leche and leite are less-obvious cognates of Ancient Greek γάλακτος gálaktos, a relationship, more evidently seen through the intermediate Latin lac "milk" as well as the English word lactic and other terms borrowed from Latin. All of them come from Proto-Indo-European h₂melǵ- "milk"; some cognates are semantic opposites. For instance, while the Hebrew word חוצפה chutzpah means "impudence," its Classical Arabic cognate حصافة ḥaṣāfah means "sound judgment." Cognates within a single language, or doublets, may have meanings that are or totally different. For example, English ward and guard are cognates, as are skirt. In some cases, including this one, one cognate has an ultimate source in another language related to English, but the other one is native; that happened with many loanwords, such as skirt in this example, borrowed from Old Norse during the Danelaw. Sometimes both doublets come from other languages the same one but at different times.
For example, the word chief comes from the Middle French chef, its modern pronunciation preserves the Middle French consonant sound. Such word sets can be called etymological twins, they may come in groups of higher numbers, as with, for example, the words wain, waggon/wagon, vehicle in English. A word may enter another language, develop a new form or meaning there, be re-borrowed into the original language. For example, the Greek word κίνημα became French cinéma and later returned to Greece as σινεμά. In Greek, κίνημα and σινεμά are now doublets. A less obvious English-language doublet pair is glamour. False cognates are words that people believe are related, but that linguistic examination reveals are unrelated. For example, on the basis of superficial similarities, the Latin verb habēre and German haben, both meaning'to have
Vadodara is the third-largest city in the Indian state of Gujarat, after Ahmedabad and Surat. It is the administrative headquarters of Vadodara District and is located on the banks of the Vishwamitri river, 141 kilometres from the state capital Gandhinagar; the railway line and NH 8 that connect Mumbai pass through Vadodara. It is known as a Sanskari nagari of India; as of 2011, Vadodara had a population of 2.065 million people. The city is known for the Lakshmi Vilas Palace, the residence of Baroda State's Maratha royal family, the Gaekwads, it is the home of the Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda, the largest university in Gujarat. An important industrial and educational hub of western India, the city houses several institutions of national and regional importance while its major industries include petrochemicals, chemicals, plastics, IT and foreign exchange services; the first recorded history of the city is that of the early trader settlers who settled in the region in 812 AD. The province was Hindu-dominated with Hindu kings ruling until 1297.
The Gupta Empire was the first power in the region in the early years of the CE. The region was taken over by the Chaulukya dynasty. By this time Muslim rule had spread across India, the reins of power were snatched by the Delhi Sultans; the city was ruled for a long time by these Sultans. The city used to be called Chandanavati after its ruler Raja Chandan of the Dor tribe of Rajputs; the capital was known as Virakshetra or Viravati. On, it was known as Vadpatraka or Vadodará, which according to tradition is a corrupt form of the Sanskrit word vatodar meaning in the belly of the Banyan tree, it is now impossible to ascertain when the various changes in the name were made. In 1974, the official name of the city was changed to Vadodara. In 1907, a small village and township in Michigan, United States, were named after Baroda, it is believed that early man lived on the banks of the Mahi River, which formed the floodplain during that age. The movements of these hunter-gatherers, living on the banks of the river, grubbing the roots and killing animals with crude stone tools made out of the cobbles and pebbles available on the river bank, were controlled by the availability of convenient raw materials for their tools.
There is evidence of the existence of early man in the Mahi River valley at a number of sites within 10 to 20 kilometres to the north-east of Vadodara. However, no evidence of the existence of these people is found around present-day Vadodara; this may be because of the absence of cobbles on the banks of the Vishwamitri rivulet. Baroda State was a former Indian State. Vadodara's more recent history began when the Maratha general Pilaji Gaekwad conquered Songadh from the Mughals in 1726. Before the Gaekwads captured Baroda, it was ruled by the Babi Nawabs, who were the officers of the Mughal rulers. Most notably, from 1705–1716, Sardar Senapati Khanderao Dabhade led the Maratha Empire forces in Baroda. Except for a short period, Baroda continued to be in the reign of the Gaekwads from 1734 to 1948. Detailed to collect revenue on behalf of the Peshwa in Gujarat, Pilaji Gaekwad remained there to carve out a kingdom for himself. Damajirao, son and successor of Pilaji Gaekwad, defeated the Mughal armies and conquered Baroda in 1734.
