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Mainz

Mainz is the capital and largest city of Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany. The city is located on the Rhine river at its confluence with the Main river, opposite Wiesbaden on the border with Hesse. Mainz is an independent city with a population of 217,118 and forms part of the Frankfurt Rhine-Main Metropolitan Region. Mainz was founded by the Romans in the 1st century BC during the Classical antiquity era, serving as a military fortress on the northernmost frontier of the Roman Empire and as the provincial capital of Germania Superior. Mainz became an important city in the 8th century AD as part of the Holy Roman Empire, becoming the capital of the Electorate of Mainz and seat of the Archbishop-Elector of Mainz, the Primate of Germany. Mainz is famous as the home of Johannes Gutenberg, the inventor of the movable-type printing press, who in the early 1450s manufactured his first books in the city, including the Gutenberg Bible. Mainz was damaged during World War II, with more than 30 air raids destroying about 80 percent of the city's center, including most of the historic buildings.

Today, Mainz is a center of wine production. Mainz is located on the 50th latitude, on the left bank of the river Rhine, opposite the confluence of the Main with the Rhine; the population in the early 2012 was 200,957, an additional 18,619 people maintain a primary residence elsewhere but have a second home in Mainz. The city is part of the Rhein Metro area comprising 5.8 million people. Mainz can be reached from Frankfurt International Airport in 25 minutes by commuter railway. Mainz is a river port city as the Rhine which connects with its main tributaries, such as the Neckar, the Main and the Moselle and thereby continental Europe with the Port of Rotterdam and thus the North Sea. Mainz's history and economy are tied to its proximity to the Rhine handling much of the region's waterborne cargo. Today's huge container port hub allowing trimodal transport is located on the North Side of the town; the river provides another positive effect, moderating Mainz's climate. After the last ice age, sand dunes were deposited in the Rhine valley at what was to become the western edge of the city.

The Mainz Sand Dunes area is now a nature reserve with a unique landscape and rare steppe vegetation for this area. While the Mainz legion camp was founded in 13/12 BC on the Kästrich hill, the associated vici and canabae were erected in direction to the Rhine. Historical sources and archaeological findings both prove the importance of the military and civilian Mogontiacum as a port city on the Rhine. Mainz experiences an oceanic climate; the Roman stronghold or castrum Mogontiacum, the precursor to Mainz, was founded by the Roman general Drusus as early as 13/12 BC. As related by Suetonius the existence of Mogontiacum is well established by four years though several other theories suggest the site may have been established earlier. Although the city is situated opposite the mouth of the Main, the name of Mainz is not from Main, the similarity being due to diachronic analogy. Main is from the name the Romans used for the river. Linguistic analysis of the many forms that the name "Mainz" has taken on make it clear that it is a simplification of Mogontiacum.

The name appears to be Celtic and it is. However, it had become Roman and was selected by them with a special significance; the Roman soldiers defending Gallia had adopted the Gallic god Mogons, for the meaning of which etymology offers two basic options: "the great one", similar to Latin magnus, used in aggrandizing names such as Alexander magnus, "Alexander the Great" and Pompeius magnus, "Pompey the great", or the god of "might" personified as it appears in young servitors of any type whether of noble or ignoble birth. Mogontiacum was an important military town throughout Roman times due to its strategic position at the confluence of the Main and the Rhine; the town of Mogontiacum grew up between the river. The castrum was the base of Legio XIV Gemina and XVI Gallica, XXII Primigenia, IV Macedonica, I Adiutrix, XXI Rapax, XIV Gemina, among others. Mainz was a base of a Roman river fleet, the Classis Germanica. Remains of Roman troop ships and a patrol boat from the late 4th century were discovered in 1982/86 and may now be viewed in the Museum für Antike Schifffahrt.

