click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Mainland Chinese Braille

Chinese Braille is a braille script used for Standard Mandarin in China. Consonants and basic finals conform to international braille, but additional finals form a semi-syllabary, as in zhuyin; each syllable is written with up to three Braille cells, representing the initial and tone, respectively. In practice tone is omitted as it is in pinyin. Traditional Chinese Braille is as follows: Chinese Braille initials follow the pinyin assignments of international braille. However, j, q, x are replaced with g, k, h, as the difference is predictable from the final; the digraphs ch, sh, zh are assigned to ⠟, ⠱, ⠌. R is assigned to ⠚, reflecting the old Wade-Giles transcription of ⟨j⟩; the finals approximate international values for several of the basic vowels, but necessarily diverge. However, there are a few parallels with other braille alphabets: ⠗ er and ⠽ wai are pronounced like the names of those letters in English braille. ⠯ yuan, ⠾ yue, ⠣ yin, are similar to ieu, in. For the most part, Chinese Braille finals do not derive from previous conventions.

The pinyin final -i is only written where it corresponds to yi. Otherwise* no final is written, a convention found in zhuyin; the final -e is not written in ⠙ de, a common grammatical particle written with several different characters in print. Tone is marked sparingly. Chinese Braille punctuation approximates the form of international braille punctuation, but several spread the corresponding dots across two cells rather than one. For example, the period is ⠐⠆, the same pattern as the international single-cell norm of ⠲. Spaces are added between words, rather than between syllables. Tone is marked, it comes after the final. As in zhuyin, the finals of the syllables zi, ci, si, chi, shi, ri are not marked. Two examples, the first with full tone marking, the second with tone for disambiguation only: 时间不早了! ⠱⠂⠛⠩⠁⠀⠃⠥⠆⠀⠵⠖⠄⠀⠇⠢⠰⠂草地上的花是风吹开的。 ⠉⠖⠄⠙⠊⠆⠀⠱⠦⠀⠙⠀⠓⠿⠁⠀⠱⠆⠀⠋⠼⠀⠟⠺⠅⠪⠀⠙⠐⠆ Chinese Braille has the same low level of ambiguity that pinyin does. In practice, tone is omitted 95 % of the time. Tone is omitted in pinyin military telegraphy, causes little confusion in context.

The initial pairs g/j, k/q, h/x are distinguished by the final: initials j, q, x are followed by the vowels i or ü, while the initials g, k, h are followed by other vowels. This reflects the historical derivation of j, q, x from g, k, h before i and ü, parallels the dual pronunciations of c and g in Spanish and Italian. In pinyin, the redundancy is resolved in the other direction, with the diaeresis omitted from ü after j, q, x, thus braille ⟨ gü ⟩ is equivalent to pinyin ju: ⠛ ⠬ ju. The China Library for the Blind in Beijing has several thousand volumes published by the China Braille Press; the National Taiwan Library has a Braille room with a postal mail service and some electronic documents. Two-Cell Chinese Braille Taiwanese Braille Cantonese Braille Moon type is a simplification of the Latin alphabet for embossing. An adaptation for Ningbo-reading blind people has been proposed. Grotz, J.. "The necessary reform of Chinese Braille writing". Rehabilitation. 30: 153–5. PMID 1947424. Constance Frederica Gordon Cumming.

Work for the blind in China. Printed by Gilbert & Rivington, Limited, St. John's House, London E. C.: Gilbert & Rivington, Ld. p. 79. Retrieved April 23, 2012. Omniglot: Braille for Chinese 学点盲文 Braille at the Dongli Disabled Persons' Federation

Achref Aouadi

Achref Aouadi is a Tunisian civil society activist and founder and president of the Tunisian watchdog organisation I-Watch working on transparency and anti-corruption. He was born in May 1986, in Sers in El Kef. Aouadi belongs to a family of militants and members of the opposition to the Bourguiba and Ben Ali regimes. Aouadi has a Research master's degree in English Literature - Cross-Cultural Studies from the Tunisian Higher Institute of Languages, University of Tunis and another master's degree in International Political Economy from Birmingham University, the United Kingdom, he taught International Political Economy in Ibn Charaf Institute in Tunis. He enrolled in the International Anti-Corruption Academy in 2011, before engaging in fighting corruption; as a student, in 2009, Aouadi founded the “Student-To-Student university club” In 2011, Achref started a voting campaign Go Vote came the idea of I-Watch which became an established yet young non-governmental organisation. He observed the 2011 elections.

Aouadi represents the Tunisian Civil Society in the United Nations Convention Anti-Corruption yearly. He was chosen by the United Nations in 2011. Achref Aouadi, on behalf of the I-Watch organisation, won the TI Amalia Award in September 2017, he was nominated as well for the Buffett Award for Emerging Global Leaders. Aouadi was appointed as an Ashoka fellow in 2019. In July 2016, the I-Watch organisation published an investigative report that showed the taxes invasion of the company Karoui & Karoui owned by Nabil Karoui and his brother. After his withdrawal from I-Watch, Aouadi came back into presidency to assume his responsibilities in the Nessma Investigation. After the audio leaked of Nabil Karoui, owner of Nessma TV in April 2017, that included defamation and threats, Aouadi declared that Karoui had put a car in front of their headquarters in Tunis to observe them. Different organisations released statements in support of Achref Aouadi and I-Watch Organisation and its members; the Financial Judicial Center convened an invitation to hear what Aouadi had in the presented case of tax evasion of Nessma.