His successors consolidated their power over large tracts of Gujarat, becoming the most powerful rulers in the region. After the Maratha defeat in the Third Battle of Panipat in 1761, control of the empire by the Peshwas weakened as it became a loose confederacy, the Gaekwad Maharajas ruled the kingdom until it acceded to Independent Republic of India in 1949. In 1802, the British intervened to defend a Maharaja that had inherited the throne from rival claimants, Vadodara concluded a subsidiary alliance with the British that recognised the Kingdom as a Princely state and allowed the Maharajas of Baroda internal political sovereignty in return for recognising British'Paramountcy', a form of suzerainty in which the control of the state's foreign affairs was surrendered; the golden period in the Maratha rule of Vadodara started with the accession of Maharaja Sayajirao III in 1875. Near Maharaja Sayaji Gaekwad University there is a well known garden, built by Maharaja Sayaji Rao Gaekwad himself in 1879 A.
D. This garden is known as Sayaji Baug known for visitors centre; this place is situated on river Vishwamitri. Vadodara is located at 22.30°N 73.19°E / 22.30. It is the 18th-largest city in India with an area of 235 square kilometres and a population of 2.1 million, according to the 2010–11 census. The city sits in central Gujarat; the Vishwamitri dries up in the summer, leaving only a small stream of water. The city is located on the fertile plain between the Narmada Rivers. According to the Bureau of Indian Standards, the cosmopolis falls under seismic zone-III, in a scale of I to V. Despite the 800 mm of precipitation that the city receives annually, Vadodara features a semi-arid climate under Köppen's Climate classification due to the area's high potential evapotranspiration. There are three main seasons: Summer and Winter. Aside from the monsoon season, the climate is dry; the weather is hot during March to July, when the average ma
Sanskrit is a language of ancient India with a history going back about 3,500 years. It is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism and the predominant language of most works of Hindu philosophy as well as some of the principal texts of Buddhism and Jainism. Sanskrit, in its variants and numerous dialects, was the lingua franca of ancient and medieval India. In the early 1st millennium CE, along with Buddhism and Hinduism, Sanskrit migrated to Southeast Asia, parts of East Asia and Central Asia, emerging as a language of high culture and of local ruling elites in these regions. Sanskrit is an Old Indo-Aryan language; as one of the oldest documented members of the Indo-European family of languages, Sanskrit holds a prominent position in Indo-European studies. It is related to Greek and Latin, as well as Hittite, Old Avestan and many other extinct languages with historical significance to Europe, West Asia, Central Asia, South Asia, it traces its linguistic ancestry to the Proto-Indo-Aryan language, Proto-Indo-Iranian and the Proto-Indo-European languages.
Sanskrit is traceable to the 2nd millennium BCE in a form known as the Vedic Sanskrit, with the Rigveda as the earliest known composition. A more refined and standardized grammatical form called the Classical Sanskrit emerged in mid-1st millennium BCE with the Aṣṭādhyāyī treatise of Pāṇini. Sanskrit, though not Classical Sanskrit, is the root language of many Prakrit languages. Examples include numerous modern daughter Northern Indian subcontinental languages such as Hindi, Bengali and Nepali; the body of Sanskrit literature encompasses a rich tradition of philosophical and religious texts, as well as poetry, drama, scientific and other texts. In the ancient era, Sanskrit compositions were orally transmitted by methods of memorisation of exceptional complexity and fidelity; the earliest known inscriptions in Sanskrit are from the 1st-century BCE, such as the few discovered in Ayodhya and Ghosundi-Hathibada. Sanskrit texts dated to the 1st millennium CE were written in the Brahmi script, the Nāgarī script, the historic South Indian scripts and their derivative scripts.