A temple dedicated to Isis Panthea and Magna Mater is open to the public. The city was the provincial capital of Germania Superior, had an important funeral monument dedicated to Drusus, to which people made pilgrimages for an annual festival from as far away as Lyon. Among the famous buildings were a bridge across the Rhine; the city was the site of the assassination of emperor Severus Alexander in 235. Alemanni forces under Rando sacked the city in 368. From the last day of 405 or 406, the Siling and Asding Vandals, the Suebi, the Alans, other Germanic tribes crossed the Rhine at Mainz. Christian chronicles relate that the bishop, was put to death by the Alemannian Crocus; the way was open to the invasion of Gaul. Throughout the changes of time, the Roman castrum never seems to have been permanently abandoned as a military installation, a testimony to Roman military judgement. Different structures were built there at different times; the current citadel originated in 1660, but

Arches Cluster

The Arches Cluster is the densest known star cluster in the Milky Way located about 100 light-years from its center, in the constellation Sagittarius, 25,000 light-years from Earth. The discovery of this cluster was reported by Nagata et al. in 1995, independently by Cotera et al. in 1996. Due to heavy optical extinction by dust in this region, the Arches Cluster is obscured in the visual bands, is observed in the X-ray and radio bands, it contains 135 young hot stars that are many times larger and more massive than the Sun, plus many thousands of less massive stars. This star cluster is estimated to be around two and a half million years old. Although larger and denser than the nearby Quintuplet Cluster, it appears to be younger. Only stars earlier and more massive than O5 have evolved away from the main sequence while the Quintuplet Cluster includes a number of hot supergiants as well as a red supergiant and three luminous blue variables; the most prominent members of the Arches Cluster are hot emission line stars: thirteen Wolf–Rayet stars, all massive hydrogen-rich types.

One of these is a class O supergiant secondary. X-ray emission from the cluster suggests that many other members are in close binary systems with two hot luminous members, but there is little evidence of the evolution of these stars being affected by binary mass exchange; the spectral classes and their properties merge smoothly from the main sequence to normal class O giants and supergiants, to class O hypergiants, to the presumed most evolved Wolf-Rayets. One star is intermediate between WN8-9h and O4-6 Ia+. There are no cooler evolved stars. Work by Donald Figer, an astronomer at the Rochester Institute of Technology suggests that 150 solar masses is the upper limit of stellar mass in the current era of the universe, he used the Hubble Space Telescope to observe about a thousand stars in the Arches cluster and found no stars over that limit despite a statistical expectation that there should be several. However research demonstrated a high sensitivity of the calculated star masses upon the extinction laws used for mass derivation, which can affect the upper mass limit by about 30% using different extinction laws.

The Arches Cluster — ESO Image Gallery "HubbleSite - NewsCenter - Hubble Spies Giant Star Clusters Near Galactic Center - Release Text". Hubblesite.org. "Chandra:: Photo Album:: The Arches Cluster:: 06 Jun 01". Chandra.harvard.edu. "Hubble Arches Star Cluster Photo". Www.spaceimages.com

Otto Crusius (1857–1918)

Otto Crusius was a German classical scholar. He was died in Munich. In his youth he was a student of Heinrich Ludolf Ahrens at the Lyceum in Hanover, afterwards studying classical philology at the University of Leipzig. At Leipzig his influences included Rudolf Hildebrand, he earned his habilitation in 1883 and three years was a professor at the University of Tübingen, succeeding Erwin Rohde. On, he worked as a professor at the University of Heidelberg and at Munich. In 1915 he became president of the Bavarian Academy of Sciences as well as general curator of the Bavarian State collections, his works include: "Beiträge zur griechischen Mythologie und Religionsgeschichte", "Untersuchungen zu den Mimiamben des Herondas", etc. He published editions of the poet Herondas, the fables of Babrius, "Anthologia lyrica Graeca" and was an editor of the journal Philologus. After 1909 he published, with others, several volumes of "Das Erbe der Alten. Schriften Über Wesen und Wirkung Der Antike"; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Colby, F..

"Crusius, Otto". New International Encyclopedia. New York: Dodd, Mead. "Crusius, Otto". Encyclopedia Americana. 1920