Minister of Civil Society and Human Rights Mehdi Ben Gharbia reacted to the issue and met with Aouadi to discuss it. Achref Aouadi on Facebook The investigative report of the Nessma Affair Young Leader in Tunisia

Johan Claesson

Johan Claesson is a retired Swedish footballer who last played for IK Sirius in the Swedish Division 1 Norra. Claesson began his career as part of the youth team at Hagby IK, before moving to IK Sirius, where he played until 2005. Claesson moved to Gefle IF in 2005, spent four years with the team. Used as a substitute, he won a first team spot, went on to make 100 appearances for the club in the Allsvenskan, scoring three goals. In December 2008 Claesson signed a one-year contract with the Portland Timbers of the USL First Division with the option of a second year, he played 23 games and scored 1 goal in his debut season with the Timbers, proved to be an important part of the team's midfield, helping them to the 2009 USL-1 regular season title. In December 2010 Claesson signed for his old club IK Sirius in the Swedish third tier. USL First Division Commissioner's Cup: 2009 Portland Timbers bio

Brian Price (rugby union)

Brian Price is a former Wales international rugby union player. Price first played international rugby for Wales in 1961 after impressing in the Barbarians squad against South African, he was selected for the 1966 British Lions tour of Australia and New Zealand playing in all four tests, spent the majority of his career playing at club level for Newport. A teacher by profession he became a journalist and aports presenter for radio and television. In 2006 he became President of the Former Player Association. Price was born in Deri near Bargoed in South Wales. After leaving national service he took a place at St Luke's College and represented the College's rugby team, he played for Cardiff College of Education, where he gained a teaching qualification becoming a PE and a Technical Drawing teacher at Thomas Richard Mining & Tech Institute in Tredegar and Caldicot Comprehensive. After leaving education he played for Cross Keys RFC before joining Newport in 1960. In early 1961 Price was part of the Newport team who narrowly lost to the touring South Africa squad.

Less than a month he was selected to play for the Barbarians against the same South African team, beating them 6-0. Uncapped at the time, his performance for the Barbarians saw him fast-tracked into the Wales international team playing against Ireland just a month in the 1961 Five Nations Championship, his Captained the club, most notably in the victory against the 1963 New Zealand All Blacks and attained 32 international caps for Wales including Triple Crown wins in 1965 and 1969 as Captain of Wales. He was selected for Wales' first overseas tour in 1964 and played in the Welsh rugby team's first match outside of Europe and its first in the Southern Hemisphere, he played 262 games for Newport in all. Price played for the British and Irish Lions on the 1966 tour of Australia and New Zealand. Billot, John. Springboks in Wales. Ferndale: Ron Jones Publications. Jenkins, John M.. Who's Who of Welsh International Rugby Players. Wrexham: Bridge Books. ISBN 1-872424-10-4. BBC Sport Fiji Tour 1964

Guiana dolphin

The Guiana dolphin known as the estuarine dolphin, or costero, is a dolphin found in the coastal waters to the north and east of South America, east of Central America. It is a member of the oceanic dolphin family, it can live both in freshwater. During its 2008 Annual Meeting in Santiago, Chile, as proposed by Flores et al. the Scientific Committee of the International Whaling Commission endorsed ‘Guiana dolphin’ as the common English name for in its IWC List of Recognized Cetacean Species. Furthermore, the common name "Guiana dolphin" has been suggested by colleagues; the Guiana dolphin is described as looking similar to the bottlenose dolphin. However, it is smaller, at only up to 2.1 m in length. The dolphin is coloured light to bluish grey on its back and sides; the ventral region is light grey. The dorsal fin is slightly hooked, with a triangular shape; the beak is well-defined and of moderate length. Guiana dolphins are inconspicuous, they do not bow ride on boats and swims away from them.

Researchers have shown that the costero has an electroreceptive sense, speculate this may be the case for other odontocetes. Although described as species distinct from the tucuxi Sotalia fluviatilis by Pierre-Joseph van Bénéden in 1864, the costero Sotalia guianensis has subsequently been synonymized with Sotalia fluviatilis with the two species being treated as subspecies, or marine and freshwater varieties; the first to reassert differences between these two species was a three-dimensional morphometric study of Monteiro-Filho and colleagues. Subsequently, a molecular analysis by Cunha and colleagues unambiguously demonstrated that Sotalia guianensis was genetically differentiated from Sotalia fluviatilis; this finding was reiterated by colleagues with a larger number of genes. The existence of two species has been accepted by the scientific community; the costero is found close to estuaries and other protected shallow-water areas around the eastern and northern South American coast. It has been reported as far south as southern Brazil and north as far as Nicaragua.