Sanskrit is one of the 22 languages listed in the Eighth Schedule of the Constitution of India. It continues to be used as a ceremonial and ritual language in Hinduism and some Buddhist practices such as hymns and chants; the Sanskrit verbal adjective sáṃskṛta- is a compound word consisting of sam and krta-. It connotes a work, "well prepared and perfect, sacred". According to Biderman, the perfection contextually being referred to in the etymological origins of the word is its tonal qualities, rather than semantic. Sound and oral transmission were valued quality in ancient India, its sages refined the alphabet, the structure of words and its exacting grammar into a "collection of sounds, a kind of sublime musical mold", states Biderman, as an integral language they called Sanskrit. From late Vedic period onwards, state Annette Wilke and Oliver Moebus, resonating sound and its musical foundations attracted an "exceptionally large amount of linguistic and religious literature" in India; the sound was visualized as "pervading all creation", another representation of the world itself, the "mysterious magnum" of the Hindu thought.
The search for perfection in thought and of salvation was one of the dimensions of sacred sound, the common thread to weave all ideas and inspirations became the quest for what the ancient Indians believed to be a perfect language, the "phonocentric episteme" of Sanskrit. Sanskrit as a language competed with numerous less exact vernacular Indian languages called Prakritic languages; the term prakrta means "original, normal, artless", states Franklin Southworth. The relationship between Prakrit and Sanskrit is found in the Indian texts dated to the 1st millennium CE. Patanjali acknowledged that Prakrit is the first language, one instinctively adopted by every child with all its imperfections and leads to the problems of interpretation and misunderstanding; the purifying structure of the Sanskrit language removes these imperfections. The early Sanskrit grammarian Dandin states, for example, that much in the Prakrit languages is etymologically rooted in Sanskrit but involve "loss of sounds" and corruptions that result from a "disregard of the grammar".
Dandin acknowledged that there are words and confusing structures in Prakrit that thrive independent of Sanskrit. This view is found in the writing of the author of the ancient Natyasastra text; the early Jain scholar Namisadhu acknowledged the difference, but disagreed that the Prakrit language was a corruption of Sanskrit. Namisadhu stated that the Prakrit language was the purvam and they came to women and children, that Sanskrit was a refinement of the Prakrit through a "purification by grammar". Sanskrit belongs to the Indo-European family of languages, it is one of the three ancient documented languages that arose from a common root language now referred to as the Proto-Indo-European language: Vedic Sanskrit. Mycenaean Greek and Ancient Greek. Mycenaean Greek is the older recorded form of Greek, but the limited material that has survived has a ambiguous writing system. More important to Indo-European studies is Ancient Greek, documented extensively beginning with the two Homeric poems. Hittite.
This is the earliest-recorded of all Indo-European languages, distinguishable into Old Hittite, Middle Hittite and Neo-Hittite. I
The Koch dynasty of Assam and Bengal, named after the Koch community, emerged as the dominant ruling house in the Kamata kingdom in 1515 after the fall of the Khen dynasty in 1498. The first of the Koch kings, Viswa Singha and his sons, Nara Narayan as the subsequent king and Chilarai as the general, soon occupied the western portion of the erstwhile Kamarupa Kingdom as well as some regions of south Assam; the dynasty forked for the first time into two major branches that controlled Koch Bihar and Koch Hajo. Koch Bihar became a vassal of the Mughals, whereas Koch Hajo came under Ahom control and was subsequently absorbed. Koch Bihar was absorbed after Indian independence; the third branch of this dynasty at Khaspur disappeared into the Kachari kingdom. After the fall of the Pala dynasty of Kamarupa, the kingdom fractured into different domains in the 12th century. In the east the Chutiya kingdom emerged on the south bank of Brahmaputra river; the Ahom kingdom which emerged in the south bank occupied and absorbed the larger Chutiya kingdom.
To there west was the Kachari kingdom. Sandhya, a ruler of Kamarupanagara moved his capital further west to present-day North Bengal in the middle of the 13th century and the domain he ruled over came to be called Kamata kingdom; the buffer region, between the eastern kingdoms and Kamata was the domain of the Baro-Bhuyans chieftains. Alauddin Husain Shah of Gaur defeated Nilambar of Kamata in 1498, occupied the region and placed his son, Daniyal in charge. Within a few years, the Baro-Bhuyans, led by one Harup Narayan of the Brahmaputra valley defeated and executed Daniyal, the region lapsed into Bhuyan confederate rule. Meanwhile, an alliance was formed when a Mech chief, Haridas Mandal, married two sisters Hira and Jira, the daughters of Hajo, a Koch chief. Haridas Mandal's domain was in Chikna Mountains situated between the Sankosh River and the Champabati River, about 80 kilometers north of Dhubri in the erstwhile Undivided Goalpara district of Assam. Bisu, to become Viswa Singha, was born to Haridas Mandal and Hira.
The first ruler of the Koch dynasty was Vishwa Singha, who established himself in 1515 as the ruler of the Kamata kingdom. According to J N Sarkar, Viswa Singha belonged to one of the dominant Koch tribes, which were a collection of Mongoloid tribes with mech dominated, loosely allied to Garos and Dravidians; when Bisu, as Viswa Singha was known, acquired power, the Brahmins found him out and conferred on him the status of the Kshatriya varna. The earliest known ancestor of Viswa Singha was his father Haria Mandal, from the Chiknabari village in Goalpara district, the head of the twelve most powerful Mech families. Haria Mandal was married to Jira and Hira, daughters of a Koch chief named Hajo, after whom Koch Hajo was named. Viswa Singha was the son of Haria Hira. Viswa Singha sought the alliance of tribal chiefs against the more powerful Baro-Bhuyans and began his campaign around 1509. Successively, he defeated the Bhuyans of Ouguri, Karnapur, Phulaguri and Pandunath, he was stretched by the Bhuyan of Kanrnapur, could defeat him only by a stratagem during Bihu.
After subjugating the petty rulers, he announced himself the king of Kamata bounded on the east by Barnadi river and on the west by the Karatoya river in the year 1515. He moved his capital from Chikana to Kamatapur, just a few miles southeast of the present-day Cooch Behar town. Viswa Singha's two sons and Shukladhwaj, the king and the commander-in-chief of the army took the kingdom to its zenith. Nara Narayan made Raghudev, the son of Chilarai, the governor of Koch Hajo, the eastern portion of the country. After the death of Nara Narayan, Raghudev declared independence; the division of the Kamata kingdom into Koch Bihar and Koch Hajo was permanent. Nara Narayan was impressed by the bhakti saint Srimanta Sankardeva who became a member of his court in the last three years of his life and who established a sattra in the kingdom. Biswa Singha Nara Narayan Lakshmi Narayan Bir Narayan Pran Narayan Basudev Narayan Mahindra Narayan Roop Narayan Upendra Narayan Devendra Narayan Dhairjendra Narayan Rajendra Narayan Dharendra Narayan Harendra Narayan Shivendra Narayan Narendra Narayan Nripendra Narayan Rajendra Narayan II Jitendra Narayan Jagaddipendra Narayan Virajdendra Narayan Raghudev Parikshit Narayan Parikshit Narayana was attacked by the Mughals stationed at Dhaka in alliance with Lakshmi Narayan of Koch Bihar in 1612.