One report exists of an animal reaching Honduras. 34 survive in Guanabara Bay near Rio de Janeiro, down from 70 in 1995 and 400 in 1985. More than 60 species of demersal and pelagic schooling fish have been reported as prey. Small fish of 8 in or less are preferred. Foraging may be carried out individually or in groups. Different dolphin communities may adopt their own foraging strategies based on local circumstances. One of the best studied groups herds fish onto beaches and half strands themselves for a few seconds while grabbing their prey; this species forms small groups of about 2-10 individuals up to 100, swim in tight-knit groups, suggesting a developed social structure. They are quite active and may jump clear of the water, spy-hop or tail-splash, they are unlikely, however, to approach boats. They feed on a wide variety of fish and squid. Studies of growth layers suggest. In December 2006, researchers from the Southern University of Chile and the Rural Federal University of Rio de Janeiro witnessed attempted infanticide by a group of costeros in Sepetiba Bay, Brazil.

A group of six adults separated a mother from her calf, four keeping her at bay by ramming her and hitting her with their flukes. The other two adults rammed the calf, held it under water threw it into the air and held it under water again; the mother was seen again in a few days, but not her calf. Since females become sexually receptive within a few days of losing a calf, the group of attacking males was sexually interested in the female, it is possible that the infanticide occurred for this reason. Infanticide has been reported twice before in bottlenose dolphins, but is thought to be uncommon among cetaceans; the costero is listed on Appendix II of the Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals. It is listed on Appendix II as it has an unfavourable conservation status or would benefit from international co-operation organised by tailored agreements; as with all coastal cetaceans, the Guiana dolphin suffers from negative interactions with humans. Entanglement in gill nets, seine nets, shrimp traps is responsible for the death of many animals each year.

There is limited gene flow between concentrations of this dolphin, large stretches of coast contain no animals at all, so recovery from depletion of a local population may take time. List of cetacean species Flach, Leonardo; the Journal of Cetacean Research and Management. 10: 31–36. ISSN 1561-0713. Retrieved January 2013. Rosas, Fernando C Weber. "Reproduction of the Estuarine Dolphin on the Coast of Paraná, Southern Brazil". Journal of Mammalogy. 83: 507–515. Doi:10.1644/1545-1542083<0507:ROTEDS>2.0. CO. Whale and Dolphin Conservation Society

Seán O'Mahony

Seán O'Mahony was an Irish Sinn Féin politician and member of the First and Second Dáil. He was born as John Mahony in Logan Street, County Kilkenny, to James Mahony, a tailor, Mary Cantwell. A successful businessman he was a commercial traveller, his company, John O'Mahoney & Co. was located on Middle Abbey St. and was destroyed during the 1916 Easter Rising. It subsequently reestablished on Parnell Square, he subsequently purchased and ran Fleming's Hotel, located at 31-32 Gardiner Place, Dublin. A close friend of Arthur Griffith, he became an organiser for Sinn Féin and was elected to Dublin Corporation for the party, he was subsequently interned at Frongoch and Lincoln Jail. He remained with Sinn Féin, he was jailed in Lincoln Gaol in England. While imprisoned he was elected as a Sinn Féin MP for Fermanagh South in the 1918 general election, he attended the proceedings of the First Dáil. He was re-arrested at the Sinn Féin offices in November 1919 and was imprisoned for three months in England.

He would be arrested several more times throughout the Anglo-Irish War and his hotel was used as a meeting place by Sinn Féin members throughout the time. He was elected in the 1921 general election to the Second Dáil for Tyrone; as a result of the Government of Ireland Act 1920 this election was to provide the membership of two assemblies: the Southern Ireland House of Commons and the Northern Ireland House of Commons. The eight seat Fermanagh-Tyrone constituency was one of several in the Northern Ireland House of Commons; as members of Sinn Féin did not recognise either assembly he and the other five Sinn Féin TDs continued to attend the Dáil. During the debates on the Anglo-Irish Treaty he opposed ratification of the document and voted against ratification, he left the Dáil with the other Anti-Treaty TDs. As the only member of the Second Dáil not elected to the Southern Ireland House of Commons, his status in the Third Dáil in 1922 was unclear. O'Mahony was not invited to attend the opening of the Provisional Parliament.

De Valera was keen for him to attend since if he had been refused entry it would have demonstrated, in the minds of Anti-Treaty supporters, that the assembly was not an All-Ireland Dáil. In the end O'Mahony did not attend. O'Mahony remained an abstentionist MP to Stormont until the 1925 Northern Ireland general election, when he did not stand for re-election, he remained with Sinn Féin after the 1926 split, serving on the party's Ard Chomairle until his death. He died in 1934, his funeral was attended by representatives of Sinn Féin, the Irish Republican Army, Fianna Fáil, Fianna Éireann, Cumann na mBan, Mná na Poblachta. He is buried in Glasnevin Cemetery, he was survived by his wife, a son, a daughter, Máire. The Gaelic football club Seán O'Mahony's is named after him. Dorothy Macardle, The Irish Republic. Frank Gallagher, The Four Glorious Years, 2005 edition. Biography from Northern Ireland Parliamentary Election Results Irish Independent, 29 & 30 November, 1 December 1934