His kingdom Koch Hajo, bounded by Sankosh river in the west and Barnadi river in the east, was occupied by the end of that year. Parikshit Narayan was sent to Delhi for an audience with the Mughal Emperor, but his brother Balinarayan escaped and took refuge in the Ahom kingdom; the region to the east of Barnadi and up to the Bharali river was under the control of some Baro-Bhuyan chieftains, but they were soon removed by the Mughals. In 1615 the Mughals, under Syed Hakim and Syed Aba Bakr, attacked the Ahoms but were repelled back to the Barnadi river; the Ahom king, Prataap Singha established Balinarayan as a vassal in the newly acquired region between Barnadi and Bharali rivers, called it Darrang. Balinarayan's descendants continued to rule the region till it was annexed by the British in 1826. Balinarayan Mahendra Narayan Chandra Narayan Surya Narayan... Gaj Narayan Dev (brother of Parikshit Narayan, ruler of Koch Hajo, brother of Balinarayan, first Koch ruler o
Patiala State was a self-governing princely state of British Empire in India. Patiala was one of the Phulkian States; this state was Sidhu Jat State. When the British left India in 1947, they abandoned their subsidiary alliances with the princely states, the Maharajah of Patiala Yadvindra Singh acceded to the new Union of India. Patiala state was established in 1763 by Maharaja Ala Singh, a chieftain who laid the foundation of the Patiala fort known as Qila Mubarak, around'which the present city of Patiala is built. After the Third Battle of Panipat in 1761 in which the Marathas were defeated by the Afghans, the writ of the Afghans prevailed throughout Punjab, it is at this stage. The Patiala state saw more than forty years of ceaseless power struggle with the Afghan Durrani Empire, Maratha Empire and the Sikh Empire of Lahore. In 1808, the Maharaja of Patiala entered into a treaty with the British against Ranjit Singh of Lahore in 1808, thus becoming collaborator in the grand empire building process by the British in, the sub-continent of India.
Patiala became a 17-guns salute state during the British Raj. The rulers of Patiala such as Maharaja Karam Singh, Narinder Singh, Mahendra Singh, Rajinder Singh, Bhupinder Singh and Yadvindra Singh were treated with respect and dignity by the British; the city of Patiala was designed and developed according to a plan akin to that of temple architecture, the first settlers of Patiala were the Hindus of Sirhind, who opened their business establishments outside the Darshani Gate. The royal house is now headed by Captain Amarinder Singh, the current Chief Minister of Punjab; the royals are considered political icons in east Punjab. Maharaja Karam Singh who ruled from 1813 to 1845 joined the British East India Company and helped the British during the First Anglo Sikh wars against the Sikh Empire of Maharajah Ranjit Singh of Punjab, larger and extended from Tibet Kashmir, plains of Punjab to Peshawar near the Afghan borders. Patiala gets name after the Sidhu Jat founder of Patiala state, it was earlier known as Pat-Ala.
This office became hereditary amongst his descendants until Phul, the Sikh ancestor of the dynasty, which came to rule over Patiala and Nabha. The history of Patiala state starts off with the ancestor of the Sikh Patiala Royal House, Mohan Singh being harassed by neighbouring Bhullars and Dhaliwals farmers, they would not allow Mohan to settle there. He was a follower of the Guru appealed on behalf of Mohan but to no avail; the result was an armed struggle and the Bhullars and Dhaliwals were defeated by the Guru's men, which allowed Mohan to establish the Village of Meharaj in 1627. Mohan Singh fought against the Mughals at the Battle of Mehraj 1631 on the side of Guru Hargobind Sahib. Mohan Singh and his eldest son Rup Chand were killed in a fight against the Bhatti's. Kala, Mohan's younger son succeeded the "chaudriyat", was guardian to Rup Chand's sons Phul and Sandali; when Kala Sidhu died, Phul formed his own village, five miles from Meharaj in 1663. Nabha and Jind trace their ancestry to the devout Sikh Phul.
It was one of the first Sikh Kingdoms of Punjab to be formed. The appellation of dynasty "Phulkian" is derived from their common founder. One of his sons, Chota Ram, was blessed by Guru Gobind Singh, his son Ala Singh assumed the leadership in 1714 when Banda Bahadur was engaged in the fierce battle against the Mughals. A man with vision and courage, Ala Singh's general, Gurbaksh Singh Kaleka, carved out an independent principality from a Zamindari of 30 villages. Under his successors, it expanded into a large state, touching the Shivaliks in north, Rajasthan in the south and upper courses of the Yamuna and Sutlej rivers while confronting the most trying and challenging circumstances. In the middle of the eighteenth century, Baba Ala Singh, unlike many of his contemporaries, displayed tremendous shrewdness in dealing with the Marathas and Afghans, established a state which he had started building up from its nucleus Barnala, he became traitor to the Sikhs, who made him a Sardar from a peasant and fought on the side of Ahmad Shah Abdali against the Sikhs.
In 1763 Baba Ala Singh laid the foundation of the Patiala fort known as Qila Mubarak, around which the present city of Patiala developed. After the Third Battle of Panipat in 1761 in which the Marathas were defeated, the writ of the Afghans prevailed throughout Punjab, it is at this stage. Ahmad Shah Abdali bestowed upon Ala Singh furm and banner, the title of Maharaja of Patiala. After his death, his grandson Amar Singh received the title of Raja-I-Rajaan, he was allowed to strike coins. After forty years of ceaseless struggle with the Marathas and Afghans, the borders of the Patiala state witnessed the blazing trails of Ranjit Singh in the north and of the British in the east. Bestowed with the grit and instinct of survival, making self-preservation a priority the Raja of Patiala entered into a treaty with the British against Ranjit Singh in 1808, thus becoming collaborators in the empire building process of the British in the sub-continent of India; the subsequent rulers of Patiala, such as Karam Singh, Narinder Singh, Mahendra Singh, Rajinder Singh, Bhupinder Singh, Yadvindra Singh were parties to a subsidiary alliance and were influenced by the British, but retained the internal government of their state.
Maharani is a 2005 music album by Nicolette "Nikki" Palikat, the Kadazan-Dusun singer from Malaysian Idol, released on the Artistes United Records label. Ning Baizura is the executive producer; the album was released with the second disc containing remixes. The album features a diverse range of instrumentation, from violins on "Imaginasi" to beat-drums and techno, features a rap from the Akademi Fantasia contestant Zahid. "Sunudai Oku" is sung in Bahasa Dusun. "Pinta" is the first single. The music video for "Caramu," track 2 and one of her most popular hits, has fallen subject to considerable criticism due to blatant use of concepts and choreography from various works of international South Korean pop star, BoA. In late 2006, the album were re-released with new tracks, new remixes as well a bonus music video VCD containing her music videos. "Imaginasi" Composer: Audi Mok and Nur Fatima Lyrics: Nur Fatima "Caramu" Featuring: Zahid Composer: Audi Mok Lyrics: Nurfatima "Perang Atau Cinta" Composer: Audi Mok Lyrics: Layla Ismail and Ad Samad "Cinta Baru" Composer: Johan Farid Khairuddin and Omar K Lyrics: Johan Farid Khairuddin & Omar K "Julangan Permata" Composer: Audi Mok Lyrics: Anedra "Bahagia Selamanya" Composer: Audi Mok Lyrics:Ain "Janji" Composer: Audi Mok Lyrics:Azalea "Aku Maharani" Composer: Audi Mok.
Hey!" Composer: Audi Mok Lyrics:Ad Samad "Pinta" Composer: Hazami Lyrics:Imran Notes: Released as first single "Sunudai Oku" Composer: Jimmy Palikat Lyrics: Florencia binti Kosmas "Caramu" Composer: Audi Mok.
Gondal is a city and a municipality in the Rajkot district of the Indian state of Gujarat. Gondal state was one of the eight first class princely states of Kathiawar Agency, Bombay Presidency in British India. Ruled by a Hindu Rajput dynasty of the Jadeja clan, the capital of the state was Gondal town. In 2011, the Population of the Gondal City Was 113,000 approximately. Gondal is mentioned in texts like Mirat-i-Ahmadi as a Vaghela state in Sorath; the Gondal state in Kathiawar Agency was founded in 1634 by Thakore Shri Kumbhoji I Meramanji from the Jadeja dynasty, who received Ardoi and other villages from his father Meramanji. Kumbhoki's fourth descendant, Kumbhoji IV, increased the size of the state by acquiring parganas such as Doraji and Sarai. Sir Bhagwant Singhji, who reigned from 1888 until his death in 1944, was noted for tax reforms, compulsory education for women, for stopping the practice of purdah at a time when the royal households of India were known for this tradition. In 1901, Gondal city had a population of 19,592, was a stop on the branch line between Rajkot and Jetalsar on the Viramgam-Rajkot and Rajkot-Somnath lines.
The ancestors of Muhammad Ali Jinnah, founder of Pakistan, belong to Paneli village in Gondal state. The Naulakha Palace is the oldest extant palace in Gondal, dating back to the 17th century, it has stone carvings with jharokhas, a pillared courtyard, delicately carved arches, a unique spiral staircase. The large chandelier-lit durbar contains stuffed panthers, gilt wooden furniture, antique mirrors; the Private Palace Museum has a display of silver caskets which were used to carry messages and gifts for Maharajah Bhagwat Sinhji during his silver jubilee as ruler of Gondal. The Riverside Palace was built in 1875 by Maharajah Bhagwat Sinhji for Yuvraj Bhojraji, it has groomed lawns and gardens, a living room furnished in typical colonial style with chandelier, antique wooden furniture and sofas, an "Indian room" decorated with beadwork and paintings. The palace has now become a heritage hotel; the Huzoor Palace is the current royal residence. One wing of this palace, called the Orchard palace, is open to the public.
It was built as an annex of the Huzoor Palace in the late 19th century to host guests of the Maharajas. The property gets its name from the fruit orchards and gardens that surround the palace. Orchard Palace was converted into a seven-room heritage hotel decorated with 1930s–1940s art deco furniture and handicrafts; the garden contains many types including a large population of peacocks. The Room of Miniatures is a sitting room with a collection of miniature paintings and furniture. One of the highlights of the palace is the Rail Saloon of the royal family of Gondal, converted into a suite with a drawing room, dining room and bedroom; the royal garages have an extensive collection of classic cars. The rulers of Gondal were Thakurs of the Jadeja dynasty, they bore the title'Thakur Sahib' from 1866 onwards. The people of the Gondal, as in most of the other parts of Saurashtra, are considered spiritual; the temples in Gondal include Akshar Mandir and Deri, Shri Trikamrayji Haveli,Shri Madanmohanji ni haveli,Shri Ramji Mandir,Bhuvneshwari Mandir, Ashapura Mata, Sureshwar Mahadev, Dhareshwar Mahadev,Kashi Vishwanath Mahadev and the massive Ambey Dham Temple.
There is another Pushtimargiya Havelis and Swaminarayan temple in the city centre. The Akshar Deri, housed within the Akshar Mandir, is the samadhi sthan of Gunatitanand Swami, a paramhansa of Swaminarayan, is accepted as the first spiritual successor of Swaminarayan by the Bochasanwasi Akshar Purushottam Swaminarayan Sanstha; this temple is visited by people from all over the world Dasi Jeevan Mandir in Ghoghavadar, 6 km from Gondal, is a site where Saint Dasi Jeevan lived. Every Gujarati New Year day, people gather to celebrate the holy saint's birthday. Anand Ashrama, located easterly to Gondal close to Ghoghavadar, is a research center for folklore and Gujarati literature. Gondal is located at 21.97°N 70.8°E / 21.97. It has an average elevation of 132 metres. Total Population of Gondal City as per last census was 113,000 Approx. While the Average Literacy rate is 84.3% much higher than the national average of 59%. The Demographic Distribution of the Gondal city as per 2011 census is as mentioned below: Gondal has a history of art and literature.
It is the birthplace of poets and artists like Pankaj Udhas, Manhar Udhas, Nirmal Udhas, Makarand Dave, Jay Vasavada. The first Gujarati dictionary was written by noted educationalists/authors in Gondal with the financial support of Sir Bhagvatsighji Maharaj. Janmashtami is a major and important festival and a week-long holiday. The'Janmashtami Lok Mela' is organized for five to seven days at Sangramsinhji highschool ground to celebrate Janmashtami; the largest factors in the economy of Gondal are oil mills and marketing yards. Gondal is the largest producer of ground nut oil with 300 -- 500 oil mills; the marketing yard is one of the biggest in the Kathiawar region and the second largest in Gujarat, after Unjha. Gondal is growing in the cotton trade with the development of many pressing industries. In addition, there are two Ayurvedic medicine manufacturers in Gondal that export overseas, as well as businesses involved in jewelry design, timber trading, hardware manufacturing. Farming is important i